A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution. For the devolution of property not disposed of by will, see inheritance and intestacy. Though it has at times been thought that a "will" was limited to real property while "testament" applies only to dispositions of personal property, the historical records show that the terms have been used interchangeably. Thus, the word "will" validly applies to both real property. A will may create a testamentary trust, effective only after the death of the testator. Throughout most of the world, disposal of an estate has been a matter of social custom. According to Plutarch, the written will was invented by Solon, it was a device intended for men who died without an heir. The English phrase "will and testament" is derived from a period in English law when Old English and Law French were used side by side for maximum clarity.
Other such legal doublets include "breaking and entering" and "peace and quiet". The conception of the freedom of disposition by will, familiar as it is in modern England and the United States, both considered common law systems, is by no means universal. In fact, complete freedom is the exception rather than the rule. Civil law systems put some restrictions on the possibilities of disposal. Advocates for gays and lesbians have pointed to the inheritance rights of spouses as desirable for same-sex couples as well, through same-sex marriage or civil unions. Opponents of such advocacy rebut this claim by pointing to the ability of same-sex couples to disperse their assets by will. However, it was observed that "ven if a same-sex partner executes a will, there is risk that the survivor will face prejudice in court when disgruntled heirs challenge the will", with courts being more willing to strike down wills leaving property to a same-sex partner on such grounds as incapacity or undue influence.
Types of wills include: nuncupative - oral or dictated. Holographic will - written in the hand of the testator. Self-proved - in solemn form with affidavits of subscribing witnesses to avoid probate. Notarial - will in public prepared by a civil-law notary. Mystic - sealed until death. Serviceman's will - will of person in active-duty military service and lacking certain formalities under English law. Reciprocal/mirror/mutual/husband and wife wills - wills made by two or more parties that make similar or identical provisions in favor of each other. Joint will - similar to reciprocal wills but one instrument. First documented in English law in 1769. Unsolemn will - will in which the executor is unnamed. Will in solemn form - signed by testator and witnesses; some jurisdictions recognize a holographic will, made out in the testator's own hand, or in some modern formulations, with material provisions in the testator's hand. The distinctive feature of a holographic will is less that it is handwritten by the testator, that it need not be witnessed.
In Louisiana this type of testament is called an Mystic will. It must be written and signed in the handwriting of the testator. Although the date may appear anywhere in the testament, the testator must sign the testament at the end of the testament. Any additions or corrections must be hand written to have effect. In England, the formalities of wills are relaxed for soldiers who express their wishes on active service. A minority of jurisdictions recognize the validity of nuncupative wills for military personnel or merchant sailors. However, there are constraints on the disposition of property if such an oral will is used. Administrator - person appointed or who petitions to administer an estate in an intestate succession; the antiquated English term of administratrix was used to refer to a female administrator but is no longer in standard legal usage. Beneficiary - anyone receiving a gift or benefiting from a trust Bequest - testamentary gift of personal property, traditionally other than money.
Codicil - amendment to a will. Decedent - the deceased Demonstrative Legacy - a gift of a specific sum of money with a direction, to be paid out of a particular fund. Descent - succession to real property. Devise - testamentary gift of real property. Devisee - beneficiary of real property under a will. Distribution - succession to personal property. Executor/executrix or personal representative - person named to administer the estate subject to the supervision of the probate court, in accordance with the testator's wishes in the will. In most cases, the testator will nominate an executor/PR in the will unless that person is unable or unwilling to serve. In some cases a literary executor may be appointed to manage a literary estate. Exordium clause is the first paragraph or sentence in a will and testament, in which the testator identifies himself or herself, states a legal domicile, revokes any prior wills. Inheritor - a beneficiary in a succession, testate or intestate. Intestate - perso
Fantasista Doll is a 12-episode Japanese anime television series produced by Hoods Entertainment and directed by Hisashi Saitō. Gorō Taniguchi serves as the creative producer, while the series composition is handled by Noboru Kimura and Yūko Kakihara; the series aired in Japan between July 7 and September 28, 2013. Three manga adaptations are published by Media Factory. Uzume Uno, a girl who used to be an elite player at card tournaments, is one day given a curious device which uses special cards to summon artificially intelligent female warriors known as Fantasista Dolls. From this day on, Uzume spends each day spending time with her new friends, while fighting battles against other card masters who seek to have their wishes granted by the Mutual Dream Association Group in exchange for defeating her. Uzume Uno Voiced by: Ayaka Ōhashi A 14-year-old junior high school student, the master of five Fantasista Dolls, she is an elite card player. At first she was troubled being responsible for five Dolls all of a sudden, although she develops bonds with them and does not hesitate to fight alongside her Dolls in battles.
Kagami Todori Voiced by: Sachika Misawa Uzume's underclassman and rival. She is the first opponent, she joined the Mutual Dream Association Group in order to search for information on her older brother, who went missing several years ago. However, she comes to believe in Uzume's friendship. Manai Uzuki Voiced by: Sumire Uesaka The president of the card club and Uzume's childhood friend who has dubiously named it the'Masquerade Curry Upbeat', she is a Doll Master. Sasara Voiced by: Minami Tsuda The first Fantasista Doll that Uzume meets, her color is yellow and she is a strong swordsman who argues with Uzume a lot due to her stubbornness. Katia Voiced by: Sora Tokui A blue-haired Fantasista Doll who has unconscious luck, she is careless. She becomes friends with Uzume's younger sister and hangs out with her when the opportunity rises. Shimeji Voiced by: Chinatsu Akasaki A pink-haired Fantasista Doll. Having been abandoned by her last master, she is sensitive and fragile, she does not believe much in Uzume, thinking that she will abandon them again.
However, she is relieved. Akari Voiced by: Akiko Hasegawa A loli-gothic dressed Fantasista Doll, she is naive. Madeleine Voiced by: Sayaka Ohara A tall busty Fantasista Doll, always ready to help out her master, she plans out tactics in battles. Komachi Seishou Voiced by: Kaori Nazuka Uzume's upperclassman, a top fashion model and gives Uzume advice whenever she is down, she is revealed to be the chairman of the Mutual Dream Association Group who desires Uzume's cards for some reason. She was the original owner of the Uzume's dolls, she formed the MDAG after her doll, was destroyed in a traffic accident, hoping to use the data from Uzume's dolls to rebuild Sonnet using her personal doll, Proto-Zero. Anne Voiced by: Satomi Akesaka A dark-haired spectacled woman, thought to be the director of the MDAG. Kazunari Kira Voiced by: Yoshitsugu Matsuoka A man who sought out the MDAG to reunite with his ex-girlfriend, using any means necessary to win. Umihiro Yamada Voiced by: Megumi Matsumoto A young boy from the MDAG.
Miina Rurukawa Voiced by: Megumi Han A girl who saw her dolls as her masters as opposed to their servants. Kiyoshi Kiyomizu Voiced by: Susumu Chiba A rugby player who sought out the MDAG so that people would appreciate rugby as a true sport instead of a way to meet girls. Rin Voiced by: Haruna Ikezawa An amateur model, jealous of Komachi always being ahead of her. Jun Fujihisa Voiced by: Natsuki Hanae A novice filmmaker who sought out the MDAG to get people to watch his experimental film, that tends to go under-appreciated by the general viewing public; the Rafflesia Man Voiced by: Sōichirō Hoshi A mysterious man who watches Uzume closely. He is secretly one of the teachers at Uzume's school. Rinto Mikasa Voiced by: Kyousei Tsukui A teacher at Uzume's school, Rafflesia's partner. Miko Uno Voiced by: Yuri Yamaoka Uzume's younger sister who befriends Katia learning about the other dolls and keeping it a secret. Mikoto Uno Voiced by: Masayo Kurata Uzume and Miko's mother, she was a gambler before, was good at poker tricking the Director during their play.
Reika Okazaki Voiced by: Mariko Honda Uzume's classmate, lending her horror DVDs. A manga adaptation, illustrated by Anmi and titled Fantasista Doll Mix, began serialization in volume 20 of Kadokawa Shoten's Newtype Ace magazine sold on April 10, 2013, it was transferred to Kadokawa Shoten's Comptiq magazine with the September 2013 issue. A spin-off manga, illustrated by Tomiyaki Kagisora and titled Fantasista Doll: Prelude Kagami, began serialization in the July 2013 issue of Media Factory's Monthly Comic Alive magazine. A third manga, illustrated by Mekimeki and titled Fantasista Doll, began serialization in the July 2013 issue of Kadokawa Shoten's Comp Ace magazine. A web novel titled Fantasista Doll: Osatō to Spice
Gdańsk Niedźwiednik railway station is a railway station serving the city of Gdańsk, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. The station opened on 1 May 1914 on the Gdańsk Wrzeszcz–Stara Piła railway; the station closed following destruction of the line during World War II. The station re-opened on 1 September 2015 and is located on the Gdańsk Wrzeszcz–Gdańsk Osowa railway; the train services are operated by SKM Tricity as part of the Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna. The station is served by the following services: Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna services Gdynia - Gdansk Osowa - Gdansk Airport - Gdansk Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna services Kartuzy - Zukowo - Gdansk Airport - Gdansk Tram line 10 from the city centre stop on a platform adjacent to the new railway platforms. Bus services stop on the road below the station, these are: 10, 116, 131, 184, 210, 227, 283, N6. Media related to Gdańsk Brętowo train station at Wikimedia Commons This article is based upon a translation of the Polish language version as of November 2016