Charles I of England
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life, he became heir apparent to the thrones of England and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, failed to aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, helped precipitate his own downfall. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.
Charles was tried and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared; the monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.
By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles, his speech development was slow, he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, made a Knight of the Bath. Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages and religion. In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Charles conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets.
He became an adept horseman and marksman, took up fencing. So, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid. Charles, who turned 12 two weeks became heir apparent; as the eldest surviving son of the sovereign, Charles automatically gained several titles. Four years in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In 1613, his sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, moved to Heidelberg. In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia; the following year, the Bohemians rebelled. In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War.
The conflict confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public grew to see
Joseph Caryl was an English ejected minister. He was born in London, educated at Merchant Taylors' School, graduated at Exeter College and became preacher at Lincoln's Inn, he preached before the Long Parliament, was a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643. By order of the parliament he attended Charles I in Holmby House, in 1650 he was sent with John Owen to accompany Cromwell to Scotland. In 1662, following the Restoration, he was ejected from his church of St Magnus-the-Martyr near London Bridge, he continued, however, to minister to an Independent congregation in London till his death in March 1673, when John Owen succeeded him. His piety and learning are displayed in his commentary on Job. Joseph Caryl married, his daughter Elizabeth married the merchant Benjamin Shute, he changed his name, became John Barrington, 1st Viscount Barrington. Works by Joseph Caryl at Post-Reformation Digital LibraryAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Caryl, Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Cambridgeshire is a county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east and Hertfordshire to the south, Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The city of Cambridge is the county town. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and Huntingdon and Peterborough, the former covering the historic county of Cambridgeshire and the latter covering the historic county of Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough part of Northamptonshire, it contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen. Local government is divided between Cambridgeshire County Council and Peterborough City Council, since 1998, forms a separate unitary authority. Under the county council, there are five district councils, Cambridge City Council, South Cambridgeshire District Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council and Fenland District Council. Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of Flag Fen in Fengate, one of the earliest-known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, compared in importance to Balbridie in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Must Farm quarry, at Whittlesey has been described as'Britain's Pompeii due to its good condition, including the'best-preserved Bronze Age dwellings found'. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were found in Isleham. Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire". Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for the area in the south around Cambridge, the liberty of the Isle of Ely. In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form the Isle of Ely. Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west and Peterborough, formed in 1965, by the merger of Huntingdonshire with the Soke of Peterborough; the resulting county was called Cambridgeshire.
Since 1998, the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area, as a unitary authority. It is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, joint functions such as policing and the fire service. In 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife unofficially designated Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower; the Cambridgeshire Regiment, the county-based army unit, fought in the Boer War in South Africa, the First World War and Second World War. Due to the county's flat terrain and proximity to the continent, during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, the allied USAAF. In recognition of this collaboration, the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial is located in Madingley, it is the only WWII burial ground in England for American servicemen. Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a "Tyke" from Yorkshire and a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire; the traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire are "Cambridgeshire Camel"or "Cambridgeshire Crane", referring to the wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens.
The term "Fen Tigers" is sometimes used to describe the people who work in the fenlands. Original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies. See Geology of CambridgeshireLarge areas of the county are low-lying and Holme Fen is notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2.75 m below sea level. The highest point is in the village of Great Chishill at 146 m above sea level. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill and Wandlebury Hill in the Gog Magog Hills, Rivey Hill above Linton, Rowley's Hill and the Madingley Hills. Cambridgeshire contains all its green belt around the city of Cambridge, extending to places such as Waterbeach, Duxford, Little & Great Abingdon and other communities a few miles away in nearby districts, to afford a protection from the conurbation, it was first drawn up in the 1950s. Cambridgeshire contains seven Parliamentary constituencies: This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Cambridgeshire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English Pounds Sterling.
AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the St Ives area. RAF Alconbury, 3 miles north of Huntingdon, is being reorganised after a period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF, to be the focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with activities at Upwood and Molesworth being transferred there. Most of Cambridgeshire is agricultural. Close to Cambridge is the so-called Silicon Fen area of high-technology companies. ARM Limited is based in Cherry Hinton. Cambridgeshire has a comprehensive education system with 12 independent schools and over 240 state schools, not including sixth form colleges; some of the secondary schools act as institutions unique to Cambridgeshire. For example, Bottisham Village College. Cambridgeshire is home to a number of institutes of higher education: The University of Cambridge – second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, regarded as one of the most prestigious a
The Westminster Assembly of Divines was a council of divines and members of the English Parliament appointed from 1643 to 1653 to restructure the Church of England. Several Scots attended, the Assembly's work was adopted by the Church of Scotland; as many as 121 ministers were called to the Assembly, with nineteen others added to replace those who did not attend or could no longer attend. It produced a new Form of Church Government, a Confession of Faith or statement of belief, two catechisms or manuals for religious instruction, a liturgical manual, the Directory for Public Worship, for the Churches of England and Scotland; the Confession and catechisms were adopted as doctrinal standards in the Church of Scotland and other Presbyterian churches, where they remain normative. Amended versions of the Confession were adopted in Congregational and Baptist churches in England and New England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; the Confession became influential throughout the English-speaking world, but in American Protestant theology.
The Assembly was called by the Long Parliament before and during the beginning of the First English Civil War. The Long Parliament was influenced by Puritanism, a religious movement which sought to further reform the church, they were opposed to the religious policies of King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. As part of a military alliance with Scotland, Parliament agreed that the outcome of the Assembly would bring the English Church into closer conformity with the Church of Scotland; the Scottish Church was governed by a system of elected assemblies of elders called presbyterianism, rather than rule by bishops, called episcopalianism, used in the English church. Scottish commissioners advised the Assembly as part of the agreement. Disagreements over church government caused open division in the Assembly, despite attempts to maintain unity; the party of divines who favoured presbyterianism was in the majority, but the congregationalist party, which held greater influence in the military, favoured autonomy for individual congregations rather than the subjection of congregations to regional and national assemblies entailed in presbyterianism.
Parliament adopted a presbyterian form of government but lacked the power to implement it. During the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, all of the documents of the Assembly were repudiated and episcopal church government was reinstated in England; the Assembly worked in the Reformed Protestant theological tradition known as Calvinism. It took the Bible as the authoritative word of God, from which all theological reflection must be based; the divines were committed to the Reformed doctrine of predestination — that God chooses certain men to be saved and enjoy eternal life rather than eternal punishment. There was some disagreement at the Assembly over the doctrine of particular redemption — that Christ died only for those chosen for salvation; the Assembly held to Reformed covenant theology, a framework for interpreting the Bible. The Assembly's Confession is the first of the Reformed confessions to teach a doctrine called the covenant of works, which teaches that before the fall of man, God promised eternal life to Adam on condition that he obeyed God.
Parliament called the Westminster Assembly during a time of increasing hostility between Charles I, monarch of England and Scotland, the Puritans. Puritans could be distinguished by their insistence that worship practices be supported implicitly or explicitly by the Bible, while their opponents gave greater authority to traditional customs, they believed the Church of England, which had separated itself from the Catholic Church during the English Reformation, was still too influenced by Catholicism. They sought to rid the nation of any of these remaining influences; this included rule by a hierarchy of bishops. Puritans, unlike separatists, did not leave the established church. Under Charles, the Puritans' opponents were placed in high positions of authority, most notably William Laud, made Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633 though these "high churchmen" were in the minority. Puritans were forced to face fines and imprisonment. Laud promoted advocates of Arminianism, a theological perspective opposed to the Reformed theology of the Puritans.
Worship practices such as kneeling at communion, bowing at the name of Christ, the placement of communion tables at the East end of churches were reinstated. To the Puritans, these seemed to be a step in the direction of Catholicism. There were conflicts between the king and the Scots, whose church was ruled by a system known as presbyterianism, which features elected assemblies. James, Charles's predecessor as King of Scotland, made it clear that he intended to impose elements of episcopal church government and the Book of Common Prayer on the Scots beginning in 1604; the Scots considered this a reversion to Roman Catholicism. Charles furthered English impositions on the Church of Scotland in 1636 and 1637; this led to the First Bishops' War between Charles and the Scots in 1639. Charles called what came to be known as the Short Parliament to raise funds for the war, but he soon dissolved it when it began voicing opposition to his policies. Following the Second Bishops' War with the Scots in 1640, Charles was forced to call another parliament to raise additional funds.
What came to be known as the Long Parliament began to voice vague grievances against Charles, many of which were religious in nature. Parliament had many Puritans and Puritan-sympathizing members, who opposed the existing episcopal system, but there was little agreement over what shape the church s
Matthew Wren was an influential English clergyman and scholar. He attended Merchant Taylors' School and proceeded in 1601 to Pembroke College, where he was a protégé of Lancelot Andrewes, he became a Fellow in 1605 and President. He was Master of Peterhouse from 1625 to 1634. From this point, his rise was rapid, he accompanied Charles I to Holyrood Palace for his Scottish coronation in 1633, was appointed chaplain and Clerk of the Closet. He became Bishop of Hereford in 1634, Norwich in 1635, Ely in 1638. However, his strong support of Archbishop Laud, his toughness on Puritans, led to his being imprisoned in the Tower of London by the Parliamentarian faction from 1641 to 1659. Unlike Laud, he survived, was allowed the freedom to write notes on improvements to the Book of Common Prayer, on which he had some influence. While in the Tower, he vowed to devote a sum of money to "some holy and pious employment" should he be released. To fulfil this vow, he chose to pay for a new Chapel for Pembroke College, had it built by his nephew Christopher Wren — one of his first buildings, consecrated in 1665.
Matthew Wren led the movement to rebuild St Paul's Cathedral after it had been damaged by the Puritans, again his nephew accomplished the task. He married daughter of Thomas Cutler of Ipswich, their eldest son was secretary to the Duke of York. He died at Ely House, Holborn, on 24 April 1667, was buried in the chapel he had built at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. President of Pembroke College Prebendary of Winchester Master of Peterhouse, 1625–1634 Chaplain to the Prince Charles Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, 1628–1629 Dean of Windsor and Wolverhampton Registrar of the Order of the Garter Clerk of the Closet 1633–36 Governor of Charterhouse, London Bishop of Hereford Prebendary of Westminster Bishop of Norwich Dean of the Chapel Royal, London Bishop of Ely "Wren, Matthew". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. A Parliamentarian view of him and of his arrest