Ford Falcon (BA)
The Ford Falcon is a full-sized car produced by Ford Australia from 2002 to 2005. It was the second re-engineered iteration of the sixth generation of this Australian-made model, included the Ford Fairmont —the luxury-oriented version of the Falcon; this platform formed the basis of the Ford Territory sport utility vehicle. To address the poor reception of the preceding AU series, the BA series was updated for launch in September 2002—the same time as its biggest rival, the Holden Commodore, it featured a revised and more conservative exterior styling, with every panel new except for the carry-over door skins. Interiors, were revised, while mechanically, a new independent rear suspension setup was fitted to all sedan derivatives and the engine and transmissions received extensive upgrades. In October 2004, Ford introduced a Mark II update, bringing subtle styling and mechanical changes, in October 2005, replaced the BA with the BF. In the final months of 2002, the BA model received the influential Wheels Car of the Year award, breaking a 36-year drought.
The BA won four consecutive Australia's Best Cars awards, spanning three years. The model's market share topped that of its chief competitor, the Holden Commodore on two occasions, but have failed to match those of the record-breaking EL Falcon; the BA model represented a A$500 million investment, 24,000 hours of engine and durability testing. Germany's Nürburgring test track was used for some suspension testing; the anti-lock brakes and electronic stability control were calibrated in Sweden, as well as Australia. Exterior styling was led by design director Scott Strong chief designer for Ford Australia. After Strong departed from operations at Ford in 2001, Simon Butterworth took over this role. Ford Australia's intention was to create a European influence for the vehicle, whereby most aspects of the AU's "New Edge" design would be revised; the result was a significant update of the existing AU body shell, rather than a new design. The BA model introduced an integrated aerial in the car's rear window, instead of the conventional retractable antenna.
The aerial placement improved the vehicle's aerodynamics and ended the breakage issues that had plagued the retractable type found on previous models. Interference from the engine did not affect the radio reception. From the inside, the "New Edge" interior of the AU was discarded in favour of a contemporary style, based upon European designs. Marcus Hotblack, the director of interior design, focused on improving user friendliness; the resulting design was an ergonomically-correct interior command centre, highlighted by the satin-finish centre console. The theme was further extended by the audio and cruise control switches' location on the steering wheel. A prominent feature of the new command centre was a large liquid crystal display which displayed information regarding the air conditioning unit and sound system. Buyers could opt for a premium sound package, standard on the Fairmont Ghia, which included a full-colour screen. Ventilation outlets were larger than those of previous models, resulting in a cabin that could be more and efficiently heated or cooled.
Another change was the headlamp switch, now located on the end of the turn signal stalk for easier reach. Interior colour schemes shared a common design approach; the entry-level XT featured a black plastic panel for the upper half of the dashboard, with either a black, charcoal, or beige panel for the lower half. Not all variants offered the distinctive colour palette. Powerplants consisted of both straight-sixes and V8s, with the entry-level Barra 182 six-cylinder being a significant improvement over the AU Falcon's six; the base model engine contained substantial mechanical changes such as dual infinitely variable cam timing for a gain of 25 kW of power for a total of 182 kW. The Barra 182 can take advantage of higher octane fuels, where a small increase of torque can be achieved; the 156 kW LPG-only Barra E-Gas engine was offered as an option on lower specification models. A turbocharged variant of the Barra engine was introduced in a new XR6 Turbo model and produced 240 kW of power. A 5.4-litre V8 replaced the Windsor engine of the AU.
The new V8 was a modified version of Ford's North American Modular V8 available in two variants: the Barra 220 generating 220 kW and a 260 kW Boss 260. The new engine was smoother, more fuel efficient, quieter than the engine it replaced. Two transmissions were available for the BA—a four-speed automatic and a five-speed manual, both floor-mounted; the automatic unit featured a first for the Falcon nameplate in Australia. Utility body styles were available with an optional column-mounted automatic shifter in lieu of the floor-mounted system offered; the new Control-Blade independent rear suspension fitted to all sedans—first used in development of the Ford Focus and the Jaguar X-Type— was superior to the optional double wishbone IRS suspension used on AU sedans, was cheaper. However, it was heavier than the previous live rear axle used for base models, the change contributed to the base model XT sedan's 130-kilogram weight increase from the previous model; the wagons and utilities retained the leaf spring live axle rear suspension of the AU wagon and utility.
The BA Falcon was smoother on the road, with increased towing capabilities from previous models. Fuel consumption in the Barra 182 was measured at 12.5 L/100 km for ci
Jim Beam is a brand of bourbon whiskey produced in Clermont, Kentucky, by Beam Suntory, a subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Osaka, Japan. It is one of the best-selling brands of bourbon in the world. Since 1795, seven generations of the Beam family have been involved in whiskey production for the company that produces the brand, given the name "Jim Beam" in 1933 in honor of James B. Beam, who rebuilt the business after Prohibition ended. Produced by the Beam family and owned by the Fortune Brands holding company, the brand was purchased by Suntory Holdings in 2014. During the late 18th century, members of the Böhm family, who changed the spelling of their surname to "Beam", emigrated from Germany and settled in Kentucky. Johannes "Reginald" Beam was a farmer who began producing whiskey in the style that became known as bourbon. Jacob Beam sold his first barrels of corn whiskey around 1795; the whiskey was first called Old Jake Beam Sour Mash, the distillery was known as Old Tub. David Beam took on his father's responsibilities in 1820 at the age of 18, expanding distribution of the family's bourbon during a time of industrial revolution.
David M. Beam in 1854 moved the distillery to Nelson County to capitalize on the growing network of railroad lines connecting states. James Beauregard Beam managed the family business before and after Prohibition, rebuilding the distillery in 1933 in Clermont, near his Bardstown home; the James B. Beam Distilling Company was founded in 1935 by Harry L. Homel, Oliver Jacobson, Harry Blum, Jeremiah Beam. From this point forward, the bourbon would be called "Jim Beam Bourbon" after James Beauregard Beam, some of the bottle labels bear the statement, "None Genuine Without My Signature" with the signature James B. Beam. In 1945, the company was purchased by a Chicago spirits merchant; the Beam company was purchased by American Brands in 1968. T. Jeremiah Beam started working at the Clear Springs distillery in 1913 becoming the master distiller and overseeing operations at the new Clermont facility. Jeremiah Beam gained full ownership and opened a second distillery near Boston, Kentucky, in 1954. Jeremiah teamed up with childhood friend Jimberlain Joseph Quinn, to expand the enterprise.
Booker Noe, birth name Frederick Booker Noe II, grandson of Jim Beam, was the Master Distiller at the Jim Beam Distillery for more than 40 years, working with Master Distiller Jerry Dalton. In 1987 Booker introduced his own namesake bourbon, Booker's, the company's first uncut, straight-from-the-barrel bourbon, the first of the company's "Small Batch Bourbon Collection". Fred Noe, birth name Frederick Booker Noe III, became the seventh generation Beam family distiller in 2007 and travels for promotional purposes; the Beam family has played a major role in the history of the Heaven Hill Distillery. All of the Master Distillers at Heaven Hill since its founding have been members of the Beam family; the original Master Distiller at Heaven Hill was Jim Beam's first cousin. He was followed by his son, followed by Earl Beam, the son of Jim Beam's brother, Park. Earl Beam was succeeded by the current Heaven Hill Master Distillers, Parker Beam and his son, Craig Beam. In 1987, Jim Beam purchased National Brands, acquiring brands including Old Crow, Bourbon de Luxe, Old Taylor, Old Grand-Dad, Sunny Brook.
Old Taylor was subsequently sold to the Sazerac Company. On August 4, 2003, a fire destroyed a Jim Beam aging warehouse in Kentucky, it held about 19,000 barrels of bourbon. Flames rose more than 100 feet from the burning structure. Burning bourbon set a nearby creek on fire. An estimated 19,000 fish died of the bourbon in a river. For some period of time, Jim Beam was part of the holding company known as Fortune Brands, dismantled in 2011. Other parts of the remaining company were spun off as an IPO on the NYSE on the same day, as Fortune Brands Home & Security, the liquor division of the holding company was renamed Beam, Inc. on October 4, 2011. In January 2014, it was announced that Beam Inc. would be purchased by Suntory Holdings Ltd. a Japanese group of brewers & distillers known for producing Japan's first whiskey. The combined company is known as Beam Suntory. In the history of the brand now known as Jim Beam, there have been seven generations of distillers from the Beam family. Retired Master Distiller Jerry Dalton was the first non-Beam to be Master Distiller at the company, his successor was a member of the family.
Several varieties bearing the Jim Beam name are available. Straight bourbon whiskey Jim Beam Original – aged 4 years in new charred oak barrels, 80 proof, the flagship whiskey Jim Beam Black – "extra aged".
2016 Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000
The 2016 Supercheap Auto Bathurst 1000 was a motor racing event for Supercars, held on the weekend of 6 to 9 October 2016. The event was held at the Mount Panorama Circuit near Bathurst, New South Wales, consisted of one race of 1000 kilometres in length, it was the eleventh event of fourteen in the 2016 International V8 Supercars Championship and hosted Race 21 of the season. It was the second event of the 2016 Enduro Cup; the event marked ten years since the first awarding of the Peter Brock Trophy, introduced following the death of nine-time race winner Peter Brock in September 2006. Triple Eight Race Engineering drivers Jamie Whincup and Paul Dumbrell started the race from pole position; the race was won by Tekno Autosports' Will Jonathon Webb. Whincup had taken the chequered flag first, but a post-race 15-second time penalty relegated him to eleventh position. Shane van Gisbergen and Alexandre Prémat finished second for Triple Eight, with the Lucas Dumbrell Motorsport entry of Nick Percat and Cameron McConville completing the podium.
An appeal to the time penalty imposed on Whincup was lodged by Triple Eight Race Engineering but dismissed nine days after the race. The event was the 59th running of the Bathurst 1000, first held at the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit in 1960 as a 500-mile race for Australian-made standard production sedans, marked the 56th time that the race was held at Mount Panorama, it was the 20th running of the Australian 1000 race, first held after the organisational split between the Australian Racing Drivers Club and V8 Supercars Australia that saw two "Bathurst 1000" races contested in both 1997 and 1998. It was the 18th time the race had been held as part of the Supercars Championship and the fourth time it formed part of the Enduro Cup; the defending winners of the race were Steven Richards. The event commemorated ten years since the death of nine-time race winner Peter Brock—who died in a crash at the Targa West rally one month prior to the 2006 race—and the introduction of the Peter Brock Trophy.
Brock's brother Phil presented the Trophy to the race winners, having made the first presentation of the Trophy in 2006. Several of Brock's old race cars were on display at the event, with a selection completing parade laps prior to the race on Sunday morning; the cars in the parade were driven by the previous winners of the Peter Brock Trophy. The event paid tribute to Mark Porter, who passed away following a crash in a support race during the 2006 event. Shane van Gisbergen entered the event as the championship leader, seven points clear of his Triple Eight Race Engineering teammate Jamie Whincup. Lowndes, the third Triple Eight driver, was third in the points standings, 157 behind Van Gisbergen. In the Teams' Championship, Triple Eight Race Engineering hold a 1273-point lead over the Holden Racing Team. In the Enduro Cup standings, Holden Racing Team drivers Garth Tander and Warren Luff lead the Triple Eight pairing of Van Gisbergen and Alexandre Prémat by 24 points; as well as the regular 26 championship entries, a single wildcard entry was received for the race.
The Harvey Norman Supergirls entry that contested the 2015 race returned for 2016, fielding an unchanged line-up of Simona de Silvestro and Renee Gracie. The entry switched from competing with a Prodrive Racing Australia-prepared Ford FG X Falcon to a Nissan Altima L33 built by Nissan Motorsport. Entries with a grey background were wildcard entries which did not compete in the full championship season. Three one-hour practice sessions were held on the Thursday prior to the race. Practice 1 and Practice 3 were open to both regular drivers and co-drivers, while Practice 2 was for co-drivers only; the first session was contested by regular drivers, with Whincup setting the fastest lap time of 2:05.9500. He had earlier caused a red flag after spinning at the final corner and getting stuck in the sand trap. Coulthard was second fastest, more than half a second behind, ahead of Slade; the car of Pye sustained damage when Pye spun at McPhillamy Park and went backwards into the tyre wall. Despite the damage, Pye was able to return to the pit lane.
Courtney brushed the inside wall at Turn 13 early in the session but did not incur any significant damage. Rick Kelly and Mostert completed minimal laps, with both of their cars suffering from a vibration in the driveline. Practice 2 was topped by Whincup's co-driver Dumbrell, who set a time of 2:06.8947. Walsh, Premat and Macauley Jones completed the top five; the session was red flagged with seven minutes remaining when Golding ran wide at Turn 6 and made heavy contact with the outside wall. The car suffered significant damage to the front and rear suspension on the left-hand side as well as to the transaxle. Moffat did not take part in Practice 3 as Garry Rogers Motorsport were unable to repair the damage from the crash in time. Like Practice 1, the session was contested by regular drivers, with only six co-drivers completing laps during the session. Whincup set a lap time of 2:05.2946 to be fastest ahead of Mostert. Two more one-hour sessions were held on Friday. Practice 4 was open only to co-drivers while all drivers were allowed to run in Practice 5.
The car of Moffat and Golding returned to the circuit in Practice 4 after being repaired overnight. Le Brocq set a time of 2:05.9547 to be fastest, with Youlden, Dumbrell and Premat completing the top five. Ingall clipped the wall at Turn 13, similar to Courtney in Practice 1, but continued without damage and finished the session in 22nd place. While co-drivers were allowed to run in Practice 5, the session was contested by regular drivers; the final part of the session was used as a simulation for qualifying session to be
Holden Commodore (VE)
The Holden Commodore is an executive car, produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 2006 to 2013. It was the first iteration of the fourth generation of this Australian-made model, its range included Holden Berlina and Holden Calais. As opposed to the VZ and all models previous which used Opel-sourced platforms adapted both mechanically and in size for the local market, the whole-new VE programme is the first Commodore to be developed by Holden in Australia. Despite its status as an all-new model, engines—comprising the 3.6-litre V6 and more powerful 6.0-litre V8—have been carried over from the VZ series. Innovative features to help minimise export redevelopment costs, such as a symmetrical centre console housing a flush-fitting hand brake lever, facilitate the conversion to left-hand drive. Internationally, the VE was badge engineered as the Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Omega and Pontiac G8. Holden implemented a staged roll-out of the VE variants, releasing the sedan first in July 2006.
Prior to this, Holden stated they would manufacture two parallel generations of Commodores until the new station wagon and utility body styles were launched. Variants by Holden's performance vehicle partner, Holden Special Vehicles, were released soon after the sedan's debut alongside the long-wheelbase WM Statesman/Caprice models; the VE Ute did not enter production until 2007 when it was accompanied by the previewing of a Sportwagon concept. The Sportwagon itself was subsequently introduced in July 2008 with the standard Commodore wheelbase instead of the extended wheelbase of previous Commodore wagons. Updates to the VE have come in the form of model year changes from early 2007 onwards. Subtle in nature, these recurring changes have involved alterations to colours and trim, increased standard equipment, a reduction in fuel consumption. More noteworthy adjustments have come in the form of a smaller 3.0-litre V6 engine for entry-level versions and "Series II" styling revisions in late 2010.
Official manufacture of the sedan began at Holden's Elizabeth, South Australia production facility on 13 July 2006. Three days Holden publicly revealed the car at the Melbourne Convention Centre, broadcast via the Internet; the launch occurred alongside that of the flagship WM Statesman/Caprice. Previous to this, Holden announced that VE station wagon and utility variants would be postponed and the VZ equivalents would remain in production. Sales of the VE Ute commenced on 22 August 2007; this was shortly followed by the unveiling of a Sportwagon concept, the production version of, released in July 2008. Holden's designers and engineers began laying down the basics of a clean-sheet Commodore sedan in 1999. In the seven years of development, the car came to be Holden's largest and most expensive project, representing an expenditure exceeding A$1 billion and 3.4 million kilometres of testing. In 1999 Peter Hughes, Holden's manager of exterior design, produced a two-dimensional image of a sketch drawn earlier by Michael Simcoe, Holden's design director at the time.
Known in house as the "Bill of Design", the sketch formed the design basis for the production-ready car. Various elements of the sketch were changed, including the rear tail lamps, the low-profile side window cluster and the drawn out wheelbase, but the aggressive stance remained. In 2004, just two years before the release of the VE Commodore, Holden unveiled the Torana TT36 concept car at the Australian International Motor Show in Sydney; the TT36 allowed Holden to gauge public reaction to its styling. Much of the Torana's styling drew on the essence of the VE's design; some production-ready components carried over from the TT36 including the steering wheel, the window and rear-view mirror switch cluster and the handbrake lever. Shortly after stylists penned the first design sketches, Holden engineers began work on developing the chassis. Opel, which had provided the basis for all previous Commodore generations, ceased production of their rear-wheel drive Omega in 2003; this meant that Holden had two options: to use another GM platform, or to develop an all-new vehicle.
GM's new premium rear-wheel drive Sigma platform was to see production in the 2002 Cadillac CTS. Holden's engineers decided it was not appropriate; the Sigma platform's double A-arm front suspension and extensive use of aluminium were too costly for the VE's market segment. The luggage compartment was deemed too small and the Sigma interior package could not be stretched sufficiently to become a family-sized car. In particular, the rear-seat shoulder width was too tight; these major drawbacks made Holden decide to develop an all-new platform, known as the GM Zeta platform, on which a number of forthcoming GM vehicles will be based. The Zeta suspension system comprises new double-pivot MacPherson strut for the front and a four-link independent rear setup; these replace the previous simple MacPherson strut design front and much criticised semi-trailing arm rear suspension, for improved ride and handling. Denny Mooney was appointed chairman of Holden on 1 January 2004, by which time development of the VE Commodore was well underway.
Key design and engineering work was being finalised, investment was being made in making the tooling with which to manufacture the car. One of Mooney's priorities was to improve the perceived quality issues that surrounded the previous generations of Commodores; the interior quality benefited from this additional emphasis. Smaller panel gaps are just one of the ways
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Mercedes-Benz E-Class is a range of executive cars manufactured by German automaker Mercedes-Benz in various engine and body configurations. Produced since 1953, the E-Class falls midrange in the Mercedes line-up, has been marketed worldwide across five generations. Before 1993, the E in Mercedes-Benz nomenclature was a suffix following a vehicle's model number which stood for Einspritzmotor, it began to appear in the early 1960s, when that feature began to be utilized broadly in the maker's product line, not just in its upper tier luxury and sporting models. By the launch of the facelifted W124 in 1993 fuel-injection was ubiquitous in Mercedes engines, the E was adopted as a prefix and the model line referred to as the E-Class. All generations of the E-Class have offered either rear-wheel drive or Mercedes' 4Matic four-wheel drive system; the E-Class is Mercedes-Benz' best-selling model, with more than 13 million sold by 2015. The first E-Class series was available as four-door sedan, five-door station wagon, 2 door coupe and 2 door convertible.
From 1997 to 2009, the equivalent coupe and convertible were sold under the Mercedes-Benz CLK-Class nameplate. With the latest incarnation of the E-Class released for the 2017 model year, all body styles share the same W213 platform. Due to the E-Class's size and durability, it has filled many market segments, from personal cars to serving as taxis in European countries, as well special-purpose vehicles from the factory; the first modern midsize Mercedes was the W120'Ponton' 180 of 1953 and was produced till 1962. Sharing its engineering with the R121 190 SL of 1955, the Ponton was a stylish sedan with a four-cylinder engine. A larger-engined W121 190 appeared in 1958. Mercedes added tailfins to both the big S-Class and the new W110'Fintail' 190 of 1962. In the 1965 230 model a Straight-6 engine appeared for the first time, the four cylinder engine grew in displacement; the midsize Mercedes was redesigned in 1968 as the W114/W115'Stroke-8'. This time, the 6-cylinder models were most prevalent, with the W115 line making up the bottom of the company's offerings with four – and five-cylinder power.
Diesel engines joined the line-up. The popular W123 became a best-seller on its launch in 1976. In diesel powered 200D and 240D guises, the cars enhanced the company's reputation for product quality. Over 2.6 million were produced until the end of production in 1986. Saloon/Sedan, Coupé and Estate body configurations were offered; the W124 was introduced several new standards for a mid-size Mercedes. It was the third car to inherit the company's new design theme since the late 1970s, following the flagship W126 and compact W201. Similar to its predecessors, the W124 offered a coupé and estate body styles. A new convertible was available, making it the first mid-size Mercedes convertible; the "E-Class" name first appeared in with the facelifted W124 in 1993 for the model year 1994. The diesel versions continued to be the fuel economy option over the four and six-cylinder gasoline engines, the gasoline V8 engines increased gasoline power outputs further. Four-cylinder gasoline models were not marketed in the United States.
The V8 powered sedans/saloons were named 400 E/500 E from 1992–1993, E 420/E 500 after 1993. The 3.0-litre cars were re-badged to E 320 with the new 3.2-litre M104 engines and naming rationalization of 1994. For the diesel models the name change was less elegant, with the 250 D becoming the E 250 Diesel for example. Sedan, Coupé, Convertible and Estate body configurations were offered; the W210 E-Class, launched in 1995, brought the line into the upper end of the mid-size luxury market. In September 1999 the W210 E-class was facelifted; this included visual and quality improvements over the earlier versions. The Mercedes-Benz E-Class was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1996. While the W210 sedan was replaced by the W211 in 2002, the wagon version continued to be sold until March 2003 when the W211 wagon replaced the W210 wagon. Launched in 2002, the W211 E-Class was another evolution of the previous model; the W211-based W219 CLS-Class sedan was introduced as a niche model in 2005 to attract a younger demographic.
The W211 E-Class was facelifted in June 2006 for the 2007 model year to address quality and technical issues raised by earlier models, Sensotronic was dropped, while Pre-Safe was made standard. The largest factory built engine in the E-class range is the E500 which had its engine size increased from 5 litres to 5.5 litres in 2006 along with the facelift. There is an AMG model badged E63 AMG and other tuning house installations. In 2007 the diesel version of the E-Class was rebadged from CDI to Bluetec. While in some of the other Mercedes-Benz diesels urea injection was added, in the W211 E-Class the Bluetec name was only adopted to prevent confusion in the diesel lineup; the W212 replaced the W211 in 2009. Official photos of the W212 were leaked on the internet on 9 De
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s