The Willi Willi National Park is a protected national park located on the North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1996, the 29,870-hectare park is situated 325 kilometres northeast of Sydney and 60 kilometres west of Wauchope; the park is part of the Hastings-Macleay group World Heritage Site Gondwana Rainforests of Australia inscribed in 1986 and added to the Australian National Heritage List in 2007. The park is quite noticeable from nearby Port Macquarie as a tall escarpment to the north west; the park is between the Macleay River and Hastings River valleys and includes Kemps Pinnacle and Mount Banda Banda, both over 1,100 metres above sea level. Protected areas of New South Wales Willi Willi National Park at the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service
No. 457 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force fighter squadron of World War II. Equipped with Supermarine Spitfire fighters, it was formed in England during June 1941 under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme; the squadron was transferred to Australia in June 1942 and saw combat in the South West Pacific Area before being disbanded in November 1945. The squadron saw the Empire of Japan during the war. From March to May 1942 it was based in southern England and flew missions over German-occupied France during which it shot down at least five Luftwaffe aircraft. After being deployed to Australia, No. 457 Squadron was based near Darwin as part of No. 1 Wing RAAF and intercepted several Japanese raids on Allied bases in northern Australia between March and November 1943. The squadron remained at Darwin and saw no combat during 1944, but moved to Morotai and Labuan in 1945 from where it attacked Japanese positions in the Netherlands East Indies and Borneo as part of Allied offensives in these areas.
No. 457 Squadron was formed at RAF Baginton in England on 16 June 1941. It was equipped with Supermarine Spitfires and was the second RAAF fighter unit to be formed in England after No. 452 Squadron. The establishment of both these squadrons formed part of an expansion of RAF Fighter Command which sought to improve its ability to defend Britain from a renewed German air offensive and to conduct offensive operations over occupied Europe. At the time of its formation the squadron's commanding officer, Squadron Leader Peter Malam Brothers, both flight commanders and all members of the ground crew were British, but most pilots were Australian; the squadron's ground crew component had been formed at RAAF Station Williamtown in Australia on 10 June, departed for England on 7 August. On the same day No. 457 Squadron moved to RAF Jurby and thence to RAF Andreas, which were both situated on the Isle of Man to undertake training. While at the Isle of Man the squadron trained both its own pilots and pilots from other squadrons for operational duties, for a time functioned as an operational training unit at RAF Andreas.
It escorted Allied convoys in the Irish Sea, but did not make contact with German aircraft. By October all the British pilots other than Brothers and the flight commanders had been replaced by Australians; the squadron's ground crew arrived in Britain during October and November, making it an entirely Australian unit. In March 1942 the squadron moved to RAF Redhill, Surrey where it assumed No. 452 Squadron's front line duties as part of No. 11 Group RAF. These included shipping protection patrols, escorting bombers, conducting fighter sweeps over northern France and contributing to the air defence of southern England. Fighter Command had received authorisation to launch a full-scale offensive campaign against German air units shortly before No. 457 Squadron arrived at Redhill, it became part of this effort. The squadron first saw action on 26 March when Brothers shot down a Bf 109 during a multi-squadron fighter sweep over France, though one of its Spitfires was lost in this action. By the end of its first week of operations No. 457 Squadron had shot down three German aircraft and inflicted damage on several others and it went on to conduct 32 operations over German territory by 26 April.
These operations encountered fierce opposition, German Fw 190 fighters proved superior to the Spitfire Mark Vs that No. 457 Squadron was equipped with. The squadron scored its last victory over Europe on 29 April, though fighter sweeps over France continued until the end of May. On 28 May 1942 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to an Australian Government request to dispatch three equipped Spitfire squadrons to Australia to reinforce the RAAF; the squadrons selected were the Australian No. 452 and No. 457 Squadrons as well as the British No. 54 Squadron RAF. Accordingly, No. 457 Squadron was withdrawn from operations on 28 May to prepare to be redeployed to Australia. By this time its pilots had been credited with five confirmed "kills" and another four "probables" and damaging seven aircraft. On 20 June the squadron left England on board the MV Stirling Castle, carrying the men of No. 452 and No. 54 Squadrons. The Stirling Castle arrived at Melbourne on 13 August. After being given 14 days leave the squadron's personnel reassembled at Richmond, New South Wales on 6 September.
On 7 October it became part of No. 1 Wing RAAF along with No. 54 and No. 452 Squadrons. Most of the Spitfires intended for the wing had been diverted to the Middle East during the voyage to Australia and the squadron only had CAC Wirraway and Ryan ST aircraft for training purposes. No. 457 Squadron was equipped with Spitfires by November and moved to Camden on the 7th of the month where it continued an intensive training program. In December the squadron was informed that it would be deployed to Darwin in the Northern Territory to counter the Japanese air raids against the town; the squadron's advance party departed on 31 December, the main body followed by sea on 12 January 1943. No. 457 Squadron commenced air operations from Batchelor Airfield on 20 January and moved to Livingstone Airfield on the last day of the month. No. 457 Squadron first saw combat against the Japanese in March 1943. Although the squadron was scrambled a number of times in February, it did not claim its first "kill" until 7 March when two Spitfires shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" reconnaissance aircraft near Darwin.
On 15 March No. 1 Wing's three squadrons intercepted a large raid on Darwin, No. 457 Squadron shot down two A6M Zeros and damaged another of the fighters. The squadron was credited with damaging a Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bomber and claimed another three Zeros as "proba
Nicholas Woodfen born Nicholas Wheeler known as Nicholas Devereux, was an English Roman Catholic priest, hanged and quartered at Tyburn, London on 21 January 1586. He is considered a Catholic martyr and one of the Eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales who were executed between 1584 and 1679, he was beatified on 22 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II. Nicholas Wheeler was born in Leominster, around 1550, was educated at the Leominster Grammar School. Wheeler arrived at the English College at Douai, in April 1577, when the college relocated to Rheims in 1579, he adopted the surname of Woodfen. Woodfen was ordained by the Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne on 25 March 1581, he returned to England the following June as a missionary at the Inns of Court in London. He was indicted under the name Nicholas Devereux under 27 Eliz. C 2, he was hung and quartered on 21 January 1586 at Tyburn in London, along with Edward Stransham for being a priest and his missionary work. Woodfen was venerated on 10 November 1986 by Pope John Paul II and beatified on 22 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II.
Douai Martyrs Eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales
One Hour Mama is the first album by Lavay Smith & Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers. The album was recorded at Bay Records, California. Lavay Smith & Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers Lavay Smith – vocals Chris Seibert – piano, arranger Charlie Seibert – guitar Larry Leight – trombone Bing Nathan – string bass Dan Foltz – drums Bill Stewart – alto saxophone, tenor saxophone Harvey Robb – alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, clarinet Noel Jewkes – tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, clarinet Production Chris Seibert – production, mixing Mike Cogan – engineer, mixing Bing Nathan – mixing Katherine Miller – cover photography Greg Reeves – design and artwork "Lavay Smith & Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers". Lavay Smith official webpage. Retrieved April 12, 2017. "One Hour Mama - Lavay Smith & Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers". AllMusic. Retrieved October 31, 2011
The United Kingdom is committed to binding greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets of 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels, as set out in the Climate Change Act 2008. Decarbonisation of electricity generation will form a major part of this reduction and is essential before other sectors of the economy can be decarbonised; the Government’s proposals for electricity market reform, published in a White Paper in July 2011, included three initiatives to encourage decarbonisation of electricity generation in the UK: A Carbon Price Floor to complement the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. In implementing these proposals, the Government aims to attract investment in low-carbon generation, deliver security of supply through an appropriate mix of electricity sources and ensure a minimum amount of impact on consumer bills; the Government published Planning Our Electric Future: A White Paper for Secure and Low-Carbon Electricity in July 2011. The paper contained three proposals designed to encourage decarbonisation of the UK electricity sector, the rationale behind the introduction and potential impacts of a Carbon Price Floor, Feed-in tariffs and an Emissions Performance Standard are discussed in turn below.
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is a cap and trade system covering the European electricity generation sector and energy intensive industries. Introduced in 2005, it provides a mechanism through which the European price of carbon can be increased to take into account negative externalities, such as the social and environmental impact of emissions, which would not be considered; the inability of the market to reflect the full cost of carbon is known as a market failure. The importance of accounting for the full cost of carbon in investment decisions was highlighted by the influential Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change which found that the cost of taking action to reduce emissions now is much less than the cost to the economy if no action is taken and adaptation is required at a date; the EU ETS operates by setting an overall cap on emissions and allocating tradable permits to participants in the scheme. If a participant wishes to emit more than their allocation they must purchase additional permits from a participant who does not require their full allocation.
The price of carbon is escalated by reducing the amount of credits in circulation increasing the incentive for businesses to seek low-carbon alternatives. Rather than forcing all participants to reduce emissions by a set amount and trade systems allow individual organisations to respond in the most effective way, whether by reducing emissions or buying extra permits, thereby reducing the overall cost of achieving emissions reductions. In practice however, whilst providing certainty over the pace and scale of EU emissions reductions, the EU ETS has failed to raise the price of carbon sufficiently to steer behaviour away from carbon-intensive practices; this failure can be attributed to the presence of a surplus amount of credits in the system, both due to the application of the principle of precedent, whereby free permits were allocated to actors whose business is dependent on producing emissions, a lack of data on actual emissions when the original cap was set. The failures identified are not failures of the cap and trade system itself, rather failures in its implementation.
Emissions trading remains the Government’s preferred option for reducing emissions, an approach supported by the Stern Review. Steps can be taken to improve the effectiveness of the EU ETS, in fact, the presence of surplus credits would start to be addressed from 2013, after which the cap will be tightened each year and the number of credits in the system reduced. However, given that the initial cap appears to have been set too high, the carbon price may remain low, subject to volatility, for some time after this date until the cap is tightened sufficiently. Due in part to failures in the implementation of the EU ETS and a discrepancy between EU and UK emissions reduction targets, the EU scheme is not consistent with the pace and scale of change required to meet UK decarbonisation targets; as such, the carbon price set by the EU ETS has not been certain or high enough to encourage sufficient investment in low-carbon electricity generation in the UK. The UK Government has therefore identified that additional incentives are required to ensure that progress towards meeting the UK emissions reduction targets continues to be made.
Furthermore the measures should be coherent with the EU ETS so that the UK can continue operating within the scheme until an additional incentive is no longer required. The introduction of the Carbon Price Floor is intended to achieve these aims. Setting a Carbon Price Floor will prevent the price of carbon in the UK falling below a target level by topping up the carbon price set by the EU ETS when necessary; the target level chosen by the Government must be high enough to provide a strong signal to investors that low-carbon electricity generation represents a secure, long-term investment. A secondary aim is to encourage a change in dispatch decisions for existing generation, favouring the use of less carbon-intensive generation over more traditional forms when both are available; the carbon price floor is intended to provide greater certainty on future carbon prices, protecting investors in UK low-carbon initiatives from
Brompton Road is a disused station on the Piccadilly line of the London Underground, located between Knightsbridge and South Kensington stations. It was closed in 1934, nearly 28 years after being opened by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway company. During the Second World War it was used as the command centre of the 26th Anti-Aircraft Brigade. In 2014, the owner of the site, the Ministry of Defence, sold it to a Ukrainian businessman, Dmytro Firtash, who claimed an intention to convert it to residential use. Brompton Road was opened on 15 December 1906 by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway; the station was located at the junction of Cottage Place. Although it was conveniently situated for both the Brompton Oratory and the Victoria and Albert Museum, it saw little passenger usage and by October 1909 some services passed through without stopping; the station closed on 4 May 1926 due to the general strike and did not reopen until 4 October of that year with services only calling there on weekdays.
Sunday services were restored on 2 January 1927. As before, Brompton Road was little used, to the extent that two of its lifts were removed and relocated elsewhere and the ticket office was closed; when the adjacent Knightsbridge station was modernised with escalators replacing lifts, it was provided with a new southern entrance, built closer to Brompton Road station, reducing its catchment area. When the new entrance for Knightsbridge opened on 30 July 1934, Brompton Road closed. Just prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, the street-level building together with the lift shafts and lower western passages were sold to the War Office for a sum of £22,000 for use by the 26th Anti-Aircraft Brigade of the 1st Anti-Aircraft Division. During the War, it was the Royal Artillery's anti-aircraft operations room for central London; this use was discontinued in the 1950s. It was subsequently used as the town headquarters of the University of London Air Squadron, the University of London Royal Naval Unit and 46F Squadron Air Training Corps.
Like the others on the GNP&BR, the station building was designed by Leslie Green. The surface building occupied an L-shaped site built on two adjacent sides of a public house which occupied the corner of Brompton Road and Cottage Place; the façades were of Green's standard red-glazed terracotta design with semi-circular arches at first floor level. The entrance and exits to the lifts were on Brompton Road with the Cottage Place elevation providing staff access; the Brompton Road elevation was demolished in 1972, but the Cottage Place elevation remains, now incorporated into a larger building. Although the platforms have long since been removed, their original location can be seen from passing trains by the brick walls that stand in their place; the original tiling remains on the tunnel walls, although dirt now obscures them. In 2011 proposals from The Old London Underground Company were made suggesting the parts the station which were used during World War 2 be opened to the public, with the remainder of the above-ground buildings becoming a restaurant, the rest of the underground space being turned-over to the London Fire Brigade Museum.
In July 2013, the Ministry of Defence announced the site was for sale, with an expected price of about £20 million. The MoD's property surveyor said specialist developers could adapt the 28,000 square feet site but stated "a lot of work was needed". In May 2014 the site was sold for £53 million to Dmytro Firtash, a billionaire Ukrainian businessman who claimed an intention to convert it to residential use; the property remained unused as of October 2017. A 1928 comedy play by Jevan Brandon-Thomas was about a woman who lived near Brompton Road and felt that life was passing her by just as the non-stopping trains were, so it was titled Passing Brompton Road; the London production starring Marie Tempest ran for 174 performances. In 2008 another play used the station. Sailing By, by Anthony Chew, took place on the long-closed platform, where two people sit and talk while Death stalks them. "Brompton Road Station – once upon a time". Brompton Road. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. "Brompton Road".
Disused stations. Subterranea Britannica. Archived from the original on 17 August 2000. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Original station building shortly after opening Mansfield, Ian. "Photos of the MoD side of the station taken in 2011". IanVisits. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011