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Will Smith

Willard "Will" Carroll Smith Jr. is an American actor and rapper. In April 2007, Newsweek called him "the most powerful actor in Hollywood". Smith has been nominated for five Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, has won four Grammy Awards. In the late 1980s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince. In 1990, his popularity increased when he starred in the NBC television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, which ran for six seasons from 1990 to 1996. After the series ended, Smith transitioned from television to film and went on to star in numerous blockbuster films, he is the only actor to have eight consecutive films gross over $100 million in the domestic box office, eleven consecutive films gross over $150 million internationally, eight consecutive films in which he starred open at the number one spot in the domestic box office tally. Smith has been ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes; as of 2014, 17 of the 21 films in which he has had leading roles have accumulated worldwide gross earnings of over $100 million each, with five taking in over $500 million each in global box office receipts.

As of 2016, his films have grossed $7.5 billion at the global box office. For his performances as boxer Muhammad Ali in Ali and stockbroker Chris Gardner in The Pursuit of Happyness, Smith received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Smith was born on September 25, 1968 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Caroline, a Philadelphia school board administrator, Willard Carroll Smith Sr. a U. S. Air Force veteran and refrigeration engineer, he grew up in West Philadelphia's Wynnefield neighborhood, was raised Baptist. He has an elder sister named twins Harry and Ellen. Smith attended Our Lady of a private Catholic elementary school in Philadelphia, his parents separated when he was 13, but did not divorce until around 2000. Smith attended Overbrook High School. While it has been reported that Smith turned down a scholarship to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he never applied to college because he "wanted to rap." Smith says he was admitted to a "pre-engineering program" at MIT for high school students, but he did not attend.

According to Smith, "My mother, who worked for the School Board of Philadelphia, had a friend, the admissions officer at MIT. I had pretty high SAT scores and they needed black kids, so I could have gotten in, but I had no intention of going to college." Smith started as the MC of the hip-hop duo DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, with his childhood friend Jeffrey "DJ Jazzy Jeff" Townes as turntablist and producer. Townes and Smith were introduced to each other by chance in 1985, as Townes was performing at a house party only a few doors down from Smith's residence, he was missing his hype man. Smith decided to fill in, they both felt strong chemistry, Townes was upset when his hype man made it to the party. Soon after, the two decided to join forces. Smith enlisted a friend to join as the beatboxer of Clarence Holmes, making them a trio. Philadelphia-based Word Up Records released their first single in late 1985 to 1986 when A&R man Paul Oakenfold introduced them to Word Up with their single "Girls Ain't Nothing but Trouble," a tale of funny misadventures that landed Smith and his former DJ and rap partner Mark Forrest in trouble.

The song sampled the theme song of "I Dream of Jeannie." Smith became known for light-hearted story-telling raps and capable, though profanity-free, "battle" rhymes. The single became a hit a month. Based on this success, the duo were brought to the attention of Russell Simmons; the duo's first album, Rock the House, first released on Word Up in 1986 debuted on Jive in March 1987. The group received the first Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance in 1989 for "Parents Just Don't Understand", though their most successful single was "Summertime", which earned the group their second Grammy and peaked at number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100. Smith and Townes are still friends and claim that they never split up, having made songs under Smith's solo performer credit. Smith spent money around 1988 and 1989 and underpaid his income taxes; the Internal Revenue Service assessed a $2.8 million tax debt against Smith, took many of his possessions, garnished his income. Smith was struggling financially in 1990, when the NBC television network signed him to a contract and built a sitcom, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, around him.

The show began his acting career. Smith set for himself the goal of becoming "the biggest movie star in the world", studying box office successes' common characteristics. In 1989, Smith was arrested in relation to an alleged assault on his record promoter, William Hendricks, but all charges were dismissed. Smith's first major roles were in the drama Six Degrees of Separation and the action film Bad Boys in which he starred opposite Martin Lawrence; the latter film was commercially successful, grossing $141,407,024 worldwide – $65,807,024 in North America and $75,600,000 overseas. However, critical reception was mixed. In 1996, Smith starred as part of an ensemble cast in Roland Emmerich's Independence Day; the film was a massive blockbuster, becoming the second highest-grossing film in history at the time and establishing Smith as a prime box office draw. In the summer of 1997, he starred alongside Tommy Lee Jones in the hit Men in Black, playing Agent J; the film was released on July 2 by Columbia Pictures and grossed over $589.3 million worldwide against a $90 million budget, becoming the year's third highe

Gyles v Wilcox

Gyles v Wilcox 26 ER 489 was a decision of the Court of Chancery of England that established the doctrine of fair abridgement, which would evolve into the concept of fair use. The case was heard and the opinion written by Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, concerned Fletcher Gyles, a bookseller who had published a copy of Matthew Hale's Pleas of the Crown. Soon after the initial publication, the publishers Wilcox and Nutt hired a writer named Barrow to abridge the book, repackaged it as Modern Crown Law. Gyles sued for a stay on the book's publishing, claiming his rights under the Statute of Anne had been infringed; the main issues in the case were whether or not abridgements of a work inherently constituted copyright infringement, or whether they could qualify as a separate, new work. Lord Hartwicke ruled that abridgements fell under two categories: "true abridgements" and "coloured shortenings". True abridgements presented a true effort on the part of the editor, by this effort, constituted a new work which did not infringe upon the copyright of the original.

Leaving it to literary and legal experts to decide, Hartwicke ruled that Modern Crown Law was not a true abridgement, but a duplication intending to circumvent the law. The case set a legal precedent, it established the common law doctrine of fair abridgement, cited in other cases building up to the idea of fair use. The opinion recognised the author's right to a work through the nature of the labour it took to produce it, shifting copyright away from publishing rights and towards the idea of serving the greater good by encouraging the production of new, useful works. Fletcher Gyles, an English bookseller, had published a book entitled Matthew Hale's Pleas of the Crown, for which he had purchased the exclusive publishing rights. Around the same time, publishers Wilcox and Nutt paid a writer named Barrow to abridge the book, circulating it under the title Modern Crown Law. Gyles alleged that Modern Crown Law was a near verbatim copy of his publication, with only minor alterations, including the translation of Latin and French passages into English and cutting old, obsolete laws.

Seeking to protect his printing rights, Gyles sued both Wilcox and Nutt, along with Barrow, for a stay on the publication. The case involved whether Wilcox and Nutt had violated Gyles' publishing rights as defined under the Statute of Anne the section stating that an author, or purchaser of an author's copyrights as Gyles was, "shall have the sole Liberty of Printing and Reprinting such Book and Books for the Term of four-teen years." Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke decided the case. Browning, Gyles' attorney, cited a case which had appeared before Hardwicke, that of Read v Hodges. In that case, a publisher attempted to circumvent the rights of the author of Czar Peter the Great by including all three volumes in one and cutting several pages. Hardwicke rejected the argument, declaring that the former case had been decided on a motion, that he had given his decision and statements without the thought he would have given a normal hearing. Hardwicke further took contention with the Attorney General for England and Wales' assertion that the Statute of Anne provided a publishing monopoly, instead interpreting the act as one meant to promote public education and the public good.

As Hardwicke had decided to interpret the Statute of Anne as for the public good, the main question of the case became which "any such book or books" the act referred to and protected. The defendants argued that his abridgement must be considered separate from the original work published by Gyles; the defendant's lawyers furthered pushed the court to try the case as if the abridgement had been recorded in the Stationers' Register, an action that would have given Wilcox and Nutt the right to publish their book, the lawsuit brought against a second, unique book. Therefore, the only question before the court was whether the second book differentiated sufficiently from the first. Further, the attorneys for the defendants argued that the book was not a direct transcription, but that several chapters had been omitted, while other, original sections had been added to the Wilcox and Nutt publication, they further pointed to the fact that the Gyles' publication consisted of 275 sheets, whereas the abridgement contained only 35 sheets.

The opinion, written by Hardwicke, found that a true abridgement of a published book may be considered an separate, new work, as the abridgement showed the labour, originality and judgement of the editor. This new book did not run the risk of infringing the rights of the author or bookseller who owned the publishing rights. However, Lord Hardwicke drew a distinction between works "fairly made" and those "colourably shortened". Hardwicke refused to compare the books himself to determine whether Modern Crown Law was indeed a fair abridgement, or to force a judge and jury to sit and hear both books read, instead opting to have two legal experts and a literary master read the books and report the findings to the court; the parties were allowed to choose these examiners, in a way leaving the case to arbitration. After a week in which the parties were given a chance to make amends outside of court, the book in question was ruled a colourable shortening, created only to circumvent the law, thus was an infringement of Gyles' printing rights.

In his decision, Hartwicke went counter to the prevailing view that the Statute of Anne should be interpreted strictly, proclaiming, "I am quite of a different opinion, that it ought to receive a liberal construction, for it is far from being a monopoly, as it is intended to secure the property of books in the au

Colorado Millennial Site

Colorado Millennial Site is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian archaeological site located near Ruxton in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Colorado, sitting along the border between Las Animas counties. It is known by its site ID, 5LA1115, the names Hackberry Springs and Bloody Springs; the site was inhabited from 6999 B. C. to A. D. 1900. The prehistoric cultures included Archaic and Woodland cultures and the site is significant for its rock art, village settlement, military battle site; the site, situated along an overhanging bluff, provided natural shelter and had access to a reliable supply of water for its prehistoric inhabitants, who left evidence of their residency in the form of rock art. The Cheyenne and U. S. 7th Cavalry had the last documented southeastern Colorado military battle with Native Americans at the site in 1868. List of prehistoric sites in Colorado Prehistory of Colorado