West Sumatra is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island of Sumatra, the latest official estimate for January 2014 shows a population of 5,098,790. West Sumatra is sub-divided into 12 regencies and seven cities and it has relatively more cities than other provinces in Indonesia, except Java province. It borders the provinces of North Sumatra to the north and Jambi to the east and it includes the Mentawai Islands off the coast. The history of West Sumatra is related to the history of the Minangkabau people, archaeological evidence indicates that the area surrounding the Limapuluh Koto regency forms the first area inhabited by the Minangkabau. Limapuluh Koto regency covers a number of rivers which meet at the eastern part of the Sumatran coastline. The Minangkabau ancestors were believed to have arrived via this route and they sailed from Asia via the South China Sea, crossing the Malacca Strait and settled along the Kampar and Indragiri rivers. Some lived and developed their culture and traits around the Limapuluh Koto regency, the first westerner to reach West Sumatra was the French explorer Jean Parmentier in 1529.
However, the westerners who came for economic and political reasons were the Dutch, the Dutch commercial fleet was seen along the southern coast of West Sumatra between 1595 and 1598. Apart from the Dutch, other European nationalities came to the such as the Portuguese. The integration with migrants in the ensuing periods introduced cultural changes and their settlement area gradually became diminished and eventually they spread to other parts of West Sumatra. A portion of them went to the Agam regency while others went to the now Tanah Datar regency, from those areas onward, further spread of the population occurred north of the Agam regency, in particular, the Lubuk Sikaping. Most of them settled in the area such as the coastline and some in the southern parts in Solok, Selayo. The history of the West Sumatra Province became more accessible at the time of the rule by Adityawarman and this ruler left considerable amount of evidence of himself, although he did not proclaim that he was the Minangkabau King.
Adityawarman ruled Pagaruyung, a region believed by the Minangkabau to be the center of its culture, Adityawarman was the most important figure in Minangkabau history. Apart from introducing a government system by a monarch, he contributed significantly to the Minangkabau world. His most important contribution was the spread of Buddhism and this religion had a very strong influence in the Minangkabau life. The evidence of such influence found in West Sumatra today includes names such as Saruaso, Padang Barhalo, Biaro, since the death of Adityawarman in the middle of the 17th century the history of West Sumatra seems more complex
Austrian National Library
The Austrian National Library is the largest library in Austria, with 7.4 million items in its various collections. The library is located in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, since 2005, some of the collections have been relocated within the baroque structure of the Palais Mollard-Clary. Founded by the Habsburgs, the library was called the Hof-Bibliothek. The library complex includes four museums, as well as special collections. The institution has its origin in the library of the Middle Ages. During the Medieval period, the Austrian Duke Albert III shifted the books of the Viennese vaults into a library, Albert organized important works from Latin to be translated into German. In the Hofburg, the treasure of Archduke Albert III had been kept in sacristies inside the tower of the imperial chapel. The Archduke was a connoisseur of art, he supported the University of Vienna, and he founded a royal workshop for illustrating manuscripts. On scenes depicting the lives of the four Evangelists, four coats of arms show the House of Austria, Tirol and Carinthia, frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, had the goal of summarizing the art treasures among the Habsburg possessions.
Among other things, he brought some valuable books into the Vienna, among them the Prager Wenzelsbibel and the document of the golden bull. Through his marriage with Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor came into the possession of important books from Burgundy and north France, with a value at that time estimated at 100,000 guldens, these books represented about an eighth of Marys dowry. Also Maximilians second wife, Bianca Maria Sforza, brought into the marriage as dowry, among other things, the books of the library, at that time, were kept partially in Wiener Neustadt, partially in Vienna, and partially in Innsbruck. After the death of Maximilian, the books were sent into the palace at Innsbruck, besides the valuable books from the public treasury, the Bibliotheca Regia during the 16th century, which collected and categorized scientific works, developed in Vienna. Besides books, that contained globes and atlases. The library had expanded, in the course of the time, as the first head librarian, Hugo Blotius was appointed in 1575 by Emperor Maximilian II.
His most important task was drawing up the inventory of the library, as a consequence, new works were added systematically, and other libraries were incorporated. For the first time on 26 August 1624, the delivery was regulated by obligation copies to the library, the Imperial Library grew by purchases. Particularly, the library of Philipp Eduard Fugger led to a major expansion, from the Fugger library, the library currently has about 17,000 sheets of one of the first periodic printing elements, the Fugger newspapers
Duyfken, spelled Duifken or Duijfken, was a small ship built in the Dutch Republic. She was a fast, lightly armed ship probably intended for water, small valuable cargoes, bringing messages, sending provisions. The tonnage of Duyfken has been given as 25-30 lasten, in 1606, during a voyage of discovery from Bantam, captained by Willem Janszoon, she encountered the Australian mainland. Janszoon is credited with the first authenticated European discovery of Australia, in 1608, the ship was damaged beyond repair. A reproduction of Duyfken was built in Australia and launched in 1999, in 1596, a ship named Duyfken sailed in the first expedition to Bantam, the crew was captured by the islanders on Pulau Enggano. On 23 April 1601, Duyfken sailed from Texel as the jacht, or scout and they engaged this fleet in intermittent battle, driving them away on New Years Day 1602. Thus, the dominance of the Iberians in the spice trade to Europe was ended. Then, sailing by way of Tuban, East Java to the Spice Island of Ternate, cloves were loaded on board and the ship returned to Banda for a cargo of nutmeg.
The Duyfken was sent on a voyage of exploration to the east when the newly formed United Dutch East India Company was granted a monopoly on trade to the Spice Islands by the Dutch government. On 18 December 1603, the Duyfken, with Willem Janszoon as skipper, the VOC fleet captured a Portuguese ship in Mozambique Channel and sailed to the Spice Islands via Goa, Calicut and finally reaching Bantam, Java on New Years Eve 1604. In 1605, the Duyfken was in the fleet that recaptured the fort of Van Verre at Ambon in the Spice Islands and she was sent to Bantam, Java for urgently needed provisions. In 1605, the Dutch East India Company sent the Duyfken, captained by Willem Janszoon, to search for opportunities in the south. In early 1606, Janszoon encountered and charted the shores of Australias Cape York Peninsula, the ship made landfall at the Pennefather River in the Gulf of Carpentaria. This was the first authenticated landing on Australian soil and for the first time all the continents of the world were known to the European science of geography.
Janszoon is thus credited with the first authenticated European discovery of Australia, the ship sailed back to Bantam. In 1607, the Duyfken may have made a voyage east to Australia. Later in the year, she was sent to Java to get supplies for the beleaguered Dutch fortress on Ternate, in February or March 1608, the Duyfken was involved in hunting Chinese junks north of Ternate. In May 1608, the ship was engaged in a battle with three Spanish galleys
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Steven van der Hagen
Steven van der Hagen was the first admiral of the Dutch East India Company. He made three visits to the East Indies, spending six years in all there and he was appointed to the Raad van Indië. Laurens Reael and Steven van der Hagen wrote with disapproval on how the Heren XVII treated the interests, finally they both considered that it might be unjust and unwise to exclude Asian traders, whether Chinese, Malay or Javanese, from the Moluccas by force. Steven van der Hagen was born around 1563 in Amersfoort and was brought up by an aunt, Steven was given a good education which included Latin. When he was ten he went to visit his father Andries van der Hagen in Bruges, Steven began work at a silkworkers shop on the market square, before returning to Ypres to receive further education from his uncle Willem van der Hagen. At 12, Steven developed a great interest in Spain and he traveled to Calais on foot to catch a ship there, a ships captain heard that Steven was not a Fleming and asked him if he had run away from home.
Once they got into conversation, Steven found out that five Antwerp merchants were traveling to Spain on this ship, Steven made a good impression on one of the merchants, who thought him wellbred, and offered to take him to Seville with him. For reasons of security, Steven did not use his surname so that nobody would connect him to his well-known uncle. A few days Steven was discovered by his cousin, who told him to go home, the ship left within a few days on the easterly wind. Steven was taken on by a shopkeeper in linen in Sanlúcar, Steven stayed for two years, until he spoke Spanish well. On a walk through Seville, he met one of the merchants who had him to Spain. Steven refused to re-enter his service and instead moved to Jerez de la Frontera, on the way he stayed with a shepherd, who offered him goats milk and cheese. In Jerez, Steven met Don Garcia dAvila, who gave him accommodation in his palace, Steven watched bullfights in the market square and horse-mounted fights in the streets. Steven met a captain from Medemblik, many of whose crew had died of diarrhea.
The ship took on a cargo of salt and set off in convoy, when Steven got back to the Netherlands, he returned to Amersfoort and heard that his mother had died and his father had remarried. With the money he inherited he travelled to Italy, in 1587 his ship was lost in Cadiz in the raid by Francis Drake. He succeeded to get back to Hoorn and in 1589, he married Stephania van der Made in Amsterdam in a ceremony before the schepenen. Their church marriage took place a few months in Utrecht and pioneer of the so-called Straatvaart to Spain by Northern Netherlandish ship owners
Prince Eugene of Savoy
Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV. Based on his physique and bearing, the Prince was initially prepared for a career in the church. Following a scandal involving his mother Olympe, he was rejected by Louis XIV for service in the French army, Eugene moved to Austria and transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy. Spanning six decades, Eugene served three Holy Roman Emperors, Leopold I, Joseph I, and Charles VI, the Princes fame was secured with his decisive victory against the Ottomans at the Battle of Zenta in 1697, earning him Europe-wide fame. Renewed hostilities against the Ottomans in the Austro-Turkish War consolidated his reputation, with victories at the battles of Petrovaradin, nevertheless, in Austria, Eugenes reputation remains unrivalled. Eugene died in his sleep at his home on 21 April 1736, Prince Eugene was born in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris on 18 October 1663. His mother, Olympia Mancini, was one of Cardinal Mazarins nieces whom he had brought to Paris from Rome in 1647 to further his, the Mancinis were raised at the Palais-Royal along with the young Louis XIV, with whom Olympia formed an intimate relationship.
Yet to her disappointment, her chance to become queen passed by. The King remained strongly attached to Olympia, so much so that many believed them to be lovers, after falling out of favour at court, Olympia turned to Catherine Deshayes, and the arts of black magic and astrology. Embroiled in the affaire des poisons, suspicions now abounded of her involvement in her husbands death in 1673. From the age of ten, Eugene had been brought up for a career in the church, in February 1683, to the surprise of his family, Eugene declared his intention of joining the army. The request was modest, not so the petitioner, he remarked, no one else ever presumed to stare me out so insolently. Denied a military career in France, Eugene decided to service abroad. One of Eugenes brothers, Louis Julius, had entered Imperial service the previous year, when news of his death reached Paris, Eugene decided to travel to Austria in the hope of taking over his brothers command. It was not a decision, his cousin, Louis of Baden, was already a leading general in the Imperial army, as was a more distant cousin, Maximilian II Emanuel.
On the night of July 26,1683, Eugene left Paris, by May 1683, the Ottoman threat to Emperor Leopold Is capital, was very real. With the Turks at the gates, the Emperor fled for the refuge of Passau up the Danube. It was at Leopold Is camp that Eugene arrived in mid-August, although Eugene was not of Austrian extraction, he did have Habsburg antecedents
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
The Javanese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With approximately 100 million people, they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia and they are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most Provinces of Indonesia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, the Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram, Osing, Samin, Banyumasan, etc. A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent. Hindu and Buddhist - traders and visitors, arrived in the 5th century, the Hindu and Javanese faiths blended into a unique local philosophy. The cradle of Javanese culture is described as being in Kedu. The earliest Sanjaya and Sailendra dynasties had their base there. The move was most likely caused by the eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.
The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in the late 13th century, the expansionist king launched several major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284, Borneo and most importantly to Sumatra in 1275. Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca, Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediris rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwangs reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegaras son-in-law, Raden Wijaya would establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies were continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk. Various kingdoms of Java were actively involved in the trade in the sea route of the Silk Road. Although not major producers, these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with rice. Majapahit is usually regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms and it was both an agrarian and a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade.
The ruin of their capital can be found in Trowulan, Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Javas northern coast such as Gresik, Ampel Denta, Tuban and Kudus. The spread and proselytising of Islam among the Javanese was traditionally credited to Wali Songo, Java underwent major changes as Islam spread. Following succession disputes and civil wars, Majapahit power collapsed, after this collapse, its various dependencies and vassals broke free
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 and is mountainous, well watered, Ambon Island consists of two territories. The main city and seaport is Ambon, which is the capital of Maluku province, Ambon Island lies off the southwest coast of the much larger Seram island. It is on the side of the Banda Sea, part of a chain of volcanic islands that encircle the sea. It is 51 kilometres long and is of irregular shape. The southeastern and smaller portion, a peninsula is united to the northern by a neck of land. Ambon city is on the northwest of Leitimor, facing Hitoe, the highest mountains, Wawani at 1,100 metres and Salahutu at 1,225 metres, have hot springs and solfataras. They are volcanoes, and the mountains of the neighboring Lease Islands are extinct volcanoes and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboina Bay are of chalk and contain stalactite caves. Wild areas of Ambon Island are covered by tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, as a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals, birds are more abundant.
The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich, seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. The population of the island, including a tiny sparsely populated island to the north, is just below 441,000 in the 2010 Census, the average temperature is 27 °C, rarely falling below 22 °C. Rainfall can be heavy, especially after the monsoons. The wet season coincides with the period of the west monsoon and sago are the chief crops, which include breadfruit, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In addition to these and fishing supplement the local diet and cloves were once the dominant export crops but are now produced in limited quantities. Amboina wood, obtained from the tree and highly valued for ornamental woodwork, is now mostly grown on Seram. The main employers in Ambon Island are the Gubernatorial Office, the Mayoral Office, Raiders 733, the whole economy of Ambon Island is starting to shift out of the Old Towne toward Passo, which is the newly appointed central business district of the island region.
The economy of Ambon Island was recently boosted by the investment made by Ciputra Group in creating a new satellite city in Lateri, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku. Furthermore, the new international standard shopping center, Ambon City Center, the Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin