John C. Calhoun
John Caldwell Calhoun was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who served as the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He is remembered for defending slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics, which he did in the context of protecting the interests of the white South when it was outnumbered by Northerners, he began his political career as a nationalist and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs. In the late 1820s, his views changed radically and he became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government and opposition to high tariffs—he saw Northern acceptance of these policies as the only way to keep the South in the Union, his beliefs and warnings influenced the South's secession from the Union in 1860–1861. Calhoun began his political career with election to the House of Representatives in 1810; as a prominent leader of the war hawk faction, Calhoun supported the War of 1812 to defend American honor against British infractions of American independence and neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars.
He served as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, in this position reorganized and modernized the War Department. Calhoun was a candidate for the presidency in the 1824 election. After failing to gain support, he let his name be put forth as a candidate for vice president; the Electoral College elected Calhoun for vice president by an overwhelming majority. He served under John Quincy Adams and continued under Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in the election of 1828. Calhoun had a difficult relationship with Jackson due to the Nullification Crisis and the Petticoat affair. In contrast with his previous nationalism, Calhoun vigorously supported South Carolina's right to nullify federal tariff legislation he believed unfairly favored the North, putting him into conflict with unionists such as Jackson. In 1832, with only a few months remaining in his second term, he resigned as vice president and entered the Senate, he sought the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1844, but lost to surprise nominee James K. Polk, who went on to become president.
Calhoun served as Secretary of State under John Tyler from 1844 to 1845. As Secretary of State, he supported the annexation of Texas as a means to extend the slave power, helped settle the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain, he returned to the Senate, where he opposed the Mexican–American War, the Wilmot Proviso, the Compromise of 1850 before his death in 1850. Calhoun served as a virtual party-independent who variously aligned as needed with Democrats and Whigs. In life, Calhoun became known as the "cast-iron man" for his rigid defense of white Southern beliefs and practices, his concept of republicanism emphasized approval of slavery and minority rights, as embodied by the Southern states. His concept of minority rights did not extend to slaves. Calhoun asserted that slavery, rather than being a "necessary evil," was a "positive good," benefiting both slaves and slave owners. To protect minority rights against majority rule, he called for a concurrent majority whereby the minority could sometimes block proposals that it felt infringed on their liberties.
To this end, Calhoun supported states' rights and nullification, through which states could declare null and void federal laws that they viewed as unconstitutional. Calhoun was one of the "Great Triumvirate" or the "Immortal Trio" of Congressional leaders, along with his Congressional colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. In 1957, a Senate Committee headed by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Calhoun as one of the five greatest United States Senators of all time. John Caldwell Calhoun was born in Abbeville District, South Carolina on March 18, 1782, the fourth child of Patrick Calhoun and his wife Martha Caldwell. Patrick's father named Patrick Calhoun, had joined the Scotch-Irish immigration movement from County Donegal to southwestern Pennsylvania. After the death of the elder Patrick in 1741, the family moved to southwestern Virginia. Following the defeat of British General Edward Braddock at the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755, the family, fearing Indian attacks, moved to South Carolina in 1756.
Patrick Calhoun belonged to the Calhoun clan in the tight-knit Scotch-Irish community on the Southern frontier. He was known as an Indian fighter and an ambitious surveyor, farmer and politician, being a member of the South Carolina Legislature; as a Presbyterian, he stood opposed to the Anglican elite based in Charleston. He was a Patriot in the American Revolution, opposed ratification of the federal Constitution on grounds of states' rights and personal liberties. Calhoun would adopt his father's states' rights beliefs. Young Calhoun showed scholastic talent, although schools were scarce on the Carolina frontier, he was enrolled in an academy in Appling, which soon closed, he continued his studies privately. When his father died, his brothers were away starting business careers, so the 14-year-old Calhoun took over management of the family farm and five other farms. For four years he kept up his reading and his hunting and fishing; the family decided he should continue his education, so he resumed studies at the Academy after it reopened.
With financing from his brothers, he went to Yale College in Connecticut in 1802. For the first time in his life, Calhoun encountered serious, well-organized intellectual dialogue that could shape his mind. Yale was dominated by a Federalist who became his mentor. Dwight's brilliance entranced (and sometimes repell
John Scott (Pennsylvania politician, born 1824)
John Scott was an American lawyer and Republican party politician. He served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. Born in Alexandria, Huntingdon County, John Scott attended Marshall College in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, he practiced law in Huntingdon from 1846 to 1869. He was a prosecuting attorney from 1846 to 1849, he was a member of the revenue commission in 1851. He was a member of the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives in 1862. Scott was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1869, in 1870 convened a Congressional Inquiry into the atrocities of the Ku Klux Klan, but was not a candidate for reelection in 1875, he served as Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Claims during the Forty-third Congress. He moved to Pittsburgh in 1875, served as general counsel of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1875 to 1877 and general solicitor from 1877 to 1895. John Scott's father named John Scott, served in the U.
S. House. Scott's mother Agnes is the namesake of Agnes Scott College in Decatur Georgia, he died on November 29, 1896 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and is interred at The Woodlands Cemetery. United States Congress. "John Scott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John Scott collection of letters Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania
1832 Democratic National Convention
The 1832 Democratic National Convention was held from May 21 to May 23, 1832, in Baltimore, Maryland. This was the first national convention of the Democratic Party of the United States; the purpose of the convention was to choose a running mate for incumbent President Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, rather than the previous methods of using a caucus of Congressional representatives and senators. The delegates nominated former Secretary of State Martin Van Buren for Vice President to replace and succeed the earlier incumbent John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, endorsed Jackson's reelection. In the summer of 1822, "Richmond Junto" leader Thomas Ritchie of Virginia began raising the idea of a national convention to resolve the issue of nomination. Following that defeat in the election of 1824, early in 1827, Van Buren made the argument to Richie for an exclusive national convention of Republicans to ensure Jackson's nomination. However, it did not come to fruition while state conventions and legislatures took up Jackson as their presidential candidate for the election of 1828 with Vice President John C. Calhoun as his running mate.
Such a type of national convention would occur after the election. In 1830, Calhoun had fallen out of President Jackson's favor in part from a letter written by Crawford that stated that Calhoun, as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, pushed for a reprimand of then-General Jackson for his actions in the 1818 invasion of Florida; the Petticoat affair in which Calhoun's wife, was a central figure further alienated Jackson from the Vice President and his supporters. The final blow to the relationship came when Calhoun sank Van Buren's nomination as Minister to Great Britain by casting a tie-breaking vote in the United States Senate. Calhoun resigned as Vice President on 28 December 1832 and became a Senator from South Carolina, where he continued to be a proponent of the doctrine of nullification in opposition to Jackson; the proposal for the convention began with members of Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet", his coterie of informal advisers and confidants. Major William Berkeley Lewis wrote on May 25, 1831, to Amos Kendall, in New Hampshire.
He proposed that the New Hampshire legislature call for a national gathering of Republican supporters of the Jackson administration to nominate a candidate for the vice presidency, asked Kendall to pass the idea to Isaac Hill. After the New Hampshire legislature issued the call for a general convention, the Washingoton Globe seconded the recommendation on July 6, 1831: The recommendation of a Convention at Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the Vice-Presidency deserves a serious consideration, it is the best plan which can be adopted to produce entire unanimity in the Republican party, secure its lasting ascendancy. Lewis recalled warning former Secretary of War and delegate John Eaton the day before the convention not to vote for anyone there except Van Buren unless he was prepared to "quarrel with the General." The convention was called to order by Frederick A. Sumner of New Hampshire, who said of the origins and purpose of the convention: Gentlemen—The proposition for calling a general convention of delegates, to act on the nomination of a candidate for president, to select a suitable candidate for vice-president of the United States, originated in the state of New Hampshire, by the friends of democracy in that state.
The object of the representatives of the people of New Hampshire who called this convention was not to impose on the people as candidate for either of the two offices in this government, any local favorite. They believed. Delegates from all states except Missouri were present. Governor Robert Lucas of Ohio served as the convention president. Peter Vivian Daniel, James Fenner, John M. Barclay, Augustin Smith Clayton were chosen as convention vice presidents. John Adams Dix was appointed secretary at the first meeting, with other additional secretaries thereafter. A resolution was passed by the convention requiring two-thirds support of the delegates for a nomination; the convention endorsed the nominations of President Jackson, made in various areas of the country. Martin Van Buren was nominated for the vice presidency after he won more than two-thirds of the total delegates' votes. An address by the Republican delegates of New York gave a history of previous national political activity in the United States.
They denounced the National Republicans as Federalists under a new designation and they denounced the Nullifiers while they declared that their own party held the middle ground between the positions of the other two. The address described what they claimed were political similarities between Andrew Jackson and Thomas Jefferson and it defended the policies of Jackson's administration, it characterized Van Buren as a strict construc
William R. King
William Rufus DeVane King was an American politician and diplomat. He was the 13th vice president of the United States for six weeks in 1853 before his death. Earlier he had been elected as a U. S. representative from a senator from Alabama. He served as minister to France during the reign of King Louis Philippe I. A Democrat, he was a Unionist and his contemporaries considered him to be a moderate on the issues of sectionalism and westward expansion, which contributed to the American Civil War, he helped draft the Compromise of 1850. He is the only United States executive official to take the oath of office on foreign soil. King died of tuberculosis after 45 days in office. With the exceptions of John Tyler and Andrew Johnson—both of whom succeeded to the presidency—he is the shortest-serving vice president. King was the only U. S. vice president from the state of Alabama and held the highest political office of any Alabamian in American history. He was the third vice president to die in office. King was born in North Carolina, to William King and Margaret deVane.
His family was large and well-connected. He graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1803, where he was a member of the Philanthropic Society. Admitted to the bar in 1806 after reading the law with Judge William Duffy of Fayetteville, North Carolina, he began practice in Clinton. King was an ardent Freemason, was a member of Fayetteville's Phoenix Lodge No. 8. King entered politics and was elected as a member of the North Carolina House of Commons, where he served from 1807 to 1809, he became city solicitor of Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1810, he was elected to the Twelfth and Fourteenth Congresses, serving from March 4, 1811, until November 4, 1816, when he resigned to become Secretary of the Legation for William Pinkney during Pinkney's appointment as Minister to Russia and special diplomatic mission in Naples. He was only 25 years old; when he returned to the United States in 1818, King joined the westward migration of the cotton culture to the Deep South, purchasing property at what would be known as "King's Bend" between present-day Selma and Cahaba on the Alabama River in Dallas County of the new Alabama Territory, separated from Mississippi.
He developed a large cotton plantation based on slave labor, calling the property "Chestnut Hill". King and his relatives formed one of the largest slaveholding families in the state, collectively owning as many as 500. William Rufus King was a delegate to the convention. Upon the admission of Alabama as the twenty-second state in 1819 he was elected by the State Legislature as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate. King was a follower of Andrew Jackson, was reelected to the Senate as a Jacksonian in 1822, 1828, 1834, 1841, serving from December 14, 1819, until his resignation on April 15, 1844. During this time, in March–April 1824, William R. King was honored with a single vote at the Democratic-Republican Party Caucus to be the party's candidate for the Office of U. S. Vice President for the upcoming 1824 presidential election, he served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate during the 24th through 27th Congresses. King was Chairman of the Committee on Commerce, he was appointed as Minister to France, served from 1844 to 1846.
After his return, King resumed serving in the Senate and subsequently elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Arthur P. Bagby, he held his seat from July 1, 1848, until resigning because of ill health on December 20, 1852, after having been elected vice president. During the conflicts leading up to the Compromise of 1850, King supported the Senate's gag rule against debate on antislavery petitions and opposed proposals to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, administered by Congress. King supported a conservative, pro-slavery position, arguing that the Constitution protected the institution of slavery in both the Southern states and the federal territories, he opposed both the abolitionists' efforts to abolish slavery in the territories as well as the "Fire-Eaters" calls for Southern secession. On July 11, 1850, two days after the death of President Zachary Taylor, King was appointed Senate President pro tempore; because Millard Fillmore ascended to the presidency, the vice presidency was vacant, making King first in the line of succession under the law in effect.
He served as Chairman of the Senate's Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Pensions. The argument for King's homosexuality has been put forward by biographer Jean Baker, supported by Shelley Ross, James W. Loewen, Robert P. Watson, focuses on his close and intimate relationship with President James Buchanan; the two men lived together for 13 years from 1840 until King's death in 1853. Buchanan referred to the relationship as a "communion", the two attended official functions together. Contemporaries noted and commented upon the unusual closeness. Andrew Jackson mockingly called them "Miss Nancy" and "Aunt Fancy", while Aaron V. Brown referred to King as Buchanan's "better half". However, Lewis Saum, has argued that "…Customs and expressions were different in the mid-1800s than they are today... "Miss Nancy" was "a common designation for people who wore clean clothes and had good manners". James Loewen has described Buchanan and King as "siamese twins". A biographe
46th United States Congress
The Forty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881, during the last two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870; the Senate had a Democratic majority. The Democrats were still able to control the House, with the help of the Independent politicians who caucused with them. President: William A. Wheeler President pro tempore: Allen G. Thurman Democratic Caucus Chairman: William A. Wallace Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony Speaker: Samuel J. Randall Democratic Caucus Chairman: John Ford House Republican Conference Chair: William P. Frye Depression of 1873–79 March 18, 1879: Samuel J. Randall was elected in one of the most fought contests for the speakership after the Civil War.
Randall, who favored the protective tariff and "hard money," drew his greatest strength from northern cities and greatest opposition from the west and south. The midterm elections of 1878 had gone badly for the Democrats, with the Greenback Party making inroads in key districts; this emboldened Randall's opponents. In the end, Randall prevailed in the Democratic caucus to receive the nomination, with 75 votes to Blackburn's 57 and a scattering of 9 votes to three other candidates. Blackburn, in moving to make Randall's nomination unanimous, steered his supporters away from the nomination of Hendrick B. Wright, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, nominated by the Greenbacks. In the eventual vote in the House to elect the Speaker, Randall prevailed with 144 votes, to 125 for James Garfield, 13 for Wright, one for William "Pig Iron" Kelley. November 2, 1880: U. S. presidential election, 1880: James Garfield defeated Winfield S. Hancock February 19, 1881: Kansas became the first state to prohibit alcohol.
This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1880; the names of members are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 4 Democratic: no net change Republican: no net change deaths: 3 resignations: 1 interim appointments: 2 Total seats with changes: 5 replacements: 8 Democratic: 1 seat net gain Republican: 1 seat net loss deaths: 4 resignations: 3 contested election: 2 Total seats with changes: 11 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
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The Constitution of Pennsylvania is the supreme law within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. All acts of the General Assembly, the governor, each governmental agency are subordinate to it. Since 1776, Pennsylvania's Constitution has undergone five versions; the current Constitution entered into force in 1968, has been amended numerous times. The Constitution may only be amended if a proposed modification receives a majority vote of two consecutive sessions of the General Assembly and is approved by the electorate. Emergency amendments are permitted by a vote of two-thirds of the General Assembly and an affirmative vote by the electorate within one month. In such emergency situations, commonwealth election officials are required to publish notice of the referendum on a proposed amendment in a minimum of two newspapers in every county. In an event that more than one emergency amendment is proposed, each additional amendment is to be voted on separately; the current Constitution of Pennsylvania comprises the following concise Preamble, Articles and Schedules: WE, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and establish this Constitution.
Article I. Declaration of Rights Article II; the Legislature Article III. Legislation. Article IV; the Executive. Article V; the Judiciary Article VI. Public Officers Article VII. Elections Article VIII. Taxation and Finance Article IX. Local Government Article X. Private Corporations Article XI. Amendments Schedule No. 1 Schedule No. 2 Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood: 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, 1968. Prior to that, the colonial Province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a book titled Frame of Government, written by William Penn, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683,1696, 1701. Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 Law of Pennsylvania The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania's Constitutions and the Amendment Process - Where it Began, Where it is Now Pennsylvania Constitution Web Page Text of 1776 Constitution
John I. Mitchell
John Inscho Mitchell was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Tioga County, Pennsylvania. He served in the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in both the U. S. House and Senate, he was a judge in several state courts. John Inscho Mitchell was born in Tioga Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania on July 28, 1838, he attended common school in addition to receiving private instruction. Mitchell received his college education at the University of Lewisburg, modern-day Bucknell University. After graduating from college in 1859, Mitchell taught school until 1861, when he joined the Union Army, he served in the Civil War as a lieutenant and captain in the 166th Regiment of the Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. Mitchell subsequently pursued an education in law and was admitted to the bar in 1864, he served as District Attorney of Tioga County from 1868 to 1871. He ran for, was elected to and served in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives between 1872 and 1876 until his election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served from 1877 to 1881.
In 1881, Mitchell was elected to the United States Senate. He served there for one six-year term and was chairman of the Committee on the Mississippi River and Its Tributaries and Committee on Pensions. After the conclusion of his congressional career, Mitchell served as judge of the court of common pleas of Pennsylvania's fourth district from 1888 to 1899, he subsequently served for one session as judge of the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. Mitchell died in Wellsboro, Pennsylvania on August 20, 1907, was interred in Wellsboro Cemetery. United States Congress. "John I. Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John I. Mitchell at Find a Grave