Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer. He is known today for his tailored lines, he formed his company, Armani, in 1975, by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer of Italian origin, with an annual turnover of $1.6 billion and a personal fortune of $8.1 billion as of 2017. He is credited with pioneering red-carpet fashion. Armani was born in the northern Italian town of Piacenza, where he was raised with his older brother Sergio and younger sister Rosanna by his mother Maria Raimondi and father Ugo Armani. While at secondary school at the Liceo Scientifico Respighi in Piacenza, Armani aspired to a career in medicine after reading A. J. Cronin's The Citadel, he enrolled in the Department of Medicine at the University of Milan, but after three years, in 1953, he left and joined the army. Due to his medical background, he was assigned to the Military Hospital in Verona, where he would attend shows at the Arena, he decided to look for a different career path. After his stint in the armed forces, Armani found a job as a window dresser at La Rinascente, a department store in Milan in 1957.
He went on to become a seller for the menswear department, in which capacity he gained valuable experience in the marketing aspect of the fashion industry. In the mid-1960s, Armani moved to the Nino Cerruti company, his skills were in demand, for the next decade, while continuing to work for Cerutti, Armani freelanced, contributing designs to as many as ten manufacturers at a time. In the late 1960s, Armani met Sergio Galeotti, an architectural draftsman, which marked the beginning of a personal and professional relationship that lasted for many years. In 1973, Galeotti persuaded him to open a design office in Milan, at 37 Corso Venezia; this led to a period of extensive collaboration, during which Armani worked as a freelance designer for a number of fashion houses, including Allegri, Hilton, Gibò, Tendresse. The international press was quick to acknowledge Armani's importance following the runway shows at the Sala Bianca in the Pitti Palace in Florence; the experience provided Armani with an opportunity to develop his own style in new ways.
He was now ready to devote his energy to his own label, on July 24, 1975 he founded Giorgio Armani S.p. A. in Milan, with his friend Galeotti. In October of that same year, he presented his first collection of men's ready-to-wear for Spring and Summer 1976 under his own name, he produced a women's line for the same season. Armani established an innovative relationship with the fashion industry, characterized by the 1978 agreement with Gruppo Finanzario Tessile, which made it possible to produce luxury ready-to-wear in a manufacturing environment under the attentive supervision of the company's designer. In 1979, after founding the Giorgio Armani Corporation, Armani began producing for the United States and introduced the Main line for men and women; the label became one of the leading names in international fashion with the introduction of several new product lines, including G. A. Le Collezioni, Giorgio Armani Underwear and Swimwear, Giorgio Armani Accessories. In the early 1980s the company signed an important agreement with L'Oréal to create perfumes and introduced the Armani Junior, Armani Jeans, Emporio Armani lines, followed in 1982 by the introduction of Emporio Underwear and Accessories.
A new store was opened in Milan followed by the first Giorgio Armani boutique. Armani's concern for the end user culminated in the development of a more youthful product with the same level of stylistic quality as his high-end line, but at a more accessible price; because of the democratic nature of the Emporio line, Armani felt that he had to make use of new and unconventional advertising methods. These included television spots and enormous street ads, together with a house magazine, sent out by mail to consumers, faithful Armani Eagle wearers. Armani felt that a relationship with the cinema was essential, both for promotional reasons and for the stimulus to creativity, he designed the costumes for American Gigolo, the success of which led to a long-term collaboration with the world of film. Armani designed costumes for more than one hundred films, one of the most important of, The Untouchables. In 1983 the designer modified his agreement with GFT, they began to produce both the Mani line for the United States and his high-end ready-to-wear line, rechristened Borgonuovo 21, after the address of the company's headquarters.
During the late 1980s, despite Galeotti's death, Armani continued to expand commercial horizons and licensing agreements. He opened Armani Japan and introduced a line of eyeglasses, socks, a gift collection, a new "basic" men's and women's line for America known as A/X Armani Exchange. After the frenetic expansion of the 1990s, 2000, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the brand, saw a flurry of investment activity, including stock sales and the acquisition of new manufacturing capacity intended to increase Armani's control over the quality and distribution of his products. Armani's men's and women's skiwear and ski casualwear line was developed in 1995, his 1991 project, A/X: Armani Exchange, represented Armani's attempt to break into the American mass market, offering lower prices for the relaxed chic clothes. In 1996 his long-time friend Eric Clapton composed some songs for Armani's fashion shows and has since dressed in Armani; that year Clapton opened two Emporio Armani stores in New York City.
In 1998 Armani hosted a p
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany, styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567. Many contemporary narratives describing his life and death refer to him as Lord Darnley, his title as heir apparent to the Earldom of Lennox, it is by this appellation that he is now known, he was the second but eldest surviving son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, his wife, Lady Margaret Douglas. Darnley's maternal grandparents were Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of England and widow of James IV of Scotland, he was a first cousin and the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was the father of her son James VI of Scotland, who succeeded Elizabeth I of England as James I. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born, at Temple Newsam, Leeds, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, in 1545; however this date is uncertain as his parents were not together in early 1545 and a letter of March 1566, from Mary Queen of Scots, indicates Darnley was nineteen years old.
Therefore the date 1546 would seem probable. A descendant of both James II of Scotland and Henry VII of England, Darnley had potential claims to both the Scottish and English thrones. In 1545, his father, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, was found guilty of treason in Scotland for siding with the English in the War of the Rough Wooing, in opposing Mary of Guise and Regent Arran; the family's Scottish estates were forfeited and his father went into exile in England for 22 years, returning to Scotland in 1564. The Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, his mother, had left Scotland in 1528; the young Henry was conscious of his inheritance. Well-versed in Latin and familiar with Gaelic and French, he received an education befitting his royal lineage, he excelled in singing, lute playing, dancing; the Scottish scholar John Elder was among his tutors. Elder advocated Anglo-Scottish union through the marriage of Queen of Scots and Prince Edward, his advice to Henry VIII in 1543, was termed the Advice of a Redshank.
Another schoolmaster to the young heir was Arthur Lallart, who would be interrogated in London for having gone to Scotland in 1562. Henry was said to be strong, skilled in horsemanship and weaponry, passionate about hunting and hawking, his youthful character is captured somewhat in a letter of March 1554 to Mary I of England from Temple Newsam, where he writes about making a map, the Utopia Nova, his wish that "every haire in my heade for to be a wourthy souldiour". The Lennox Crisis was a political dilemma in England that arose from the dynastic ambition of the Lennoxes: Matthew Stewart, the 4th Earl of Lennox, was third in line to the Scottish throne, his wife Margaret Douglas, the Countess of Lennox, was a niece of Henry VIII and granddaughter of Henry VII, making her second in line to the English throne after Mary Queen of Scots, her son Darnley after her, should Elizabeth not have been able to accede to or hold the throne for some reason; the Lennox family represented an alternative line of succession to the English throne through Margaret Tudor, should Henry's heirs not have been able to hold it for the time they did.
As Roman Catholics, they posed a threat to Protestant England in 1558, as the 25-year-old Queen Elizabeth took the throne. Although Elizabeth was bright and well-educated for her position, as a female she had to prove herself. Many Roman Catholics would have liked to have seen the next in line, the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, take the throne, as they regarded Elizabeth as illegitimate, her parents' marriage not having been recognized by the Catholic Church, and many would have preferred Darnley, as a male, to have the throne as well. All of these interrelationships made for complex intrigues, spying and maneuvering for power at the various courts; when Henry II of France died in July 1559, Lennox's brother John, 5th Sieur d'Aubigny, was elevated in the French court as kinsman of the new French queen, Mary Queen of Scots. Aubigny arranged for Darnley to be dispatched to the French court to congratulate Mary and Francis II of France on their accession and seek restoration for Lennox. Mary did not restore Lennox to his Scottish earldom, but she did give 1,000 crowns to Darnley and invited him to her coronation.
Lennox's plan was to appeal directly to the Queen of Scots via her ambassador, over the heads of Elizabeth and the Guise. The mission of Lennox's agent, one Nesbit, appears to have been a desperate one. Aubigny was later accused of supporting Mary's title to the throne of England and hinting that his nephew had a stronger claim than Elizabeth. Lennox set Nesbit to watch Mary and Darnley's tutor, John Elder. In 1559 Nicholas Throckmorton, the English ambassador in Paris, warned Elizabeth that Elder was "as dangerous for the matters of England as any he knew."Lord Darnley was the next claimant to the English throne, after the Queen of Scots, his aging mother, as a male, English-born Catholic, he was preferred by Elizabeth's enemies. Paget in March 1560 wrote of'well founded' fear that Catholics would raise Darnley to the throne on Elizabeth's death. By the summer of that year, Elizabeth's position was strengthened. Francis Yaxley was one notable spy. A Catholic, Yaxley had been a clerk of the Signet and had been employed by William Cecil since 1549, travelling in France for him.
Van Helsing (film)
Van Helsing is a 2004 American period horror film written and directed by Stephen Sommers. It stars Hugh Jackman as vigilante monster hunter Van Helsing, Kate Beckinsale as Anna Valerious; the film is an homage and tribute to the Universal Horror Monster films from the 1930s and'40s, of which Sommers is a fan. The eponymous character was inspired by the Dutch vampire hunter Abraham Van Helsing from Irish author Bram Stoker's novel Dracula. Distributed by Universal Pictures, the film includes a number of monsters such as Count Dracula, Frankenstein's monster, Mr. Hyde and werewolves in a way similar to the multi-monster movies that Universal produced in the 1940s, such as Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man, House of Frankenstein and House of Dracula. Despite negative reviews, the film grossed over $300 million worldwide. In 1887 Transylvania, Doctor Victor Frankenstein creates a monster with the aid of Count Dracula, who reveals that he intends to use the creature for his own evil plans. Dracula kills the doctor as a mob of villagers storms the castle.
His assistant Igor escapes, but the villagers chase the monster to an old windmill and set it ablaze. The villagers are scared off by Dracula and his brides, who witness the monster and the doctor's research destroyed by the fire. One year after killing the elusive Mr. Hyde at the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, monster hunter Van Helsing returns to the Vatican in Rome, he learns that his mission to destroy Dracula and his amnesia are penance for unremembered sins that cause nightmares. He is tasked with helping the last of an ancient Romanian bloodline and Anna Valerious, who must kill Dracula so that their ancestors may enter Heaven. Carl, a friar, provides Van Helsing with aid and weapons. In Transylvania, Velkan is killed during an attempt to trap and kill a werewolf, Anna is attacked by Dracula's brides shortly after Van Helsing's arrival, he saves Anna and kills Marishka, one of the brides, but as the last of her line, Anna becomes more determined to kill Dracula. In order to protect her, Van Helsing knocks her out to prevent her from leaving.
She awakens that night and encounters Velkan, who reveals Dracula has a dark secret, but to her horror, he becomes a werewolf, having been bitten by the original one earlier, attacks. After she and Van Helsing track him to Frankenstein's castle, they discover that the vampires are attempting to give life to their born-dead children, using Velkan as the source of the power. Van Helsing, dubbed "Gabriel" by Dracula, realizes. Van Helsing escapes; the experiment fails, the vampire children die, but Velkan turns on Anna as he is consumed by his curse. Van Helsing and Anna escape together. Under the remains of the old windmill, Van Helsing and Anna encounter Frankenstein's monster; because he is not evil, Van Helsing cannot allow him to be killed though he claims to be key to Dracula's experiment. The werewolf escapes to inform Dracula. Meanwhile, Carl discovers a painting that comes to life, depicting a werewolf and a vampire battling; the group travels by carriage to Budapest, luring the remaining brides into a trap and killing Verona.
The werewolf bites Van Helsing before being killed. Anna is held as a bargaining chip in exchange for Frankenstein's monster, they hide him in a crypt, but he is taken by the count's undead underlings while Van Helsing and Carl rescue Anna. Returning to the Valerious' castle, Carl discovers an inscription and creates a doorway to the castle. After failing to free Frankenstein's monster from his imprisonment, he lets them know of a cure to lycanthropy that Dracula possesses. Carl determines, he and Anna take Igor to find the cure. Igor escapes while the final bride, beats Anna. Carl tries delivering the cure to Van Helsing. Igor confronts Carl on a bridge. Frankenstein's monster urges her to help Carl and Van Helsing, she arrives at the castle. As the werewolf, Van Helsing battles Dracula and, despite the vampire's attempts to reason with him, manages to bite him, causing him to dissolve into a skeleton. Anna bursts in, causing her to be attacked and accidentally killed by Van Helsing, but not before she delivers the cure.
After narrowly stopping Carl from killing him, Van Helsing returns to normal, stricken with grief over what he has done. At a funeral pyre, Van Helsing witnesses the spirits of Anna and her family ascending into the afterlife while Frankenstein's monster rows away on a raft out to sea. Van Helsing and Carl ride off into the sunset. Hugh Jackman as Gabriel Van Helsing, a legendary hunter of monsters. Kate Beckinsale as Anna Valerious, the last descendant of an ancient Romanian family. Richard Roxburgh as Count Vladislaus Dracula, the ruler of Transylvania. David Wenham as Carl, a friar of the Holy Order. Shuler Hensley as Frankenstein's monster Kevin J. O'Connor as Igor, a former servant of Frankenstein's, now working for Dracula. Will Kemp as Velkan Valerious, Anna's brother, turned into a werewolf. Elena Anaya as Aleera, the most sadistic of Dracula's brides. Alun Armstrong as Cardinal Jinette, Van Helsing's superior in the Holy Order. Silvia Colloca as Verona, the oldest of Dracula's brides. Josie Maran as Marishka, the third of Dracula's brides.
Tom Fisher as Top Hat, a Transylvanian grave digger. Samuel West as Dr. Victor Frankenstein Stephen Fisher as Dr. Jekyll Robbie Coltrane as the voice of Mr. Hyde The film's orig
Brothers of the Head
Brothers of the Head is a 2005 mockumentary featuring the story of Tom and Barry Howe, conjoined twins living in the United Kingdom. It was based on the 1977 novel of the same name by science fiction writer Brian Aldiss. In the early 1970s, the twins are purchased by sleazy talent manager with plans to turn them into rock stars; the brothers form. As the band's success grows, a music journalist, follows the band writing an article. A romantic relationship develops between Tom causing friction between the two brothers. Luke Treadaway as Barry Howe Harry Treadaway as Tom Howe Sean Harris as Nick Sidney Bryan Dick as Paul Day Tania Emery as Laura Ashwood Jonathan Pryce as Henry Couling Howard Attfield as Zak Bedderwick Ken Russell as himself James Greene as Brian Aldiss Luke Wagner as Young Zak Brian Aldiss, the writer of the original novel, filmed a cameo, however it was cut out and replaced by an actor portraying him. Deleted scenes make it clear that in the continuity of the film, Aldiss based his novel on a real life case.
In the backstory of the action, Ken Russell, had attempted to make his own uncompleted film version of the "true" story. Ex-Crackout members Steven Eagles, Nicholas Millard and Jack Dunkley have cameos, they provided the soundtrack to the movie. All Bang-Bang music tracks featured in the film were performed live by actors Harry and Luke Treadaway themselves, along with the actors portraying the band members; the Treadaways, along with all the actors except Bryan Dick, recorded studio tracks for the soundtrack album. Brothers of the Head on Brian Aldiss's official site Brothers of the Head on IMDb Brothers of the Head at AllMovie
Royal Ballet School
The Royal Ballet School is one of the world's greatest centres of classical ballet training. Founded by the Anglo-Irish ballerina and choreographer Ninette de Valois, the school's aim is to train and educate outstanding classical ballet dancers for the Royal Ballet and Birmingham Royal Ballet. Admission to the School is based purely on talent and potential, regardless of academic ability or personal circumstances, 90% of current students rely on financial support to attend the school; the school is based over two sites, White Lodge, Richmond Park and Covent Garden based in purpose-built studios on Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House. The Royal Ballet School has, since 1926, produced dancers and choreographers of international renown, including Dame Margot Fonteyn, Dame Beryl Grey, Sir Kenneth MacMillan, Dame Darcey Bussell, Alessandra Ferri and Viviana Durante, as well as current Director of The Royal Ballet Kevin O'Hare. Graduates of the school have achieved employment in musical theatre and jazz dance and film.
In 1926, the Irish-born dancer Ninette de Valois founded the Academy of Choreographic Art, a dance school for girls and the predecessor of today's Royal Ballet School. Her intention was to form a repertory ballet company and school, leading her to collaborate with theatrical producer and theatre owner Lilian Baylis. Baylis owned the Old Vic theatre and acquired Sadler's Wells theatre in 1925. In 1928, she engaged de Valois to stage dance performances at both theatres and she re-opened Sadler's Wells theatre in 1931, with de Valois' school moving into studios on the site as the Sadler's Wells Ballet School, teaching both boys and girls. At the same time, the Vic-Wells Ballet Company was formed using students of the school and other notable dancers of the era. Both the school and the ballet company developed and after ballet performances ceased at the Old Vic, the ballet company was renamed the Sadler's Wells Ballet. In 1946, the company moved to become the resident ballet company at the newly re-opened Royal Opera House in Covent Garden and as a result, in 1947 the school moved from Sadler's Wells to premises in Barons Court, with academic education being introduced for younger students.
Following rapid expansion, in 1955 the school secured the premises at White Lodge in Richmond Park, London. This was established at the time as the Royal Ballet'Lower School', a residential boarding school for children aged 11–16, combining general education and vocational ballet training; the Royal Ballet School'Upper School' was established at the school's existing premises in Barons Court with students studying ballet on a full-time basis between the ages of 16–19. In October 1956, a Royal Charter was granted linking the ballet company and school and they became The Royal Ballet School and Royal Ballet Company. A second smaller company still performed at Sadler's Wells and toured around the UK and this became the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet. De Valois retired as Director in 1970. In 1990, the Sadler's Wells company moved to become the resident ballet company at the Birmingham Hippodrome, in Birmingham, where it was renamed Birmingham Royal Ballet, forming a new association with the Elmhurst School for Dance in 2002.
In January 2003, The Royal Ballet School's older students moved to a newly constructed studio complex in Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, where The Royal Ballet remains the resident ballet company. A bridge was constructed between the school and the Opera House, linking the school with the theatre and The Royal Ballet Company's own studios; the designer of the bridge received an architectural award and it is known as the Bridge of Aspiration. The Royal Ballet School's younger students moved to White Lodge, Richmond Park in Richmond, London in 1955 when the school was split for the first time; the Georgian building is a former royal residence and hunting lodge built during the reign of King George II. It is the School's permanent premises and there has been extensive redevelopment of the site to provide dance and academic facilities and accommodation for students. Children attend the school between entry to the school is by audition only; the school receives over twenty thousand applications every year and holds auditions in major UK cities.
Having an international reputation, the school receives applications from other countries. As a boarding school, the majority of students live on site, although there are a small number of day-students. In dance, students study classical ballet, character dance, gymnastics, Irish and Scottish dancing. In their training, students study ballet repertoire and pas de deux and boys undertake upper body conditioning; the school offers academic study at the level of a typical secondary school, both at Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4, with all students sitting GCSE examinations. The Royal Ballet School's Covent Garden base was established in 1955, when the younger students were moved to White Lodge; the school remained at existing studios in Barons Court, with academic studies introduced for the first time. In 2003, the school relocated to new premises, the former Baron's Court site now houses the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; the school relocated to new, purpose-built premises in Covent Garden in January 2003.
The complex is a four-storey building with six dance studios, including a studio theatre with retractable raked seating for an audience of 200. The building houses changing rooms and showers for male and female students, a gym and fitness room, a pilates studio, physiotherapy suite and students common room. Facilities for academic educa
Mangiafuoco is the fictional director and puppet master of the Great Marionette Theatre, who appears in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio. He is described as "... a large man so ugly, he evoked fear by being looked at. He had a beard as black as a smudge of ink and so long that it fell from his chin down to the ground: enough so that when he walked, he stepped on it, his mouth was as wide as an oven, his eyes were like two red tinted lanterns with the light turned on at the back, with his hands, he sported a large whip made of snakes and fox tails knotted together." Though imposing, Mangiafuoco is portrayed as moved to compassion, which he expresses by sneezing. Mangiafuoco is first encountered in Chapter X, after Pinocchio ruins one of his puppet shows by distracting the other puppets, demands that Pinocchio be burned as firewood for his roasting mutton. Moved by Pinocchio's lamentations, Mangiafuoco decides to burn one of his own puppets, instead; when Pinocchio begs for Harlequin's life and offers to sacrifice himself in Harlequin's stead, he is refused by Mangiafuoco, who upon hearing that he is poor, gives Pinocchio five gold coins which are seized by The Fox and the Cat.
In the 1940 animated Disney film Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco is renamed Stromboli. The character is voiced by Charles Judels, animated by Bill Tytla. Unlike Mangiafuoco, who meets Pinocchio by chance, Stromboli buys Pinocchio from Honest John and Gideon and earns a great deal of money by showing Pinocchio on stage. Stromboli is at first portrayed as gruff but kind-hearted, but locks Pinocchio in a cage, stating that once he is too old to work, he will be used as firewood, revealing his true nature as brutal and vicious. Pinocchio escapes with the help of the Blue Fairy and Jiminy Cricket, but is scolded for lying to her and ignoring Jiminy's advice. Like all the villains in the film, the final fate of Stromboli is never stated, revealed, or implied; the trait is shared with The Coachman. He is the first Disney villain to not be evil at first. Despite his limited screen time, Stromboli is one of Disney's most acclaimed villains; the character has been praised by critics for possessing the ability to instill in audiences both laughter and fear.
Art critic Pierre Lambert has stated that "Tytla's innate sense of force is revealed in all its magnitude in the creation of the character of Stromboli," and animation historian Charles Solomon refers to the puppet master as "the grandest of all Disney heavies", while John Canemaker describes Stromboli as "an overweight monster of mercurial moods, capable of wine-soaked, garlic-breathed Old World charm one second, knife-wielding, chop-you-up-for-firewood threats the next". William Paul drew some parallelism that "It is not too difficult to regard Stromboli as burlesque of a Hollywood studio boss, complete with foreign accent. Disney's own relationship to the Hollywood power structure was always a difficult one, his distrust of the moguls was well justified by his earliest experiences in the industry". During the premiere of Pinocchio, Frank Thomas sat in front of W. C. Fields, upon Stromboli's entrance, muttered to whoever was with him that the puppet master "moves too much". Michael Barrier agrees with Fields' criticism, considering Stromboli a "poorly conceived character" whose "passion has no roots...
There is nothing in Stromboli of what could have made him terrifying". Leonard Maltin disagrees, considering Pinocchio's encounter with the showman to be the wooden boy's "first taste of the seamy side of life... tosses his hatchet into the remnants of another ragged marionette, now a pile of splinters and sawdust, a meekly smiling face the only reminder of its former'life'." Though the character is Italian, characteristics such as Stromboli's facial expressions, obsession with wealth, long black'goat's beard' have led some to make comparisons with Jewish stereotypes. In Giuliano Cenci's 1972 adaptation Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco's portrayal is true to the book in design and personality, he is voiced by Bob Holt in the English dub. He appears in the 1972 miniseries The Adventures of Pinocchio, portrayed by Lionel Stander. Filmation's "Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night" features a puppet master named Puppetino voiced by William Windom; when Pinocchio runs away to a carnival with the idea of finding work, Puppetino recognises him from when he was a puppet.
In a nightmarish sequence, Puppetino turns Pinocchio back into a lifeless, wooden puppet through an unexplained, magical process. It is implied that he has done this to other children also. Puppetino speaks in a cockney accent and is a gaunt, pale-skinned man with a red moustache and hair, thick lips and a cloak, he is a henchman and servant of the titular Emperor, who turns on Puppetino for cowardice and turns him into a puppet before he is set in fire. In the 1993 direct to video adaptation entitled Pinocchio from GoodTimes Entertainment, Mangiafuoco is not identified by name, but resembles the original character. In Steve Barron's 1996 live action film The Adventures of Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco is renamed Lorenzini and is portrayed as the main antagonist of the film, encompassing 3 Different Villains: the Puppet Master, The Coachman, the Sea Monster, he adopts Pinocchio into his puppet troupe when he enlists Volpe and Felinet t
Peter Lindbergh is a German photographer and film director. Lindbergh is known for his cinematic images. Lindbergh was born on 23 November 1944 in Poland, he spent his childhood in Duisburg. As a teenager, he worked as window dresser for the Karstadt and Horten department stores in Duisburg. Coming from a part of Germany close to the Dutch border, North Rhine-Westphalia, he spent summer holidays with his family in the Netherlands on the coast near Noordwijk; the vast beaches and the industrial settings of his hometown Duisburg, have influenced his work over the years. In the early 1960s, he moved to Lucerne and months to Berlin where he enrolled in the Berlin Academy of Fine Arts, he hitchhiked to Arles in the footsteps of Vincent van Gogh. Lindbergh remembers these years: "I preferred seeking out van Gogh’s inspirations, my idol, rather than painting the mandatory portraits and landscapes taught in art schools". After several months in Arles, he continued through to Spain and Morocco, a journey that took him two years.
Returning to Germany, he studied Abstract Art at the College of Art in Krefeld. Influenced by Joseph Kosuth and the Conceptual art movement, he was invited in 1969, before graduating, to present his work at the avant-garde Galerie Denise René; these works were exhibited in the Objets ludiques exhibition at the Tinguely Museum in Basel in 2014. After moving to Düsseldorf in 1971, he turned his attention to photography and worked for two years assisting German photographer Hans Lux, before opening his own studio in 1973. Becoming well known in his native country, he joined the Stern magazine family along with photographers Helmut Newton, Guy Bourdin and Hans Feurer. Lindbergh introduced a form of new realism by redefining the standards of beauty, influenced by documentary photographers, street photographers and photojournalists like Dorothea Lange, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Garry Winogrand, he has a humanist approach. He changed the standards of fashion photography in times of excessive retouching, in considering there to be something else that makes a person interesting, beyond their age.
In 2014 he said that "This should be the responsibility of photographers today to free women, everyone, from the terror of youth and perfection." In 2016, Lindbergh declared that "A fashion photographer should contribute to defining the image of the contemporary woman or man in their time, to reflect a certain social or human reality. How surrealistic is today’s commercial agenda to retouch all signs of life and of experience, to retouch the personal truth of the face itself?"He photographs his subjects in their natural state, with hardly any make-up. The journalist Suzy Menkes wrote that "Refusing to bow to glossy perfection is Peter Lindbergh's trademark – the essence of the images that look into each person's unvarnished soul, however familiar or famous the sitter". In 1988, Lindbergh gained international acclaim by showing a new generation of models all dressed in white shirts that he had discovered and launched their careers. A year Linda Evangelista, Naomi Campbell, Tatjana Patitz, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, young models were photographed together for the first time by him for the January 1990 British Vogue cover.
Credited as the one who started the era of supermodels, his cover inspired singer George Michael to cast those models in the video for his song "Freedom'90", around the same time Italian fashion designer Gianni Versace for his Fall–Winter 1991 fashion show featuring the new supermodels featured two years earlier in Lindbergh's photographs. In a 2008 interview with art historian Charlotte Cotton, he explained that: Using black-and-white photography was important to creating the supermodel; every time I tried to shoot them in colour, because their beauty was close to perfection, it ended up looking like a bad cosmetics advert. With black and white, you can see who they are, it toned down the commercial interpretation. What’s so striking about black and white is how it helps a sense of reality to come through. Lindbergh's first book, 10 Women, sold more than 100,000 copies as of 2008, he twice photographed the Pirelli calendar, in 1996 and 2002. The latter, which used actresses instead of models for the first time, was shot on the back lot of Paramount Studios, was described by art critic Germaine Greer as "Pirelli's most challenging calendar yet."
Lindbergh is the first photographer in the fifty-year history of the Pirelli calendar to be invited to photograph it for a third time. Lindbergh collaborated on two complete issues of Vogue photographed by him, one celebrating Vogue Germany 30th anniversary in October 2009, the other for Vogue Spain in December 2010. Lindbergh has directed a number of films and documentaries: The Film, he photographed the movie poster for Tony Scott's movie The Hunger featuring David Bowie, Susan Sarandon and Catherine Deneuve, the album cover for the soundtrack, Pedro Almodóvar's movie poster for Talk To Her and Charlotte Rampling's documentary The Look. Lindbergh has photographed many music record covers, among them Jane Birkin's single "Quoi".