Czechoslovak government-in-exile

The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia, was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II Allies; the Committee was created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940; the Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile offices were at various locations in London but at a building called Fursecroft. It was the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War. A anti-Fascist government, it sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, to return the Republic to its 1937 boundaries; as such it was considered, by those countries that recognized it, the legal continuation of the First Czechoslovak Republic.

Seeing the end of the Republic as a fait accompli, Edvard Beneš resigned as president of the First Czechoslovak Republic one week after the Munich Agreement ceded the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany. He fled to London. On 15 February 1939, he arrived in Chicago. While there, he was urged to return to Europe to organize some kind of government-in-exile, he therefore returned to Europe in July to live in Paris along with several other key players in his former administration. After World War II formally began, the group became known as the Czech National Liberation Committee, began to seek international recognition as the exiled government of Czechoslovakia. By the end of 1939, though and Britain had extended it the right to conclude international treaties – France on 13 November and Britain on 20 December 1939 – but did not yet see those treaties as having been concluded in the name of the Czechoslovak Republic, it was in fact France itself that proved the greatest obstacle to accepting the Committee as a full government-in-exile.

The government of Édouard Daladier was ambivalent towards the ambitions of the Committee and of Czechoslovakia in general. Though he had publicly seen the appeasement of Hitler as the road to war, Daladier capitulated to the wishes of Neville Chamberlain. After the war came, he and his government dithered over whether the Soviet or Nazi threat was the greater. Though he extended recognition to the Committee as a non-governmental agency, his government was non-committal to Beneš himself, saw many possibilities for a post-war Czechoslovakia. One of its principal reservations about giving governmental status to Beneš, was the fact of the murky situation in the then-independent Slovakia; the French government of the winter of 1939–1940 felt that Beneš was not speaking for all Czechoslovaks, based on the fluid situation in Slovakia. France's diplomacy towards Beneš was therefore agile, it avoided any direct expression of support for the Beneš Committee's desire to return to the First Republic. However, as Beneš was the key to getting military support from the well-trained Czechoslovak army, France was in fact the first nation to conclude a treaty with the Committee.

2 October 1939 agreement between France and Beneš allowed for the reconstitution of the Czechoslovak army on French territory. Units of the First Division of the Czechoslovak Army fought alongside their hosts in the final stages of the Battle of France, it was the failure of the Allied military forces in this battle which most directly helped the ambitions of the Beneš Committee. With the fall of France, the views of the newly appointed prime minister Winston Churchill took predominance over the concerns of the waning Third Republic, he was much clearer than his predecessor Chamberlain with respect to Czechoslovak affairs, recognized Beneš as the president of a government-in-exile after the fall of France. The Committee still felt somewhat insecure about this recognition, because it mentioned Beneš as president, but did not explicitly link Beneš to the previously-existing government. Thus, they pressed the British in April 1941 for greater clarity. On the 18th of that month, they sent a letter to the British requesting that their agreements "be concluded, as before September, 1938, in the name of the Czechoslovak Republic".

British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden gave such assent on 18 July 1941. The United States and the Soviet Union were forced to do the same in the year, as Slovakia declared war on the two countries. With an Axis government both and formally in place in Bratislava, the only friendly government left to recognize by the half of 1941 was that of Beneš; the remaining legal question was whether the Beneš government was a continuation of the First Republic, or a successor without solid constitutional underpinnings. This doubt was erased by the spring of 1942. Following six months of planning behind enemy lines, Czechoslovak Allied operatives in Bohemia fatally wounded Reinhard Heydrich, the dictator at the head of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; the success of this mission, Operation Anthropoid, caused Britain and Free France to formally repudiate the Munich Agreement, thus conferring de jure legitimacy on the Beneš government as the continuation of the First Republi

La mujer prohibida (1991 TV series)

La Mujer Prohibida is a 1991 Venezuelan telenovela produced by Venevisión and Spanish-based production company Telecinco. An original story written by Manuel Muñoz Rico and adapted by Alberto Gómez, it starred Dominican-Mexican actor Andrés García accompanied by Mayra Alejandra, Fernando Carrillo and Tatiana Capote. La Mujer Prohibida is a beautiful story of an impossible love between two people who love each other deeply. Irene Rivas is a young woman of twenty-six, mute. In order to save her father from prison, she is forced to marry a man she doesn't love, Germán Gallardo. Germán is a man, powerful and arrogant, he has nothing in common with the great love of Irene, Carlos Luis, the latter's son whom he met before being forced to marry him. Irene work hard to find happiness but discovers many secrets from the past that could destroy her future forever. Love, passion and intrigue, are the ingredients of this great telenovela, framing his strong and realistic story in the most beautiful locations of Venezuela and Spain.

Andrés García- Germán Gallardo Mayra Alejandra- Irene Rivas Tatiana Capote- Yarima Báez de Gallardo Fernando Carrillo- Carlos Luis Gallardo Henry Galue- Diego Ley Abril Méndez- Rosalinda Pacheco Miguel Alcántara- Alberto Moncada Concha Rosales- Pilar Martínez Liliana Durán- Flora Marita Capote Marisela Buitriago Nancy González Angelica Arenas Francisco Ferrari- Jesus Rivas Andrés Magdaleno- Alberto Marín- Toneco Eva Mondolfi- Ramón Hinojosa Manuel Carrillo- Álvaro Ley Carolina Cristancho- Rosalinda Pacheco Gonzalo Velutini- Chumico Romero- Lázaro María Elena Coello Gerardo Marrero Laura Zerpa Isabel Hungría Lucy Orta Juan Galeno Israel Maranatha Miguel David Díaz Bárbara Mosquera- Peluca Marta Carbillo Jimmy Verdum Ana Massimo Adela Romero Carolina Muzziotti Hans Schiffer- Guavino Wilmer Ramírez- Chucho Iñaqui Guevara Angélica Castro David Bermudez- Acido Lisbeth López María Antonieta Avallone- Milagrito Joel de la Rosa- Matías Giovanni Duran Carmen Julia Alvarez- Estella di Salvatorri Zoe Ducós- fiorella di Salvatorri Daniela Alvarado- Martica Gallardo María de Lourdes Devonish Ana Martínez Juan Carlos Vivas- Daniel Elizabeth López- Ivonne Henry Salvat Venevisión Promo "La Mujer Prohibida" 1991 at YouTube=