Salem is the capital of the U. S. state of Oregon, the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city; the river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, the city neighborhood of West Salem is in Polk County. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory in 1851, was incorporated in 1857. Salem had a population of 169,798 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the state after Portland. Salem is a little under an hour's driving distance away from Portland. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Marion and Polk counties and had a combined population of 390,738 at the 2010 census. A 2013 estimate placed the metropolitan population at the state's second largest; the city is home to Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. The State of Oregon is the largest public employer in the city, Salem Health is the largest private employer.
Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit, Amtrak service, non-commercial air travel at McNary Field. Major roads include Interstate 5, Oregon Route 99E, Oregon Route 22, which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street and Center Street bridges; the Native Americans who inhabited the central Willamette Valley at first European contact, the Kalapuya, called the area Chim-i-ki-ti, which means "meeting or resting place" in the Central Kalapuya language. When the Methodist Mission moved to the area, they called the new establishment Chemeketa; when the Oregon Institute was established, the community became known as the Institute. When the Institute was dissolved, the trustees decided to lay out a town site on the Institute lands; some possible sources for the name "Salem" include William H. Willson, who in 1850 and 1851 filed the plans for the main part of the city, suggested adopting an Anglicized version of the Biblical word "Shalom", meaning "peace".
The Reverend David Leslie, President of the town's Trustees wanted a Biblical name, suggested using the last five letters of "Jerusalem". Or, the town may be named after Salem, where Leslie was educated. There were many names suggested, after the change to Salem, some people, such as Asahel Bush, believed the name should be changed back to Chemeketa; the Vern Miller Civic Center, which houses the city offices and library, has a public space dedicated as the Peace Plaza in recognition of the names by which the city has been known. It is estimated; the Kalapuya peoples would gather on the plateau east and south of the current downtown area in the winter and establish camps. They harvested in the streams and fields of the area. One staple of life was the camas root, periodically the Kalapuya would set fires that would clear and fertilize the meadows where it grew. In the early 1850s, the Kalapuya, along with the other native peoples west of the Cascade Mountains, were removed by the U. S. government through a combination of treaties and force.
Most Kalapuya people were moved to the Grande Ronde Reservation somewhat to the west of Salem, with smaller numbers ending up at Siletz Reservation and other Oregon and Washington reservations. The first people of European descent arrived in the area as early as 1812; the first permanent American settlement in the area was the Jason Lee Methodist mission located in the area north of Salem known as Wheatland. In 1842, the missionaries established the Oregon Institute in the area, to become the site of Salem. In 1844, the mission was dissolved and the town site established. In 1851, Salem became the territorial capital; the capital was moved to Corvallis in 1855, but was moved back to Salem permanently that same year. Salem incorporated as a city in 1857, with the coming of statehood in 1859, it became the state capital. Oregon has had three capitol buildings in Salem. A two-story state house, occupied for only two months, burned to the ground in December 1855. Oregon's second capitol building was completed in 1876 on the site of the original.
The Revival-style building was based in part on the U. S. Capitol building; the building received its distinctive copper dome in 1893. On April 25, 1935, this building was destroyed by fire; the third and current Oregon State Capitol was completed on the same site in 1938. It is recognizable by its distinctive pioneer statue atop the capitol dome, plated with gold-leaf and named the Oregon Pioneer. Agriculture has always been important to Salem, the city has recognized and celebrated it in a number of ways. In 1861, Salem was chosen as the permanent site of the Oregon State Fair by the Oregon State Agricultural Association. Salem is nicknamed the "Cherry City", because of the past importance of the local cherry-growing industry; the first cherry festival in Salem was held in 1903 and was an annual event, with parades and the election of a cherry queen, until sometime after World War I. The event was revived as the Salem Cherryland Festival for several years in the late 1940s. Salem is located in Marion and Polk counties.
The 45th Parallel
The Calapooya Mountains are a mountain range in Lane and Douglas counties of southwestern Oregon in the United States. The range runs for 60 miles west from the Cascade Range between Eugene on the north and Roseburg on the south; the Calapooya Mountains are composed of newer sedimentary strata. The mountains have been eroded by the Coast Fork Willamette River and its tributaries. In the southern drainage, the tributaries of the North Umpqua River have cut into the southern slopes; the soil is silty, clay loam formed from sandstone and igneous rocks. The Calapooya Mountains and the Calapooya Divide are two parts of a spur of the Western Cascade mountains in the U. S. state of Oregon that form the divide between the watersheds of the Willamette and Umpqua rivers. At its southeastern end, the spur joins the Cascade Range near Cowhorn Mountain near the headwaters of the Middle Fork Willamette River and the North Umpqua River. A topographic map in the Atlas of Oregon shows the Calapooya Mountains curving northwest from near Potter, McGowan, Balm mountains past Bohemia Mountain to Holland Point, south of Oakridge.
From near Bohemia Mountain, a block of mountains connected to the Calapooya Mountains runs due west along the border between Lane and Douglas counties to the vicinity of Interstate 5 near Rice Hill. This block is known as the Calapooya Divide. To the north along I-5 to the south are Sutherlin and Roseburg. Streams flowing south from the Calapooyas into the North Umpqua River include Steamboat and Rock creeks, while Calapooya Creek flows west from the divide into the Umpqua main stem. Streams flowing north or east into the Middle Fork Willamette River include Tumblebug, Staley and Packard creeks. Flowing northwest or west into the Coast Fork Willamette River or its major tributary, the Row River, are Brice and Mosby creeks and Big River; the Umpqua flows west through the Oregon Coast Range to the Pacific Ocean at Reedsport, while the Willamette flows north to the Columbia River, which flows northwest to the Pacific Ocean at Astoria. The highest peaks in the range include Balm Mountain at 6,165 feet above sea level, Potter Mountain at 6,145 feet, McGowan Mountain at 6,130 feet, all near the southeastern end of the range.
Along the divide, Huckleberry Mountain in the east rises to 4,754 feet, while Ben More Mountain near I-5 is only 2,480 feet high. Bohemia Mountain and its close neighbor Fairview Peak reach identical peak elevations of 5,933 feet, while Holland Point near Oakridge is 5,048 feet high; the climate in the Calapooya Mountains follows a pattern of dry summers. Precipitation increases with elevation, ranging from an average of 40 to 50 inches per year in the valleys to 70 to 80 inches on the mountain peaks. Above 4,000 feet, a significant part of this falls as snow. Throughout the history of the region, the range has provided a geographic and cultural barrier between the Willamette Valley and the South Umpqua Valley separating Western Oregon from Southern Oregon. In the 19th century, it separated the tribal domains of the Kalapuya and Umpqua tribes of Native Americans. Both ceded their lands to the U. S. government in the 1854 Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya. During the 1840s, the mountains proved a barrier to white settlers seeking to move into southern Oregon or to move southward to the California gold fields.
The Applegate Trail, blazed in the late 1840s, provided the first reliable path for white settlement through the western end of the mountains. Interstate 5 follows the route of the trail between Eugene and Roseburg; the mountains have been an important timber source in the 20th century. The eastern end of the mountains are within the Umpqua National Forest in the south and Willamette National Forest in the north. Loy, William G. et al.. Atlas of Oregon. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon Press. ISBN 0-87114-102-7
Pseudotsuga menziesii is an evergreen conifer species in the pine family, Pinaceae. It is native to western North America and is known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir, Oregon pine, Columbian pine. There are two varieties: coast Douglas-fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir; the common name honors David Douglas, a Scottish botanist and collector who first reported the extraordinary nature and potential of the species. The common name is misleading. For this reason the name is written as Douglas-fir; the specific epithet menziesii is after Archibald Menzies, a Scottish physician and rival naturalist to David Douglas. Menzies first documented the tree on Vancouver Island in 1791. Colloquially, the species is known as Doug fir or Douglas pine. Other names for this tree have included Oregon pine, British Columbian pine, Puget Sound pine, Douglas spruce, false hemlock, red fir, or red pine. One Coast Salish name for the tree, used in the Halkomelem language, is lá:yelhp. Douglas-firs are medium-size to large evergreen trees, 20–100 metres tall.
The leaves are flat, linear, 2–4 centimetres long resembling those of the firs, occurring singly rather than in fascicles. As the trees grow taller in denser forest, they lose their lower branches, such that the foliage may start high off the ground. Douglas-firs in environments with more light may have branches much closer to the ground; the female cones are pendulous, with persistent scales, unlike those of true firs. They are distinctive in having a long tridentine bract. Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii, the coast Douglas-fir, grows in the coastal regions from west-central British Columbia southward to central California. In Oregon and Washington, its range is continuous from the eastern edge of the Cascades west to the Pacific Coast Ranges and Pacific Ocean. In California, it is found in the Klamath and California Coast Ranges as far south as the Santa Lucia Range, with a small stand as far south as the Purisima Hills in Santa Barbara County. In the Sierra Nevada, it ranges as far south as the Yosemite region.
It occurs from near sea level along the coast to 1,800 m above sea level in the mountains of California. Another variety exists further inland, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, the Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir or interior Douglas-fir. Interior Douglas-fir intergrades with coast Douglas-fir in the Cascades of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, from there ranges northward to central British Columbia and southeastward to the Mexican border, becoming disjunct as latitude decreases and altitude increases. Mexican Douglas-fir, which ranges as far south as Oaxaca, is considered a variety of P. menziesii. Douglas-fir prefers neutral soils. However, it exhibits considerable morphological plasticity, on drier sites P. menziesii var. menziesii will generate deeper taproots. Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca exhibits greater plasticity, occurring in stands of interior temperate rainforest in British Columbia, as well as at the edge of semi-arid sagebrush steppe throughout much of its range, where it generates deeper taproots than coast Douglas-fir is capable.
Mature or "old-growth" Douglas-fir forest is the primary habitat of the red tree vole and the spotted owl. Home range requirements for breeding pairs of spotted owls are at least 400 ha of old growth. Red tree voles may be found in immature forests if Douglas-fir is a significant component; the red vole nests exclusively in the foliage of the trees 2–50 metres above the ground, its diet consists chiefly of Douglas-fir needles. A parasitic plant sometimes utilizing P. menziesii is Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe. The leaves are used by the woolly conifer aphid Adelges cooleyi, it is present in large numbers, can cause the foliage to turn yellowish from the damage it causes. Exceptionally, trees may be defoliated by it, but the damage is this severe. Among Lepidoptera, apart from some that feed on Pseudotsuga in general the gelechiid moths Chionodes abella and C. periculella as well as the cone scale-eating tortrix moth Cydia illutana have been recorded on P. menziesii. The coast Douglas-fir variety is the dominant tree west of the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest, occurring in nearly all forest types, competes well on most parent materials and slopes.
Adapted to a moist, mild climate, it grows faster than Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir. Associated trees include western hemlock, Sitka spruce, sugar pine, western white pine, ponderosa pine, grand fir, coast redwood, western redcedar, California incense-cedar, Lawson's cypress, bigleaf maple and several others. Pure stands are common north of the Umpqua River in Oregon. Poriol is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, produced by P. menziesii in reaction to infection by Poria weirii. The species is extensiv
Tsuga heterophylla, the western hemlock or western hemlock-spruce, is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula and its southeastern limit in northern Sonoma County, California. Tsuga heterophylla is an integral component of Pacific Northwest forests west of the Coast Ranges, where it is a climax species, it is an important timber tree throughout the region, along with many of its large coniferous associates. Western hemlock is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 165–230 ft tall, exceptionally 273.42 ft, with a trunk diameter of up to 9 ft. It is the largest species of hemlock, with the next largest reaching a maximum of 194 ft; the bark is brown and furrowed. The crown is a neat broad conic shape in young trees with a drooping lead shoot, becoming cylindric in older trees. At all ages, it is distinguished by the pendulous branchlet tips; the shoots are pale buff-brown white, with pale pubescence about 1 mm long.
The leaves are needle-like, 5–23 mm long and 1.5–2 mm broad flattened in cross-section, with a finely serrated margin and a bluntly acute apex. They are mid to dark green above, they are arranged spirally on the shoots but are twisted at the base to lie in two ranks on either side of the shoot. The cones are small, slender cylindrical, 14–30 mm long and 7–8 mm broad when closed, opening to 18–25 mm broad, they have 15 -- 25 flexible scales 7 -- 13 mm long. The immature cones are green; the seeds are brown, 2–3 mm long, with a slender, 7–9 mm long pale brown wing. Western hemlock is associated with temperate rain forests, most of its range is less than 100 km from the Pacific Ocean. There is however an inland population in the Columbia Mountains in southeast British Columbia, northern Idaho and western Montana, it grows at low altitudes, from sea level to 600 m, but up to 1,800 m in the interior part of its range in Idaho. It is a shade-tolerant tree. Young plants grow up under the canopy of other conifers such as Sitka spruce or Douglas-fir, where they can persist for decades waiting to exploit a gap in the canopy.
They replace these conifers, which are shade-intolerant, in climax forest. However and wildfires will create larger openings in the forest where these other species can regenerate. Initial growth is slow. Once established, saplings in full light may have an average growth rate of 50–120 cm annually until they are 20–30 m tall, in good conditions still 30–40 cm annually when 40–50 m tall; the tallest specimen, 82.83 m tall, is in California. It is long-lived, with trees over 1200 years old known. Western hemlock forms ectomycorrhizal associations with some well-known edible fungi such as chanterelles, it is capable of associating with wood-decay fungi in addition to soil fungi. Western hemlock is the state tree of Washington. Western hemlock is cultivated as an ornamental tree in gardens in its native habitats and along the U. S. Pacific Coast, where its best reliability is seen in wetter regions. In dry areas, as at Victoria, British Columbia, it is exacting about soil conditions, it needs a high level of organic matter, in a acidic soil.
It is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit; when planted well upon the banks along a river, western hemlock can help to reduce erosion. Outside of its native range, western hemlock is of importance in forestry, for timber and paper production, it is used for making doors and furniture, it can be an ornamental tree in large gardens, in northwest Europe and southern New Zealand. It has naturalised in some parts of Great Britain and New Zealand, not so extensively as to be considered an invasive species, but an introduced species tree; the edible cambium can be collected by scraping slabs of removed bark. The resulting shavings can be eaten or can be dried and pressed into cakes for preservation; the bark serves as a source of tannin for tanning. Tender new growth needles can be chewed directly or made into a bitter tea, rich in vitamin C. Western hemlock boughs are used to collect herring eggs during the spring spawn in southeast Alaska.
The boughs provide an collectible surface for the eggs to attach to as well as providing a distinctive taste. This practice originates from traditional gathering methods used by Native Alaskans from southeast Alaska the Tlingit people
Sweet Home, Oregon
Sweet Home is a city in Linn County, United States. The population was 8,925 at the 2010 census. According to the city, "Sweet Home is sometimes referred to as the'Gateway to the Santiam Playground' due to its proximity to nearby lakes and the Cascade Mountains." Settlers first arrived in the Sweet Home Valley in the early 1850s. A community known as Buckhead developed near the mouth of the South Santiam River. Buckhead was named after a saloon that featured a set of elk antlers on the gable end of its building. East of Buckhead, a community called Mossville developed with a post office. In 1874, the two communities merged to become one community called Sweet Home. In 1893, the city of Sweet Home was incorporated; the Santiam Wagon Road, a toll road connecting the Willamette Valley with central Oregon, was opened in 1865. The road extended from the Sweet Home Valley across the Santiam Pass in the Cascades to Camp Polk near Sisters; the Santiam Wagon Road was a vital means of supplying livestock and goods from western Oregon to central Oregon and transporting wool from east of the Cascades back to Willamette Valley woolen mills.
Competition with railroads that extended south from the Columbia River into central Oregon and the newly opened McKenzie Pass Highway made the wagon road obsolete by the late 1930s. U. S. Route 20 was constructed across much of the same route as the Santiam Wagon Road. Sweet Home experienced significant growth during the 1940s due to the demand for timber from local forests. Further growth occurred when construction began on nearby Green Peter Dam in 1962 and continued as construction began on Foster Dam in 1966. During the 1980s, Sweet Home experienced a number of sawmill and plywood mill closures due to economic cycles, increased competition, increased productivity, logging restrictions placed on nearby forests resulting from environmental concerns for endangered species. In response, community members sought out other economic development opportunities such as the Oregon Jamboree country music and camping festival. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.75 square miles, of which 5.30 square miles is land and 0.45 square miles is water.
The intersection Oregon Route 228 and U. S. Route 20 occurs at the Western end of Sweet Home; the South Santiam River flows from Foster Reservoir along the northern city limits of Sweet Home. Ames Creek and Wiley Creek flow into the South Santiam River within the city limits. Sweet Home is built on a prehistoric petrified forest. In addition to fossil wood, the area includes a variety of agate, jasper and minerals; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Sweet Home has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the median income for a household in the city was $37,182. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,925 people, 3,440 households, 2,315 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,684.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,768 housing units at an average density of 710.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.3% White, 0.3% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.7% of the population. There were 3,440 households of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.7% were non-families. 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 39.6 years. 25.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. Major employers in Sweet Home include a titanium foundry. Oregon Jamboree The Weddle Covered Bridge, relocated from Thomas Creek near Scio, crosses Ames Creek at Sankey Park in Sweet Home; the Crawfordsville Covered Bridge spans the Calapooia River 8 miles southwest of Sweet Home and the Short Covered Bridge crosses the South Santiam River 12 miles east of Sweet Home.
The 2018 Capitol Christmas Tree, which comes from a different national forest every year, was acquired by the Sweet Home Ranger District. The ranger district, part of the Willamette National Forest, was awarded the opportunity to present the tree to the American people for the 2018 Christmas season. Sweet Home has seven city parks. Nearby recreation opportunities include boating, fishing, white-water sports and gold panning. Foster Reservoir on the South Santiam River has boat ramps and a year-round marina while Green Peter Reservoir provides two improved boat ramps; the South Santiam River offers salmon and steelhead fishing while Quartzville Creek is recognized for Class 4 and Class 5 kayaking and gold panning opportunities. Nearby hiking trails include Horse Rock Ridge, Soda Creek Falls Trail at Cascadia State
Marion County, Oregon
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. The population was 315,335 at the 2010 census; the county seat is the state capital. The county was named the Champooick District, after Champoeg, a meeting place on the Willamette River. On September 3, 1849, the territorial legislature renamed it in honor of Francis Marion, a Continental Army general from South Carolina who served in the American Revolutionary War. Marion County is part of the Salem, OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the Willamette Valley. Marion County was created by the Provisional Legislature of Oregon on July 5, 1843 as the Champooick District, one of the original four districts of the Oregon Country along with Twality and Yamhill counties; the four districts were redesignated as counties in 1845. This political entity stretched southward to the California border and eastward to the Rocky Mountains. With the creation of Wasco, Linn and other counties, its area was reduced in size.
Marion County's present geographical boundaries were established in 1856. In 1849, Salem was designated the county seat; the territorial capital was moved from Oregon City to Salem in 1852. The ensuing controversy over the location of the capital was settled in 1864 when Salem was confirmed as the state capital. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,193 square miles, of which 1,182 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water. Linn County Polk County Yamhill County Clackamas County Wasco County Jefferson County Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge Mount Hood National Forest Willamette National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 284,834 people, 101,641 households, 70,437 families residing in the county; the population density was 241 people per square mile. There were 108,174 housing units at an average density of 91 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.62% White, 0.89% Black or African American, 1.44% Native American, 1.75% Asian, 0.36% Pacific Islander, 10.58% from other races, 3.35% from two or more races.
17.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4% were of German, 9.2% English, 8.2% American and 7.4% Irish ancestry. 80.8 % spoke 14.8 % Spanish and 1.4 % Russian as their first language. There were 101,641 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.70% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.40% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,314, the median income for a family was $46,202.
Males had a median income of $33,841 versus $26,283 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,408. About 9.60% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.10% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 315,335 people, 112,957 households, 77,044 families residing in the county; the population density was 266.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 120,948 housing units at an average density of 102.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 78.2% white, 1.9% Asian, 1.6% American Indian, 1.1% black or African American, 0.7% Pacific islander, 12.6% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.1% were German, 11.4% were English, 11.0% were Irish, 4.7% were American. Of the 112,957 households, 35.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families, 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.23. The median age was 35.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,069 and the median income for a family was $54,661. Males had a median income of $39,239 versus $32,288 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,915. About 11.7% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Marion is a Republican county that has become more competitive in the last 30 years. Although the Democrats won with pluralities in 1996 and 2008, no Democrat has carried a majority of the county since Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Agriculture and food processing are important to the county's economy, as are lumber and education. Marion County is the leader in agricultural production among all other Oregon counties. Marion County has 10,640 acres planted in orchards; the marionberry was named after the county. Government, however, is economic base.
Marion County is the home of Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. Brooks Butteville Four Corners Hayesville Labish Village Marion Me
Three Fingered Jack
Three Fingered Jack is a shield volcano of the Cascade Range in the U. S. state of Oregon. Formed during the Pleistocene epoch, the mountain consists of basaltic andesite lava and was glaciated in the past. While other Oregon volcanoes that were glaciated—such as Mount Washington and Mount Thielsen—display eroded volcanic necks, Three Fingered Jack's present summit is a comparatively narrow ridge of loose tephra supported by a dike only 10 feet thick on a north–south axis. Radiating dikes and plugs that support this summit have been exposed by glaciation; the volcano has long been inactive and has been eroded. Diverse flora and fauna can be found surrounding Three Fingered Jack; the area around the volcano was inhabited by the Molala people, one of the indigenous groups in the northwestern United States. Not much is known about their culture, other than that the group fished for salmon and collected berries, fruits and dried herbs; the first person of non-indigenous descent to reach the area was David Douglas in 1825, followed by Peter Skene Ogden the following year.
The first group to ascend the volcano reached its summit in September 1923. Three Fingered Jack can be still be climbed, but when its face becomes foggy, climbers can become disoriented due to the low visibility conditions of climbing the mountain, requiring rescue. Three Fingered Jack lies in the U. S. state of Oregon, in Linn and Jefferson counties. It has a volume of 2.4 cubic miles and a summit elevation of 7,844 feet, with a proximal topographic relief of 1,300 feet and a draping relief of 4,600 feet. Its jagged edifice rises between the Three Sisters volcanic complex. Three Fingered Jack lies within the Mount Jefferson Wilderness and is not accessible by paved road, but can be approached by the Pacific Crest Trail. Located about 20 miles northwest of the city of Sisters, it acts as a prominent landmark in the area; the Mount Jefferson Wilderness lies within the Willamette National Forest and Deschutes National Forest. The wilderness area covers 111,177 acres, with more than 150 lakes, it has 190 miles of trails, including 40 miles of the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.
Three Fingered Jack and Mount Jefferson are both prominent features of the wilderness area. During the last major advance of glacial ice in the area during the Wisconsin glaciation and terminal moraines formed, along with glacial striations, altered vegetation patterns, lithologies that suggest glacial transport of material; the sole glacier remaining on the volcano is the unofficially-named Jack glacier, located in a shaded cirque on the northeast side. Because the glacier is covered by tall ridges to the south and west, it resides at an unusually low altitude for the central Oregon Cascades. Jack glacier has an area of 2.5 acres, though it has reached estimated areas of up to 32 acres. It is stagnant. During the Little Ice Age, which spanned 1350 to 1850, the glacier produced moraines with heights close to 200 feet, which are dotted with 1⁄2 to 1 foot of ash from the Sand Mountain cinder cone chain and 1 foot of ash from the Blue Lake Crater cinder cone; as of 1993, the moraine for Jack glacier dammed a lake with a volume of 940,000 cubic feet, a surface area of 65,900 square feet, a maximum depth of 26 feet.
Though this lake did not appear on United States Geological Survey topographic maps made during the 1920s, its presence was documented by a report in 1937. The lake sits precariously. Before September of 1960, there was a partial breach of this moraine-dammed lake that covered an area of 4,600 square miles near the moraine's base. Since 1960, there have been at least two incidents in which moraine-dammed lakes on the volcano have caused floods down the slopes. Local soil is thin, it has been buried by a layer of weathered, Holocene tephra from Three Fingered Jack, which has a maximum thickness of 3.3 feet. Along the volcano and its hiking trails, Douglas fir, Alpine fir, blue spruce, mountain hemlock, bear grass can be found; the Cascade parsley fern can be found at Three Fingered Jack between elevations of 6,500 to 7,000 feet. There are mountain goats in the surrounding wilderness area. Carnivorous animals in the surrounding area include American black bears, cougars, red foxes, American martens, long-tailed weasels, American minks, North American river otters, bobcats.
Deer species include Roosevelt elk, black-tailed deer, mule deer. Bats at Jefferson include little brown bats and silver-haired bats, American pikas and snowshoe hares are present. Rodents such as yellow-bellied marmots, mountain beavers, yellow-pine chipmunks, Townsend's chipmunks, golden-mantled ground squirrels, western gray squirrels, Douglas squirrels, mountain pocket gophers, North American beavers, deer mice, bushy-tailed woodrats, water voles, Pacific jumping mice, North American porcupines are present. Birds nearby include mallards, northern goshawks, sharp-shinned hawks, red-tailed hawks, dusky grouses, grey partridges, spotted sandpipers, California gulls, band-tailed pigeons, great horned owls, mountain pygmy owls, common nighthawks, rufous hummingbirds, Northern flickers, pileated woodpeckers, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, hairy woodpeckers, white-headed woodpeckers. Other bird species found in the area consist of Eurasian three-toed woodpeckers, willow flycatchers, olive-sided flycatchers