A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Sibylle of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
Sibylle of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Margravine of Burgau was the daughter of Duke William the Rich and his second wife, Archduchess Maria of Austria. Her brother John William inherited the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg in 1592. After he had developed a mental illness, a power struggle broke out at court between Sibylle and her sister-in-law Jakobea of Baden. Sibylle won, imprisoned Jakobea. Sibylle may have been responsible for Jakobea's violent death in 1597. In 1601, Sibylle married Margrave Charles of Burgau. In 1610, the couple moved into the residence at Günzburg. Here, she entertained a feudal court after her husband died in 1618, she acted in particular as patron of music. Sibylle was buried next to her husband in the Capuchin Church in Günzburg; when the church was demolished, her remains were transferred to the St. Martin's Church in Günzburg. Hans Frei und Barbara Beck: Lebensbilder. Geschichte und Kunst in Bildnissen aus Schwaben, Oberschönenfeld, 2002, p. 170 Women in power
John III, Duke of Cleves
John III the Peaceful, Duke of Cleves and Count of Mark was a son of John II, Duke of Cleves and Mathilde of Hesse, daughter of Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse. John III became Regent of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg in 1521, Lord of Ravensberg in 1528. John represented a compensatory attitude, which strove for a via media, a middle way, between the two confessions during the Protestant Reformation. Despite what others may have thought, not all Germanic princely houses were Lutheran Protestant. In fact the real influence at the court of Cleves was Erasmus. Many of his men were followers of this well-educated Dutch scholar and theologian; when Duke John decided to write up a list of church regulations, Erasmus was the first person the Duke went to for consultation and approval. Duke John had an instinct for balance as was shown when he married his eldest daughter Sybille to John Frederick of Saxony. John Frederick would go on to head the Schmalkaldic League. In many ways John of Cleves' court was ideal for raising a Queen.
It was fundamentally liberal, but theologically inclined, profoundly Erasmian. It was from this court. Anne would go on to marry King Henry VIII of England as his fourth wife. In 1509, he married Maria of Jülich-Berg, daughter of Duke William IV of Jülich-Berg and Sybilla of Brandenburg, who became heiress to her father's estates Jülich and Ravensberg, they had the following children: Sybille, married John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany, "Champion of the Reformation". Had issue. Anne, married to Henry VIII, King of England, as his fourth wife. No issue. William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, married Maria, Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor. Had issue. Amalia of Cleves
Jeanne d'Albret known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France, she became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage. Jeanne was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, a key figure in the French Wars of Religion. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot side. During the first and second war she remained neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the de facto leader of the Huguenot-controlled city. After negotiating a peace treaty with Catherine de' Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherine's daughter, Marguerite de Valois, she died in Paris. Jeanne was the last active ruler of Navarre, her son inherited her kingdom, but as he was leading the Huguenot forces, he entrusted the government of Béarn to his sister, Catherine de Bourbon, who held the regency for more than two decades.
In 1620, Jeanne's grandson Louis XIII annexed Navarre to the French crown. Jeanne was born in the palace of the royal court at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France at five o'clock in the afternoon on 16 November 1528, the daughter of Henry II, King of Navarre, by his wife Marguerite of Angoulême, her mother, the daughter of Louise of Savoy and Charles, Count of Angoulême, was the sister of Francis I of France and had been married to Charles IV, Duke of Alençon. She was a writer of some talent. Jeanne's birth was announced the following 7 January when King Francis gave his permission for the addition of a new master in all cities where there were incorporated guilds "in honour of the birth of Jeanne de Navarre, the king's niece". Since the age of two, as was the will of her uncle King Francis who took over her education, Jeanne was raised in the Château de Plessis-lèz-Tours in the Loire Valley, thus living apart from her parents, she received an excellent education under the tutelage of humanist Nicolas Bourbon.
Described as a "frivolous and high-spirited princess", she at an early age, displayed a tendency to be both stubborn and unyielding. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, offered to have her married to his son and heir, Philip, to settle the status of the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1541, when Jeanne was 12, Francis I, for political reasons, forced her to marry William "the Rich", Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, the brother of Anne of Cleves, the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England. Despite having been whipped into obedience, she continued to protest and had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, Anne de Montmorency. A description of Jeanne's appearance at her wedding revealed that she was sumptuously attired, wearing a golden crown, a silver and gold skirt encrusted with precious stones, a crimson satin cloak richly trimmed with ermine. Before her wedding, Jeanne signed two documents which she had officers of her household sign, declaring: "I, Jeanne de Navarre, persisting in the protestations I have made, do hereby again affirm and protest by these present, that the marriage which it is desired to contract between the duke of Cleves and myself, is against my will.
She remained at the royal court. After the death of Francis in 1547 and the accession of Henry II to the French throne, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, "first prince of the blood", at Moulins in the Bourbonnais on 20 October 1548; the marriage was intended to consolidate territorial possessions in the south of France. Jeanne's marriage to Antoine was described by author Mark Strage as having been a "romantic match". A contemporary of Jeanne said of her that she had "no pleasure or occupation except in talking about or writing to, she does it in company and in private... the waters cannot quench the flame of her love". Antoine was a notorious philanderer. In 1554, he fathered an illegitimate son, Charles, by Louise de La Béraudière de l'Isle Rouhet, a court beauty known as "La belle Rouet". Antoine's frequent absences left Jeanne in Béarn to rule alone, in complete charge of a household which she managed with a firm and resolute hand; the couple had five children, of whom only two, king of France and king of Navarre, Catherine of Navarre, Duchess of Lorraine, lived to adulthood.
On 25 May 1555, Henry II of Navarre died, at which time Jeanne and her husband became joint rulers of Navarre. On accession to the throne, she inherited a conflict over Navarre and an independent territorial hold on Lower Navarre and the principality of Béarn, as well as other dependencies suzerain to the Crown of France. On 18 August 1555 at Pau and Antoine were crowned in a joint ceremony according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church; the previous month, a coronation coin commemorating the new reign had been minted. It was inscribed in Latin with the following words: Antonius et Johanna Dei gratia reges Navarrae Domini Bearni. Jeanne was influenced by her mother, who died in 1549, with leanings toward religious reform, humanist thinking, individual liberty; this legacy was influential in her decision to convert to Calvinism. In the first year of her reign, Qu
Anne of Cleves
Anne of Cleves was Queen of England from 6 January to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared unconsummated and, as a result, she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment, she was given a generous settlement by the King, thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister, she lived outliving the rest of Henry's wives. Anne was born on 22 September 1515 in Düsseldorf, the second daughter of John III of the House of La Marck, Duke of Jülich jure uxoris, Berg jure uxoris, Count of Mark known as de la Marck and Ravensberg jure uxoris who died in 1538, his wife Maria, Duchess of Julich-Berg, she grew up living in Schloss Burg on the edge of Solingen. Anne's father followed a moderate path within the Reformation, he sided with the Schmalkaldic League and opposed Emperor Charles V. After John's death, Anne's brother William became Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, bearing the promising epithet "The Rich". In 1526, her elder sister Sibylle was married to John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany and considered the "Champion of the Reformation".
At the age of 11, Anne was betrothed to Francis and heir of the Duke of Lorraine while he was only 10. Thus the betrothal was considered unofficial and was cancelled in 1535, her brother William was a Lutheran but the family was unaligned religiously with her mother, the Duchess Maria, described as a "strict Catholic". The Duke's ongoing dispute over Gelderland with Emperor Charles V made them suitable allies for England's King Henry VIII in the wake of the Truce of Nice; the match with Anne was urged on the King by Thomas Cromwell. The artist Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Düren to paint portraits of Anne and her younger sister, each of whom Henry was considering as his fourth wife. Henry required the artist to be as accurate as possible; the two versions of Holbein's portrait are in the Musée du Louvre in Paris and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Another 1539 portrait, by the school of Barthel Bruyn the Elder, is in the collection of Trinity College, Cambridge. Negotiations with Cleves were in full swing by March 1539.
Cromwell oversaw a marriage treaty was signed on 4 October of that year. Henry valued education and cultural sophistication in women, she was skilled in needlework and liked playing card games. She could write, but only in German. Anne was considered gentle and docile, qualities that recommended her as a suitable candidate for Henry. Anne was described by the French ambassador, Charles de Marillac, as tall and slim, "of middling beauty and of assured and resolute countenance", she was fair was said to have had a lovely face. In the words of the chronicler Edward Hall, "Her hair hanging down, fair and long... she was apparelled after the English fashion, with a French hood, which so set forth her beauty and good visage, that every creature rejoiced to behold her". She appeared rather solemn by English standards, looked old for her age. Holbein painted her with heavy-lidded eyes and a pointed chin. Henry met her on New Year's Day 1540 at Rochester Abbey in Rochester on her journey from Dover. Henry and some of his courtiers, following a courtly-love tradition, went disguised into the room where Anne was staying.
Eustace Chapuys reported: so went up into the chamber where the said Lady Anne was looking out of a window to see the bull-baiting, going on in the courtyard, he embraced and kissed her, showed her a token which the king had sent her for New Year’s gift, she being abashed and not knowing who it was thanked him, so he spoke with her. But she regarded him little, but always looked out the window…, and when the king saw that she took so little notice of his coming he went into another chamber and took off his cloak and came in again in a coat of purple velvet. And when the lords and knights saw his grace they did. According to the testimony of his companions, he was disappointed with Anne, feeling she was not as described. According to the chronicler Charles Wriothesley, Anne "regarded him little", though it is unknown if she knew if this was the king or not. Henry did reveal his true identity to Anne, although he is said to have been put off the marriage from on. Henry and Anne met on 3 January on Blackheath outside the gates of Greenwich Park, where a grand reception was laid out.
Most historians believe that he used Anne's alleged "bad" appearance and failure to inspire him to consummate the marriage as excuses, saying how he felt he had been misled, for everyone had praised Anne's attractions: "She is nothing so fair as she hath been reported", he complained. Cromwell received some of the blame for the portrait by Holbein which Henry believed had not been an accurate representation of Anne and for some of the exaggerated reports of her beauty; when the king met Anne, he was shocked by her plain appearance. Henry urged Cromwell to find a legal way to avoid the marriage but, by this point, doing so was impossible without endangering the vital alliance with the Germans. In his anger and frustration the King turned on Cromwell, to his subsequent regret. Despite Henry's vocal misgivings, the two were married on 6 January 1540 at the royal Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer; the phrase "God send me well to kee
Anna of Cleves (1552–1632)
Anna of Cleves was a daughter of Duke William V of Jülich-Berg and his wife, Maria of Austria. She married on 27 September 1574 in Neuburg with Count Palatine Philip Louis of Neuburg, they had the following children: Countess Palatine Anna Maria of Neuburg, married on September 9, 1591 to Frederick Wilhelm I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Dorothea Sabine Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg, married: in 1613 Magdalene of Bavaria in 1631 Countess Palatine Catharina Charlotte of Zweibrücken in 1651 Countess Maria Francisca of Fürstenberg Otto Henry Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, married: in 1620 Hedwig of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Amalia Hedwig John Frederick, Count Palatine of Sulzbach-Hilpoltstein, married: in 1624 Agnes of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Louis V Sophie Barbara Andreas Thiele: Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln zur europäischen Geschichte. Band I, Teilband 2: Deutsche Kaiser-, Königs-, Herzogs- und Grafenhäuser II. Fischer, Frankfurt am Tafel 485 Siegrid Westphal: Konversion und Bekenntnis.
Konfessionelle Handlungsfelder der Fürstinwitwe Anna im Zuge der Rekatholisierung Pfalz-Neuburgs zwischen 1614 und 1632. In: Vera von der Osten-Sacken, Daniel Gerth: Fürstinnen und Konfession. Beiträge hochadeliger Frauen zu Religionspolitik und Bekenntnisbildung. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte, Beihefte, Band 104, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-52510-136-0, p. 317