Chillicothe is a city in and the county seat of Ross County, United States. Located along the Scioto River 45 miles south of Columbus, Chillicothe was the first and third capital of Ohio, it is the center of the Chillicothe Micropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 21,901 at the 2010 census. Chillicothe is a designated Tree City USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation; the region around Chillicothe was the center of the ancient Hopewell tradition, which flourished from 200 BC until 500 AD. This Amerindian culture had trade routes extending to the Rocky Mountains, they built earthen mounds for ceremonial and burial purposes throughout the Scioto and Ohio River valleys. Native Americans who inhabited the area through the time of European contact included Shawnees. Present-day Chillicothe is the most recent of seven locations in Ohio that bore the name, because it was applied to the main town wherever the Chalakatha settled. Other population centers named Chillicothe in Ohio at one time include: one located at present-day Piqua, in Miami County.
After the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 forced the Native Americans from most of Ohio, European settlers came to the area. Migrants from Virginia and Kentucky moved west along the Ohio River in search of land; the community Chillicothe was founded in 1796 by a party led by General Nathaniel Massie on his land grant. The town's name comes from the Shawnee Chala·ka·tha, meaning "principal town", because it was the chief settlement of that division of the Shawnee people. In 1798, Ross County became incorporated with Chillicothe as the county seat. Chillicothe was named the capital of the remnant Northwest Territory in 1800, when Indiana Territory was split off, the Northwest Territory was reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana. In 1802 as Ohio moved toward statehood, the city hosted the Ohio Constitutional Convention, it served as the capital of Ohio from statehood in 1803 until 1810 again from 1812-1816. Ohio was a free state, early migrants to Chillicothe included free blacks, who came to a place with fewer restrictions than in the slave states.
They aided runaway slaves coming north. As tensions increased prior to the breakout of the American Civil War, the free black community at Chillicothe maintained stations and aid to support refugees on the Underground Railroad; the Ohio River was a border with the slave states of the South, with slaves crossing the river to freedom, up the Scioto River to get more distance from their former homes and slave hunters. White abolitionists aided the Underground Railroad as well. Chillicothe is located at 39°20′11″N 82°59′2″W, it lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. It lies between the Scioto Paint Creek near their confluence. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.60 square miles, of which 10.43 square miles is land and 0.17 square miles is water. The city is surrounded by farming communities, Chillicothe residents describe the area as the foothills of the Appalachians; as the only city in the area, Chillicothe is a hub for economic activity.
Malls, prisons and a college campus are among the largest employers, but the most notable employer in the area is a Pixelle paper mill, in operation for over 100 years. The mill can sometimes create noxious odors, which residents refer to as “the smell of money”; as of the census of 2010, there were 21,901 people, 9,420 households, 5,559 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,099.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,600 housing units at an average density of 1,016.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.1% White, 7.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 9,420 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 41.5 years. 21.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,796 people, 9,481 households, 5,754 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,283.7 people per square mile. There were 10,303 housing units at an average density of 1,079.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.21% White, 7.51% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.84% of the population. There were 9,481 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Edenton, North Carolina
Edenton is a town in and the county seat of Chowan County, North Carolina, United States, on Albemarle Sound. The population was 5,004 at the 2010 census. Edenton is located in North Carolina's Inner Banks region. In recent years Edenton has become a popular retirement location and a destination for heritage tourism. Edenton was the birthplace of Harriet Ann Jacobs, an enslaved African American who escaped and fled to the North, she spoke publicly as an abolitionist. Her memoir, a slave narrative published under a pen name of Linda Brent, was entitled Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In 1658 adventurers from the Jamestown area drifted through the wilderness from Virginia and found a location on the bank 36.044°N 76.613°W / 36.044. Edenton Colony was the first permanent European settlement in what is now the state of North Carolina. Edenton was established in 1712 as "the Towne on Queen Anne's Creek", it was known as "Ye Towne on Mattercommack Creek" and still as "the Port of Roanoke". It was renamed "Edenton" and incorporated in 1722 in honor of Governor Charles Eden who had died that year.
Edenton served as the second capital of the Province of North Carolina, from 1722 to 1743, with the governor establishing his residence there and the population increasing during that period. William Byrd II, who visited the town in March 1729, provides a description of Edenton in his The History of the Dividing Line: This town is Situated on the north side of Albermarle Sound, there about 5 miles over. A Dirty Slash runs all along the Back of it, which in the Summer is a foul annoyance, furnishes abundance of that Carolina plague, musquetas. There may be most of them Small, built without Expense. A Citizen here is counted Extravagant. Justice herself is but indifferently Lodged, the Court-House having much the Air of a Common Tobacco-House. I believe this is the only metropolis in the Christian or Mohametan world where there is neither Church, Mosque, nor any other Place of Publick Worship of any Sect or Religion whatsoever. What little Devotion there may be is much more private than their vices.
A landmark in women's history occurred in Edenton in 1774. Fifty-one women in Edenton, led by Penelope Barker, signed a protest petition agreeing to boycott English tea and other products, in what became known, decades as the Edenton Tea Party; the Edenton Tea Party is the first known political action by women in the British American colonies. In fact it so shocked London that newspapers published etchings depicting the women as uncontrollable, her home, the Barker House, is open seven days a week, without a fee, is considered by many as Edenton's living room. Joseph Hewes, a resident of Edenton and successful owner of a merchant marine fleet, was appointed the first Secretary of the Navy in 1776. John Adams said that Hewes "laid the foundation, the cornerstone of the American Navy." Hewes signed the United States Declaration of Independence. James Iredell of Edenton, was at 38 the youngest member of the first United States Supreme Court, he was appointed by George Washington. His son James Iredell, Jr. served as the Democratic-Republican governor of North Carolina and became a United States senator.
His home may be toured through the Historic Edenton Visitors Center. Easy sea access halted with a 1795 hurricane. Completion of the 1805 Dismal Swamp Canal took business elsewhere by diverting shipping to Norfolk, Virginia. Locals rejected construction of a lack that impeded the local economy. Supreme Court Justice James Wilson, a signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, died in Edenton on August 21, 1798, at age 55, while riding his judicial circuit. In 1862, during the Civil War, the Albemarle Artillery was recruited at Edenton by a local attorney named William Badham, Jr, its guns were cast from bronze bells taken from courthouse and churches in the Edenton area. Known as the Edenton Bell Battery, its four howitzers were named the Columbia, St. Paul, Fannie Roulac, Edenton. Two of the guns, the St. Paul and Edenton, have been returned to Edenton and can now be seen at Edenton's waterfront park. Edenton enjoyed an economic revival beginning in 1890 led by lumbering, an 1898 cotton mill, a 1909 peanut-processing plant.
Edenton is the home of the 1886 Roanoke River Lighthouse. The lighthouse is called a screw-pile design because of its original support system; each piling was screwed into the river or sound bottom so they would not pull out in heavy storms and hurricanes. The Roanoke River Lighthouse, now located at Edenton, is believed to be the last extant example in the United States of a rectangular frame building built for a screw-pile base; the lighthouse was in commission from 1887 until 1941. Edenton is home including the Cupola House, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970, a designation accorded the 1776 Chowan County Courthouse. The courthouse is still used for official court events; the city is home to the oldest house still in existence in North Carolina, constructed in 1719 before the establishment of the city. Edenton achieved international notoriety for the Little Rascals Day Care sexual abuse case, the subject of journalist Ofra Bikel's award-winning trilogy of documentaries: Innocence Lost, Innocence Lost: The Verdict, Innocence Lost: The Plea.
Edenton is located in southern Chowan County at 36°3′43″N 76°36′21″W. It sits at the north end of Edenton Bay, just north of the confluence of the Chowan River and Roanoke River which forms Albemarle Sound
Thomas Ewing Sr. was a National Republican and Whig politician from Ohio. He served in the U. S. Senate as well as serving as the Secretary of the Treasury and the first Secretary of the Interior, he is known as the foster father of famous American Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman. Born in West Liberty, Ohio County, Virginia, he was the son of Revolutionary War veteran George Ewing. After studying at Ohio University and reading law under Philemon Beecher, Ewing commenced the practice of law in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1816; as a colorful country lawyer, he was elected to the U. S. Senate served a single term, he was unsuccessful in seeking a second term in 1836. Ewing served as Secretary of the Treasury in 1841, serving under Presidents William Henry Harrison and John Tyler, he resigned on September 11, 1841, along with the entire cabinet, in protest of Tyler's veto of the Banking Act. Ewing was appointed to serve as the first Secretary of the Interior by President Zachary Taylor. Ewing served in the position from March 8, 1849 -- July 1850 under Taylor and Millard Fillmore.
As first secretary, he consolidated bureaus from various Departments, such as the Land Office from the Treasury Department and the Indian Bureau from the War Department. The bureaus were being kicked out of their offices as unwanted tenants in their former departments. However, the Interior Department had so Ewing rented space; the Patent Office building, with a new east wing, provided permanent space in 1852. Ewing initiated the Interior Department's culture of corruption by wholesale replacement of officials with political patronage. Newspapers called him "Butcher Ewing" for his efforts. In 1850, Ewing was appointed to the Senate to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Thomas Corwin, served from July 20, 1850 – March 3, 1851. Ewing was unsuccessful in seeking re-election in 1850. In 1861, Ewing served as one of Ohio's delegates to the peace conference held in Washington in hopes of staving off civil war. After the war, Ewing was appointed by President Andrew Johnson to a third cabinet post as Secretary of War in 1868 following the firing of Edwin M. Stanton but the Senate, still outraged at Johnson's firing of Stanton—which had provoked Johnson's impeachment—refused to act on the nomination.
Ewing married Maria Wills Boyle, a Roman Catholic, raised their children in her faith. His foster son was the famous general William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman married Thomas Ewing Sr.'s daughter, Ellen Ewing Sherman. Ewing's namesake son, Thomas Ewing Jr. was an American Civil War Union army general and two-term U. S. Congressman from Ohio. Two of Ewing's other sons – Hugh Boyle Ewing and Charles Ewing – became generals in the Union army during the Civil War. Ewing was for many years attended Catholic services with his family, he was formally baptized into the Catholic faith during his last illness. Prior to his death on October 26, 1871, Ewing had been the last surviving member of the Harrison and Tyler Cabinets. Future President and Governor of Ohio Rutherford B. Hayes was a pallbearer at his funeral, he is buried in Saint Mary Cemetery, Fairfield County, Ohio. Unsuccessful nominations to the Cabinet of the United States Memorial of Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, compiled by his daughter, Ellen Ewing Sherman.
Lewis, Sherman: Fighting Prophet Miller, Paul I. "Thomas Ewing, Last of the Whigs," Ph. D. diss. Ohio State University, 1933. Heineman, Kenneth J. Civil War Dynasty: The Ewing Family of Ohio. United States Congress. "Thomas Ewing". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Thomas Ewing at Find a Grave Ewing Family History Pages Catholic Encyclopedia information
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was wounded while fighting in the Union Army, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens, he promoted civil service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes; the result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in equal treatment without regard to race, he ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery, his policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is ranked as average or below average by historians and scholars. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard.
Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress, his first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.
John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation. In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classm
Ohio's 7th congressional district
Ohio's 7th congressional district is represented by Bob Gibbs. It is located in the northeastern section of the state, including the city of Canton, it was redrawn in 2012, following the 2010 United States Census, was located in southwest Ohio, including the city of Springfield. The following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Russian America was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867. Its capital was Novo-Archangelsk, now Sitka, Alaska, USA. Settlements spanned parts of what are now the U. S. states of California and two ports in Hawaii. Formal incorporation of the possessions by Russia did not take place until the Ukase of 1799 which established a monopoly for the Russian–American Company and granted the Russian Orthodox Church certain rights in the new possessions. Many of its possessions were abandoned in the 19th century. In 1867, Russia sold its last remaining possessions to the United States of America for $7.2 million. The earliest written accounts indicate. In 1648 Semyon Dezhnev sailed from the mouth of the Kolyma River through the Arctic Ocean and around the eastern tip of Asia to the Anadyr River. One legend holds that some of his boats were reached Alaska. However, no evidence of settlement survives. Dezhnev's discovery was never forwarded to the central government, leaving open the question of whether or not Siberia was connected to North America.
In 1725, Tsar Peter the Great called for another expedition. As a part of the 1733 -- 1743 Second Kamchatka the Sv. Petr under the Dane Vitus Bering and the Sv. Pavel under the Russian Alexei Chirikov set sail from the Kamchatkan port of Petropavlovsk in June 1741, they were soon separated. On 15 July, Chirikov sighted land the west side of Prince of Wales Island in southeast Alaska, he sent a group of men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to land on the northwestern coast of North America. On 16 July and the crew of Sv. Petr sighted Mount Saint Elias on the Alaskan mainland. Meanwhile and the Sv. Pavel headed back to Russia in October with news of the land. In November Bering's ship was wrecked on Bering Island. There Bering fell ill and died, high winds dashed the Sv. Petr to pieces. After the stranded crew wintered on the island, the survivors built a boat from the wreckage and set sail for Russia in August 1742. Bering's crew reached the shore of Kamchatka in 1742; the high quality of the sea-otter pelts.
From 1743 small associations of fur traders began to sail from the shores of the Russian Pacific coast to the Aleutian islands. As the runs from Asiatic Russia to America became longer expeditions, the crews established hunting and trading posts. By the late 1790s, some of these had become permanent settlements. Half of the fur traders were from the various European parts of the Russian Empire, while the others were Siberian or of mixed origins. Rather than hunting the marine life, the Russians forced the Aleuts to do the work for them by taking hostage family members in exchange for hunted seal furs; as word spread of the riches in furs to be had, competition among Russian companies increased and the Aleuts were enslaved. Catherine the Great, who became Empress in 1763, proclaimed goodwill toward the Aleuts and urged her subjects to treat them fairly. On some islands and parts of the Alaska Peninsula, groups of traders had been capable of peaceful coexistence with the local inhabitants. Other groups could not manage the committed acts of violence.
Hostages were taken, families were split up, individuals were forced to leave their villages and settle elsewhere. The growing competition between the trading companies, merging into fewer and more powerful corporations, created conflicts that aggravated the relations with the indigenous populations. Over the years, the situation became catastrophic; as the animal populations declined, the Aleuts too dependent on the new barter economy created by the Russian fur-trade, were coerced into taking greater and greater risks in the dangerous waters of the North Pacific to hunt for more otter. As the Shelekhov-Golikov Company developed a monopoly, it used skirmishes and violent incidents turned into systematic violence as a tool of colonial exploitation of the indigenous people; when the Aleuts revolted and won some victories, the Russians retaliated, killing many and destroying their boats and hunting gear, leaving them no means of survival. The most devastating effects were from disease: during the first two generations of Russian contact, 80 percent of the Aleut population died from Eurasian infectious diseases.
Though the Alaskan colony was never profitable because of the costs of transportation, most Russian traders were determined to keep the land for themselves. In 1784, Grigory Ivanovich Shelekhov, who would set up the Russian-Alaska Company that became the Alaskan colonial administration, arrived in Three Saints Bay on Kodiak Island with two ships, the Three Saints and the St. Simon; the Koniag Alaska Natives harassed the Russian party and Shelekhov responded by killing hundreds and taking hostages to enforce the obedience of the rest. Having established his authority on Kodiak Island, Shelekhov founded the second permanent Russian settlement in Alaska on the island's Three Saints Bay. In 1790, back in Russia, hired Alexander Andreyevich Baranov to manage his Alaskan fur enterprise. Baranov moved the colony to the northeast end of Kodiak Island; the site developed as