Lord Cranstoun was a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created on 17 November 1609 for Sir William Cranstoun of that Ilk, sometimes designated'of Morristoun', Berwickshire. On the death of the eleventh lord, unmarried, in 1869, the peerage became extinct. William Cranstoun, 1st Lord Cranstoun John Cranstoun, 2nd Lord Cranstoun William Cranstoun, 3rd Lord Cranstoun James Cranstoun, 4th Lord Cranstoun William Cranstoun, 5th Lord Cranstoun James Cranstoun, 6th Lord Cranstoun William Cranstoun, 7th Lord Cranstoun James Cranstoun, 8th Lord Cranstoun James Edmund Cranstoun, 9th Lord Cranstoun James Edward Cranstoun, 10th Lord Cranstoun Charles Frederick Cranstoun, 11th Lord Cranstoun Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton
Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton was a powerful Jacobite politician, was one of the few people in English history, the first since the 15th century, to have been raised to a Dukedom whilst still a minor and not related to the monarch. He was the son of Thomas "Honest Tom" Wharton, the Whig partisan, his second wife Lucy Loftus; when Thomas died in 1715, Philip 16 years old, succeeded him as 2nd Marquess of Wharton and 2nd Marquess of Malmesbury in the Peerage of Great Britain and 2nd Marquess of Catherlough in the Peerage of Ireland. Just a month after he inherited his titles, he eloped with Martha Holmes, the daughter of Major-General Richard Holmes. Wharton did not get control of his father's extensive estate, for it was put in the care of Philip's mother and Thomas's Whig party friends. Thereafter, young Wharton began to travel, he had been raised with an excellent education and prepared for a life as a public speaker, Wharton was eloquent and witty. He travelled to Switzerland with a severe Calvinist tutor whose authority he resented.
He met with James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender" and son of James II, sometimes known in Europe as the rightful James III, or Prince James, the Prince of Wales who created him Jacobite Duke of Northumberland in 1716. Wharton went to Ireland where, at the age of 18, he entered the Irish House of Lords as Marquess Catherlough; when he was 19 years old he was created Duke of Wharton in 1718 by George I in the King's effort to solidify his support. In 1719, Wharton's wife gave birth to a son named Thomas, but the baby died in a smallpox epidemic the next year. From that point on, Wharton had little to do with his wife. Wharton turned Jacobite, he began signing his name "Philip James Wharton" to indicate his allegiance. Because he was a powerful speaker, an elegant writer, a wealthy peer, a man with a title, the new Hanoverians always sought to gain him as an ally, while the old Jacobites were, at least zealous to keep him on their side. Before his losses in the South Sea Bubble stock market crash of 1720, Wharton collected debts.
He was so indebted that he sold his Irish estates and used that money to invest in South Sea Company stock. When the Bubble burst, he lost the staggering sum of £120,000. In response, he held a public funeral for the South Sea Company. Wharton accumulated more debts. In 1719 Wharton is credited with founding the original Hellfire Club. Which performed parodies of religious rites, he became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England in 1723, was active in the House of Lords in opposition to Robert Walpole. In 1723, he wrote and spoke in favour of the exoneration of Francis Atterbury, the accused Jacobite bishop, although Atterbury's Jacobitism was superficial, he published The True Briton as a periodical to oppose the rise of Walpole. He was in favour of the Pretender not for religious or nationalist reasons but, he explained, because he was a true Old Whig like his father, whose principles had been betrayed by Walpole and the new non-native royals, his substantive change to Jacobitism occurred in 1725, when Wharton joined Earl Orrery in attacking the Court.
He made allies among City politicians, valuable to the Jacobites as Jacobitism had been associated with Scotland and disaffected country squires. The City had been a Whig stronghold and any erosion in their support would have powerful consequences. Indeed, although Wharton did not benefit from it, much of this would bear fruit in the emergence of the Patriot Whigs a few years later. At the same time, Wharton was £70,000 in debt. Wharton's debts were impossible for him to overcome, he accepted or sought the position as Jacobite ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna in 1725, but the Austrians did not like Wharton, whom they did not consider a satisfactory diplomat. His dissipated lifestyle offended the more severe Austrians, he went to Rome, where James gave him the Order of the Garter, which Wharton wore publicly. He moved on to Madrid. Wharton's wife died in 1726, he married Maria Theresa O'Neill O'Beirne only three months later. Walpole's spies were informed of Wharton's activities and other Jacobites considered him a dangerous person to be near.
Additionally, his behaviour was growing more offensive with drunkenness, but with inappropriate actions. At the reception for his wedding, he exposed himself to the wedding party to show her "what she was to have that night in her Gutts". Francis Atterbury condemned him. In 1728, Wharton began to help Nathaniel Mist with Mist's Weekly Journal, he wrote the infamous "Persian Letter" that caused the Walpole ministry to respond violently with arrests and the destruction of the presses. The power of Wharton's name and eloquence was such that Walpole offered Wharton a pardon and forgiveness of his debts if he were to agree to leave off writing, he wrote, that year, a powerful piece against the "corruption" of Whig causes under Walpole entitled, "Reasons for Leaving his Native Country." Edward Young modelled "Lorenzo" in Night Thoughts on Wharton. Alexander Pope referred to Wharton as "the scorn and wonder of our days" – a man "Too rash for thought, for action too refined". Wharton was soon stealing food from acquaintances and seeking money anywhere he could get it
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal was an English peer and politician. He was the son of Mary Elizabeth Savile. Upon the death of his uncle Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk, he inherited the titles of 17th Baron Furnivall and 8th Duke of Norfolk, he married Maria Shireburn, daughter of Sir Nicholas Shireburn, 1st and last Bt. of Stonyhurst Hall, on 26 May 1709, when she was age 16 and a half, with a fortune of more than £30,000. At the time of the Jacobite Rising of 1715 he used his influence to secure the acquittal of his brother Edward on the charge of high treason; the Duke himself was arrested on 29 October 1722 under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, was imprisoned in the Tower of London. His wife, refused permission to visit, prevailed upon the Earl of Carlisle to act as surety for his bail in May 1723. Howard was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England from 1729-30, his marriage is said to have been unhappy, his wife, a staunch Catholic and Jacobite, separated from him when he—in her words—"truckled to the Usurper".
The Duke died childless on 23 December 1732 at age 49. Upon his death, the title passed to his brother Edward. Dukes of Norfolk family tree
Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos
Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos, KB, known from 1727 to 1744 by the courtesy title Marquess of Carnarvon, was the second son of the 1st Duke of Chandos and his first wife Mary Lake. He was the Member of Parliament for Hereford from 1727 to 1734 and for Steyning between 1734 and 1741. Henry Brydges was born the second son of the Hon. James Brydges, eldest son of the 8th Baron Chandos, he was educated at St John's College, Cambridge. On his father succeeding as 9th Baron Chandos in 1714, he became The Hon. Henry Brydges, in 1719, on his father being created Duke of Chandos, he became Lord Henry Brydges, his elder brother died without male issue in 1727, at which point he became heir to the dukedom and acquired the courtesy title Marquess of Carnarvon. From 1729 to 1735 Carnarvon was Master of the Horse to Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1732 was invested as a Knight of the Bath. On the death of his father, he succeeded as 2nd Duke of Chandos, he was described by King George II as "a hot headed, half-witted coxcomb".
When his father died on 9 August 1744, the estate was burdened by debt, the family having lost money in the South Sea Bubble. A decision was made to demolish Cannons. In 1747 a twelve-day demolition sale saw both the contents and the structure of the house itself sold piecemeal; the auction of the contents, beginning on 1 June 1767, of the house and out-house materials, starting on 16 June, were each handled by the respected auctioneer Christopher Cock. On 21 December 1728 he married Lady Mary Bruce, daughter of Charles Bruce, 4th Earl of Elgin and Lady Anne Saville, they had two children who survived childhood, Lady Caroline Brydges and James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos who were painted by Bartholomew Dandridge in 1738The Duke's second marriage was unconventional. In 1744 he married a former chambermaid from Newbury in Berkshire, they had met a few years earlier in circumstances described by a witness as follows: The Duke of Chandos and a companion dined at the Pelican, Newbury, on the way to London.
A stir in the Inn yard led to their being told that a man was going to sell his wife, they are leading her up with a halter around her neck. They went to see; the Duke was smitten with her beauty and patient acquiescence in a process which would free her from a harsh and ill-conditioned husband. He bought her, subsequently married her Christmas Day, 1744. Anne died in 1759, without male issue, Chandos married for a third time in 1767 to Elizabeth Major, daughter of Sir John Major, 1st Baronet
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, was a British nobleman and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, he held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket. Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom, he inherited his father's love of sports cricket. He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship. March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Lady Sarah Cadogan, was just 13 in order to use Lady Sarah's large dowry to pay his considerable debts, they were married at The Hague. In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second.
He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters, their marriage was a great success by Georgian standards. Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century, one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone; the 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early cricket's greatest patron. Although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom, he captained his own team and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, such as his groom Thomas Waymark. When he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers, his earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gage's XI on 20 July 1725, mentioned in a surviving letter from Sir William to the Duke.
Records have survived of four matches played by Richmond's team in the 1727 season. Two were against two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick; these last two games are significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points, it is believed that this was the first time that rules were formally agreed, although rules as such existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744. In early times, the rules were subject to local variations; the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains. In 1728, Richmond's Sussex played twice against Edwin Stead's Kent and lost both matches, " men have been too expert for those of Sussex". In 1730, Richmond's team played two matches against Gage's XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury.
Richmond lost to Andrews. The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was "put off on account of Waymark, the Duke's man, being ill". In 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by one Thomas Chambers at an unspecified venue in Chichester. Chambers' team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August; the return match was played for 200 guineas and it is notable as the earliest match of which the team scores are known: Richmond's XI 79, Chambers' XI 119. The game ended promptly at a pre-agreed time although Chambers' XI with "four or five more to have come in" and needing "about 8 to 10 notches" had the upper hand; the end result caused a fracas among the crowd at Richmond Green, who were incensed by the prompt finish because the Duke of Richmond had arrived late and delayed the start of the game.
The riot resulted in some of the Sussex players "having the shirts torn off their backs" and it was said "a law suit would commence about the play". In a note about another match involving Chambers' XI in September, G. B. Buckley has recorded that Richmond may have conceded the result to Chambers to stop the threat of litigation. Richmond is not mentioned in cricket sources again for ten years, he may have stepped aside after the 1731 fracas but it is more that he terminated his Duke of Richmond's XI after he broke his leg in 1733 and could no longer play himself. Instead, he channelled his enthusiasm for cricket through a team from the small village of Slindon, which bordered on his Goodwood estate; the rise to fame of Slindon Cricket Club was based on the play of Richard Newland and the patronage of Richmond. On Thursday, 9 July 1741, in a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentions a conversation with John Newland regarding a Slindon v. East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier.
This is the earliest recorded mention of any of the Newland family. On 28 July, Richmond sent two letters to the Duke of Newcastle to tell him about a game that day which had resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads"; the game was at Portslade between Sl
Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon PC was a British politician and diplomat from the Villiers family. Clarendon was the second son of William Villiers, 2nd Earl of Jersey, his wife Judith Herne, daughter of Frederick Herne. Villiers received his education at Eton College and Queens' College, Cambridge. Following his graduation, he became a diplomat. Villiers became the British envoy to both the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Electorate of Saxony from 1740 to 1747. At the time both realms were in personal union under Augustus III of Poland, he was sent to Vienna, capital of the Archduchy of Austria, as an envoy to the court of Maria Theresa of Austria from 1742 to 1743. He was last sent to Berlin, capital of the Kingdom of Prussia, as an envoy to the court of Frederick II of Prussia from 1746 to 1748. Villiers was involved in domestic politics as a member of the British Whig Party, which at the time dominated the Parliament of Great Britain, he was elected to Parliament in the British general election, 1747.
He sat as a Member of Parliament for Tamworth from 1747 to 1756. He retired from all diplomatic offices at this time, he was a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, one of seven members of the Board of Admiralty exercising command over the Royal Navy from 26 February 1748 to 17 November 1756. He served under First Lords of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, George Anson, 1st Baron Ansonk throughout his term. On 3 June 1756, the barony of Hyde held by his wife's ancestors. Villiers was raised to the peerage as Baron Hyde of Hindon in the County of Wiltshire. Hyde served as Postmaster General from 1763 to 1765. On 9 September 1763, he was admitted to the Privy Council, he served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1771 to 1782 and again from 1783 to 1786. On 14 June 1776 the earldom of Clarendon, which had become extinct with the death of Henry Hyde, 4th Earl of Clarendon in 1753, was revived and Hyde was made Earl of Clarendon. In 1782 he was made a Baron of the Kingdom of Prussia, an honour which he received Royal licence to use in Kingdom of Great Britain.
Clarendon returned to the office of Postmaster-General in commission with Henry Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret, in September 1786. This was to be his final political assignment. Lord Clarendon died in December 1786, aged 77, he was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son Thomas. On 30 March 1752 he married Charlotte Capell, daughter of William Capell, 3rd Earl of Essex, his wife Jane Hyde, daughter of Henry Hyde, 4th Earl of Clarendon and Jane Leveson-Gower, they had four children: Thomas Villiers, 2nd Earl of Clarendon. John Villiers, 3rd Earl of Clarendon. George Villiers. Father of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon. Lady Charlotte Barbara Villiers, he remodelled The Grove, a country house near Watford, Hertfordshire. 1709–1747: The Honourable Thomas Villiers 1747–1756: The Honourable Thomas Villiers MP 1756–1763: The Right Honourable The Baron Hyde 1763–1776: The Right Honourable The Baron Hyde PC 1776–1786: The Right Honourable The Earl of Clarendon PC Burke's Peerage His profile in the Peerage.com "Villiers, Thomas".
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900