Florida A&M University
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University is a public black university in Tallahassee, Florida. Founded in 1887, it is located on the highest geographic hill in Tallahassee, it is the 5th largest black university in the United States by enrollment and the only public black university in Florida. It is a member institution of the State University System of Florida, as well as one of the state's land grant universities, is accredited to award baccalaureate, master's and doctoral degrees by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; the 2019 edition of the U. S. News & World Report college rankings placed the university 9th among all HBCUs and 2nd among all public HBCUs; the university is classified as an R2 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes higher research activity. For 2017, the National Science Foundation ranked Florida A&M University 216th nationally and 2nd among HBCU for total research and development expenditures.
FAMU sports teams are known as the "Rattlers", compete in Division I of the NCAA. They are a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Abolitionist Jonathan C. Gibbs first introduced legislation to create the State Normal College for Colored Students in 1885, one year after being elected to the Florida Legislature; the date reflects the new Florida Constitution of 1885, which prohibited racial integration in schools. The College was located in Tallahassee because Leon County and adjacent counties led the state in African-American population, reflecting Tallahassee's former status as the center of Florida's slave trade; the site of the university is the 375-acre slave plantation of Florida Governor William Pope Duval, whose mansion, today the site of the Carnegie Library, burned in 1905. On October 3, 1887, the State Normal College for Colored Students began classes, became a land-grant college four years when it received $7,500 under the Second Morrill Act, its name was changed to State Normal and Industrial College for Colored Students.
However, it was not an official institution of higher learning until the 1905 Buckman Act, which transferred control from the Department of Education to the Board of Control, creating what was the foundation for the modern Florida A&M University. This same act is responsible for the creation of the University of Florida and Florida State University from their previous institutions. In 1909, the name of the college was once again changed, to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, in 1953 the name was changed to Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. Florida A&M is the only publicly funded black college or university in the state of Florida. In 1951, the university started a nursing program. In order to give these students hands-on experience, the university built a hospital; until 1971 Florida A&M Hospital was the only one within 150 miles of Tallahassee to serve African Americans. It closed in 1971. In 1963, FAMU students demonstrated against segregation in the city.
In 1992, 1995, 1997, FAMU recruited more National Achievement Scholars than Harvard. In the fall of 1997, FAMU was selected as the TIME Magazine-Princeton Review "College of the Year" and was cited in 1999 by Black Issues in Higher Education for awarding more baccalaureate degrees to African-Americans than any institutions in the nation. In 2017, FAMU became the first university to launch an African-American news network through its School of Journalism and Graphic Communications; the network is named "The Black Television News Channel" and is accompanied by a multimillion-dollar, media-training center for aspiring journalists. This network is expected to bring $30 million annually in economic stimulus to the Tallahassee region; the university offers 54 bachelor's degrees, 29 master's degrees, one professional degree, 12 doctoral degrees. It has 12 colleges. Florida A&M has an honors program for high-achieving undergraduate students who meet the high performance criteria. FAMU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.
In 2012, FAMU implemented the Medical Scholars Program. MSP is a rigorous pre-medical program designed to uniquely prepare academically talented undergraduate students for success in medical school and beyond. There is a cap of 10 freshmen accepted into this competitive four-year program each year. FAMU has eight funded, eminent-scholars chairs, including two in the School of Journalism and Graphic Communications, four in the School of Business & Industry, one in the College of Education, one in Arts and Sciences, one in its School of Pharmacy; the Fall 2017 incoming freshmen class had a GPA average of 3.4. Florida A&M University student enrollment population consists of undergraduates. 84.1% of the school's enrolled students are African-American. The next largest demographic group is White students at 7.71%. Native Americans and Asian Americans round out the remaining 8.19%. Florida A&M University has been accredited by Southern Association of Colleges and Schools since 1935. In 2017, the university had a four-year graduation rate of 21.8% and a six-year graduation rate of 47%, the lowest rates of all the universities in the State University System of Florida.
FAMU's School of Architecture and Engineering Technology is tied with seven other Architecture related schools in the No. 1 ranking by bachelor's degree production for African Americans by Diverse Issues in Higher Education. The Princeton Review named
Ridgeland, South Carolina
Ridgeland is a town in Jasper and Beaufort counties, South Carolina, United States. The population was 4,036 at the 2010 census, a 60% increase from 2000, it has been the county seat of Jasper County since the county's formation in 1912. As defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, Ridgeland is included within the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort metropolitan area. Ridgeland is home to the Ridgeland Correctional Institution, a medium-security prison operated by the South Carolina Department of Corrections. Ridgeland was known as "Gopher Hill" in 1894, derived from the gopher tortoise, indigenous to the area; the name was not considered good enough for a new railroad station, so it was changed to "Ridgeland" in 1902 for the fact that the town stands on a sandy ridge, some of the highest land in Jasper County. Ridgeland is in northeastern Jasper County, with the center of town sitting on a low ridge at an elevation of 62 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.7 square miles, of which 44.4 square miles are land and 0.3 square miles, or 0.59%, are water.
The town's area as of 2010 was 18 times greater than its 2000 area of 2.4 square miles. The town limits now extend east into Beaufort County as far as the west bank of the Broad River. Ridgeland is 36 miles southwest of Walterboro, 32 miles south of Hampton, 31 miles north of Savannah, Georgia, 14 miles north of Hardeeville, 7 miles east of Tillman; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,518 people, 517 households, 332 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,046.6 people per square mile. There were 597 housing units at an average density of 248.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 44.64% White, 49.17% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 4.69% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.63% of the population. There were 517 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 22.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families.
29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.02. In the town, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 16.6% from 18 to 24, 44.5% from 25 to 44, 15.8% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 279.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 338.2 males. The presence of the Ridgeland Correctional Institution in the town limits skews the sex ratio; the median income for a household in the town was $27,679, the median income for a family was $37,647. Males had a median income of $21,900 versus $20,938 for females; the per capita income for the town was $7,394. About 20.0% of families and 24.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. Ridgeland is home to Ridgeland-Hardeeville High School.
Thomas Heyward Academy is a segregation academy located just outside the town limits. I-95, the major north-south highway on the Eastern Seaboard, runs through Ridgeland. A trumpet interchange to a connecting road exists south of the town at Exit 18 north of Switzerland, though the main interchanges within the community are Exits 21 and 22. US 17, a principal route connecting Charleston and beyond, enters Ridgeland after passing through Switzerland; the road is known locally as Jacob Smart Boulevard and has an interchange with I-95 at Exit 22, which it joins in an overlap until Point South at Exit 33. The road is four lanes wide, with some segments having a center turn lane, although it becomes a four-lane divided highway north of downtown Ridgeland before joining I-95 in the aforementioned overlap. US 278 overlaps US 17 from northern Hardeeville, before veering west onto Third Street and Grays Highway towards Augusta and Atlanta. SC 336, Ridgeland's Main Street, runs eastward from its starting point at U.
S. 321 in Tillman. Within Ridgeland it intersects U. S. 17, goes under I-95 at Exit 21, continues eastward towards the hamlet of Old House at SC 462. The CSX Railway's Charleston Subdivision operates both freight trains and passenger trains along the lines, but do not stop at Ridgeland; the line runs along the west side of US 17 until the south end of the I-95 overlap, where it runs along Nuna Rock Road until it reaches Coosawhatchie. Thomas Heyward, Jr. signer of the Declaration of Independence LaRue Howard, gospel musician Reverend Ike and controversial prosperity theology televangelist General Lloyd W. Newton, first African-American pilot in the Air Force Thunderbirds General Jacob E. Smart, Cold War era USAF general Town of Ridgeland official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Clemson University is an American public, land-grant research university in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. Founded in 1889, Clemson is the second-largest university in student population in South Carolina. For the fall 2017 semester, the university enrolled a total of 19,402 undergraduate students and 4,985 graduate students, the student/faculty ratio was 18:1. Clemson's 1,400 acre campus is in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains and sits next to Lake Hartwell; the university manages the nearby 17,500 acre Clemson Experimental Forest, used for research and recreation. Clemson University consists of seven colleges: Agriculture and Life Sciences. U. S. News & World Report ranks Clemson University 21st among all "national" public universities. Clemson University is classified as a "Doctoral university highest research activity". Thomas Green Clemson, the university's founder, came to the foothills of South Carolina in 1838, when he married Anna Maria Calhoun, daughter of John C. Calhoun, a South Carolina statesman and seventh U.
S. Vice President; when Clemson died on April 6, 1888, he left most of his estate, which he inherited from his wife, in his will to be used to establish a college that would teach scientific agriculture and the mechanical arts to South Carolinians. His decision was influenced by future South Carolina Governor Benjamin Tillman. Tillman lobbied the South Carolina General Assembly to create the school as an agricultural institution for the state and the resolution passed by only one vote. In his will, Clemson explicitly stated he wanted the school to be modeled after what is now Mississippi State University: "This institution, I desire, to be under the control and management of a board of trustees, a part of whom are hereinafter appointed, to be modeled after the Agricultural College of Mississippi as far as practicable." In November 1889, South Carolina Governor John Peter Richardson III signed the bill, thus establishing the Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina. As a result, federal funds for agricultural education from the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act and the Hatch Act of 1887 were transferred from South Carolina College to Clemson.
Construction of the college began with Hardin Hall in 1890 and main classroom buildings in 1891. Henry Aubrey Strode became the first president of Clemson from 1890 to 1893. Edwin Craighead succeeded Strode in 1893. Clemson Agricultural College formally opened in July 1893 with an initial enrollment of 446; the common curriculum of the first incoming students was English, botany, mathematics and agriculture. Until 1955, the college was an all-white male military school. On May 22, 1894, the main building was destroyed by a fire, which consumed the library and offices. Tillman Hall still stands today; the first graduating class of Clemson was in 1896 with degrees in mechanical-electrical engineering and agriculture. Clemson's first football team began in 1896 led by trainer Walter Riggs. Henry Hartzog, graduate of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, became president of Clemson in 1897. Hartzog created a textile department in 1898. Clemson became the first Southern school to train textile specialists.
Hartzog expanded the curriculum with more industrialization skills such as foundry work, agriculture studies and mechanics. In 1902 a large student walkout over the use of rigid military discipline escalated tensions between students and faculty forcing Hartzog to resign. Patrick Mell succeeded Hartzog from 1902 to 1910. Following the resignation of Mell in 1910 former Clemson Tigers football coach Walter Riggs became president of Clemson from 1910 to 1924; the Holtzendorff Hall the Holzendorff YMCA, was built in 1914 designed by Rudolph E. Lee of the first graduating class of Clemson in 1896. In 1915 Riggs Field was dedicated after Walter Riggs and is the Clemson Tigers men's soccer home field. During World War I enrollment in Clemson declined. In 1917 Clemson formed a Reserve Officers' Training Corps and in 1918 a Student Army Training Corps was formed. Effects of World War I made Clemson hire the first women faculty due to changes in faculty. Riggs accepted a six-month army educational commission in 1919 overseas in France leaving Samuel Earle as acting president.
On March 10, 1920 a large walkout occurred protesting unfair "prison camp" style military discipline. The 1920 walkout led to the creation of a Department of Student Affairs. On January 22, 1924 Riggs died on a business trip to Washington, D. C. leaving Earle the acting president. In October 1924 another walkout of around 500 students occurred when Earle rejected their demands of better food and the dismissal of mess officer Harcombe and the reinstatement of their senior class president; the 1924 walkout resulted in 112 suspended. On April 1, 1925 a fire destroyed the interior of the agricultural building and with it many research projects and an agricultural museum; the exterior of the building survived, leading to the construction of Sikes Hall to hold the library from Tillman Hall. On May 27, 1926 Mechanical Hall was destroyed in a fire. Present-day Freeman Hall, built in 1926, was the reconstructed shop building. In 1928 Riggs Hall was established in honor of Walter Riggs. President Enoch Sikes increased student enrollment by over 1,000 students and expanded the degree programs with an addition of the first graduate degree.
The Department of Arts and Sciences was formed in 1926 with the addition of modern languages programs. Programs at Clemson were reorgan
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant research university in Gainesville, United States. It is a senior member of the State University System of Florida; the university traces its origins to 1853 and has operated continuously on its Gainesville campus since September 1906. The University of Florida is one of sixty-two elected member institutions of the Association of American Universities, the association of preeminent North American research universities, the only AAU member university in Florida; the university is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. After the Florida state legislature's creation of performance standards in 2013, the Florida Board of Governors designated the University of Florida as one of the three "preeminent universities" among the twelve universities of the State University System of Florida. For 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Florida as the eighth best public university in the United States.
The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Schools. It is the third largest Florida university by student population, is the eighth largest single-campus university in the United States with 54,906 students enrolled for the fall 2018 semester; the University of Florida is home to sixteen academic colleges and more than 150 research centers and institutes. It offers multiple graduate professional programs—including business administration, law, medicine and veterinary medicine—on one contiguous campus, administers 123 master's degree programs and seventy-six doctoral degree programs in eighty-seven schools and departments; the university's seal is the seal of the state of Florida, on the state flag. The University of Florida's intercollegiate sports teams known by their "Florida Gators" nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. In their 111-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 41 national team championships, 36 of which are NCAA titles, Florida athletes have won 275 individual national championships.
In addition, University of Florida students and alumni have won 126 Olympic medals including 60 gold medals. The University of Florida traces its origins to 1853, when the East Florida Seminary, the oldest of the University of Florida's four predecessor institutions, was founded in Ocala, Florida. On January 6, 1853, Governor Thomas Brown signed a bill that provided public support for higher education in Florida. Gilbert Kingsbury was the first person to take advantage of the legislation, established the East Florida Seminary, which operated until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861; the East Florida Seminary was Florida's first state-supported institution of higher learning. James Henry Roper, an educator from North Carolina and a state senator from Alachua County, had opened a school in Gainesville, the Gainesville Academy, in 1858. In 1866, Roper offered his land and school to the State of Florida in exchange for the East Florida Seminary's relocation to Gainesville; the second major precursor to the University of Florida was the Florida Agricultural College, established at Lake City by Jordan Probst in 1884.
Florida Agricultural College became the state's first land-grant college under the Morrill Act. In 1903, the Florida Legislature, desiring to expand the school's outlook and curriculum beyond its agricultural and engineering origins, changed the name of Florida Agricultural College to the "University of Florida," a name the school would hold for only two years. In 1905, the Florida Legislature passed the Buckman Act, which consolidated the state's publicly supported higher education institutions; the member of the legislature who wrote the act, Henry Holland Buckman became the namesake of Buckman Hall, one of the first buildings constructed on the new university's campus. The Buckman Act organized the State University System of Florida and created the Florida Board of Control to govern the system, it abolished the six pre-existing state-supported institutions of higher education, consolidated the assets and academic programs of four of them to form the new "University of the State of Florida."
The four predecessor institutions consolidated to form the new university included the University of Florida at Lake City in Lake City, the East Florida Seminary in Gainesville, the St. Petersburg Normal and Industrial School in St. Petersburg, the South Florida Military College in Bartow; the Buckman Act consolidated the colleges and schools into three institutions segregated by race and gender—the University of the State of Florida for white men, the Florida Female College for white women, the State Normal School for Colored Students for African-American men and women. The City of Gainesville, led by its Mayor William Reuben Thomas, campaigned to be home to the new university. On July 6, 1905, the Board of Control selected Gainesville for the new university campus. Andrew Sledd, president of the pre-existing University of Florida at Lake City, was selected to be the first president of the new University of the State of Florida; the 1905-1906 academic year was a year of transition. Architect William A. Edwards designed the first official campus buildings in the Collegiate Gothic style.
Classes began on the new Gainesville campus with 102 students enrolled. In 1909, the school's name
University of Florida Campus Historic District
The University of Florida Campus Historic District is a historic district on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The district, bounded by West University Avenue, Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road and Gale Lemerand Drive, encompasses 650 acres and contains 11 listed buildings plus contributing properties. On April 20, 1989, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. On June 24, 2008, additional information was approved which resulted in the addition of 6 contributing properties Note: These were all designed by William Augustus Edwards, although Rolfs Hall was finished by Rudolph Weaver. Note: These were designed by Rudolph Weaver, except for University Auditorium, designed by William Augustus Edwards. Note: These are outside the district: Johnson Hall was UFs original dining hall. Located west of Dauer, it was designed by William Augustus Edwards, built 1912 and burned 1987; the Academic Advising Center now occupies the site. Old Benton Hall, was designed by William Augustus Edwards, built 1911 and demolished 1966.
Grinter Hall, built in 1971, now occupies the site. Original Post Office, third building on campus, demolished before 1977 to make way for General Purpose Building A, now Turlington Hall. In 1927 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. did a landscape plan for UF. In 1931 the central plaza became the Plaza of the Americas. Buildings at the University of Florida List of Registered Historic Places in Alachua County, Florida Murphree Area Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs - Alachua County Historic Markers in Alachua County University of Florida Historic Sites Guide UF Preservation Plan & Guidelines for Rehabilitation & New Construction UF Historic Campus Brochure and Map: 2 pages
Tift County Courthouse
The Tift County Courthouse, built in 1912-1913, is a historic courthouse building located in Tifton, Georgia. It was designed by Atlanta-based architect William Augustus Edwards who designed one other courthouse in Georgia, two in Florida and nine in South Carolina as well as academic buildings at 12 institutions in Florida and South Carolina. On September 18, 1980, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places listings in Tift County, Georgia National Register listings for Tift County University of Florida biography of William Augustus Edwards Multiple Resource Area for 4 of the 9 courthouses designed by William Augustus Edwards - 12 pages