Duke of Devonshire
Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family. This branch of the Cavendish family has been one of the wealthiest British aristocratic families since the 16th century and has been rivalled in political influence only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Earls of Derby. Although modern usage outside of the county itself now refers to Devon as "Devonshire", the title remained "Duke of Devonshire". Despite the territorial designation of the dukedom and the subsidiary title of the earldom of Devonshire, the family estates are centred in Derbyshire; the title "Duke of Devonshire" should not be confused with the ancient title of Earl of Devon. Uniquely, every Duke of Devonshire has so far been appointed a Knight of the Garter, except the present one; the Cavendish family descends from Sir John Cavendish, who took his name from the village of Cavendish, where he held an estate in the 14th century. He served as Chief Justice of the King's Bench from 1372 to 1381, was killed in the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.
Two of his great-grandsons were George Cavendish, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey's biographer, George's younger brother Sir William Cavendish. Sir William gained great wealth from his position in the Exchequer and from unfairly taking advantage of the dissolution of the Monasteries, he married as his third wife the famous Bess of Hardwick. One of their sons, Sir Charles Cavendish, was the father of William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, while another son, Henry Cavendish, was the ancestor of the Barons Waterpark, yet another son, William Cavendish, was a politician and a supporter of the colonization of Virginia. In 1605 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Cavendish, of Hardwicke in the County of Derby, in 1618 he was further honoured when he was made Earl of Devonshire. Both titles are in the Peerage of England, he was succeeded by his eldest son, William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire, who served as Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire and was a patron of the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. On his early death in 1628 the titles passed to his son, William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire, who served as Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire.
He was succeeded by the fourth Earl. He was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and served under William III and Mary II as Lord Steward of the Household. In 1694 he was created Marquess of Duke of Devonshire in the Peerage of England, he was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Duke, who held political office as Lord President of the Council and Lord Privy Seal and was Lord-Lieutenant of Devonshire. His eldest son, the third Duke, served as Lord Privy Seal, as Lord Steward of the Household and as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. On his death the titles passed to his eldest son, the fourth Duke, a prominent politician, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Cavendish, of Hardwicke in 1751 and served as First Lord of the Treasury and titular Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1756 to 1757. Devonshire married Charlotte Boyle, 6th Baroness Clifford, daughter of the famous architect Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington.
Their third and youngest son Lord George Cavendish was recreated Earl of Burlington in 1831. Devonshire was succeeded by his eldest son, William Cavendish, who became the fifth Duke of Devonshire, he had succeeded his mother as seventh Baron Clifford in 1754. He served as Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire from 1782 to 1811 but is best remembered for his first marriage to Lady Georgiana Spencer, the celebrated beauty and society hostess, their only son, the sixth Duke, served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household from 1827 to 1828 and from 1830 to 1834. Known as the "Bachelor Duke", he never married and on his death in 1858 the barony of Clifford fell into abeyance between his sisters, he was succeeded in the other titles by his first cousin once removed, the second Earl of Burlington, who became the seventh Duke. He was the son of William Cavendish, eldest son of the aforementioned first Earl of Burlington, youngest son of the fourth Duke, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire and Derbyshire and Chancellor of the University of London and of the University of Cambridge.
He was eldest surviving son, the eighth Duke. The eighth Duke was the most famous member of the Cavendish family. Known under his courtesy title of Marquess of Hartington until 1891, he held political office for a period spanning 40 years, notably as Secretary of State for India and as Secretary of State for War, three times declined to become Prime Minister, he married Louise, Dowager Duchess of Manchester, who became known as the "Double Duchess". Devonshire was succeeded by his nephew, the ninth Duke, he was the eldest son of third son of the seventh Duke. He was a Conservative politician and served as Governor-General of Canada from 1916 to 1921 and as Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1922 to 1924, his elder son, the tenth Duke a Conservative politician, served as Under-Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, as Under-Secretary of State for India and Burma and as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. He married Lady Mary Gascoyne-Cecil, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Elizabeth II from 1953 to 1966.
Their elder son and heir apparent William Caven
Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington
Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork, was an Anglo-Irish architect and noble called the "Apollo of the Arts" and the "Architect Earl". The son of the 2nd Earl of Burlington and 3rd Earl of Cork, Burlington never took more than a passing interest in politics despite his position as a Privy Counsellor and a member of both the British House of Lords and the Irish House of Lords. Lord Burlington is remembered for bringing Palladian architecture to Ireland, his major projects include Westminster School, Chiswick House and Northwick Park. Lord Burlington was born in Yorkshire into a wealthy Anglo-Irish aristocratic family as the only son of Charles Boyle, 2nd Earl of Burlington and his wife, Juliana Noel. Known as "the Architect Earl", Burlington was instrumental in the revival of Palladian architecture in both Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, he succeeded to his titles and extensive estates in Yorkshire and Ireland at the age of nine, after his father's death in February 1704.
During his minority, which lasted until 1715, his English and Irish lands and political interests were managed on his behalf by his mother and guardian, the Dowager Countess Juliana. He showed an early love of music. Georg Frideric Handel dedicated two operas to him while staying at his residence Burlington House: Teseo and Amadigi di Gaula. According to Hawkins, Francesco Barsanti dedicated the six recorder sonatas of his Op. 1 to Lord Burlington, although the dedication must have appeared on the edition sold by Peter Bressan, before Walsh & Hare engraved the works c. 1727. Three foreign Grand Tours taken between 1714 and 1719, a further trip to Paris in 1726, gave him opportunities to develop his taste, his professional skill as an architect was extraordinary in an English aristocrat. He carried his copy of Andrea Palladio's book I quattro libri dell'architettura with him when touring the Veneto in 1719, but made notes on a number of blank pages, having found the region flooded and many villas inaccessible.
It was on this tour. In 1719, he was one of the main subscribers of the Royal Academy of Music, a corporation that produced baroque opera on stage. Lord Burlington's first project, was one of his own London residences, Burlington House, where he dismissed his baroque architect James Gibbs when he returned from the continent in 1719, employed the Scottish architect Colen Campbell, with the history-painter-turned-designer William Kent assigned for the interiors; the courtyard front of Burlington House, prominently sited in Piccadilly, was the first major executed statement of Neo-Palladianism. In the 1720s, Burlington and Campbell parted, Burlington was assisted in his projects by the young Henry Flitcroft, who developed into a major architect of the second Neo-Palladian generation, Daniel Garrett, a straightforward Palladian architect of the second rank, some draughtsmen. Lord Burlington never inspected Roman ruins or made detailed drawings on the sites. Burlington's Palladio drawings include many reconstructions of Vitruvius' Roman buildings, which he planned to publish.
In the meantime, he adapted the palazzo facade in the illustration for the London house of General Wade at Old Burlington Street in 1723, published for Vitruvius Britannicus iii. This publication put a unknown Palladio design into circulation. Another source of his inspiration were drawings he collected, some drawings of Palladio himself which had belonged to Inigo Jones, many more of Inigo Jones' pupil John Webb, which William Kent published in 1727 as "Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones"... with some additional designs that were by Kent and Burlington. The important role of Jones' pupil Webb in transmitting the palladian-neo-palladian heritage was not understood until the 20th century. By the early 1730s, Palladian style had triumphed as the accepted manner for a British country house or public building. For the rest of his life, Lord Burlington was "the Apollo of the arts" as Horace Walpole phrased it— and Kent, "his proper priest." In 1739, Lord Burlington was involved in the founding of a new charitable organisation called the Foundling Hospital.
Burlington was a governor of the charity, but did not formally take part in planning the construction of this large Bloomsbury children's home, completed in 1742. The architect for the building was a Theodore Jacobsen, who took on the commission as an act of charity. Many of Lord Burlington's projects have suffered from rebuilding or additions, from fire, or from losses due to urban sprawl. In many cases, his ideas were informal: at Holkham Hall, the architect Matthew Brettingham recalled that "the general ideas were first struck out by the Earl of Burlington and the Earl of Leicester, assisted by Mr. William Kent." Brettingham's engraved publication of Holkham credited Burlington with the ceilings for the portico and the north dressing-room. Lord Burlington's architectural drawings, inherited by his son-in-law, William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, are preserved at Chatsworth House, enable attributions that would not otherwise be possible. In 1751, he sent some of his drawings to Francesco Algarotti in Potsdam, together with a book on Vitruvius.
Burlington House, London: Lord Burlington's own contribution to the house is to have been restricted to the former colonnade of the building. A monumental screening gateway to Piccadilly was built and the principle interiors of the house were reconstructed
Henry Currey (architect)
Henry Currey was an English architect and surveyor. He was born in October 1820, the third son of a solicitor, Benjamin Currey of Old Palace Yard, Westminster, he married Emily Harriet Rugge-Price in Spring Grove, London on 2 April 1845. Emily, born in 1818 and two years Henry's senior, was the daughter of Sir Charles Rugge-Price. There were four children from the marriage: Annette, Charles and Percival, who became an architect. Educated at Dr Pinckney's School at East Sheen and at Eton College, where he rowed in the school eight against Westminster, Currey was articled to the architect Decimus Burton for five years, he worked for five years at the office of William Cubitt and Company of Gray's Inn Road, London. His first medical works were for the Surrey Lunatic Asylum, soon after, in 1847, he was appointed as the architect and surveyor to the governors of St Thomas' Hospital, a post he held until his death. In this post, he designed the new hospital, built in the'pavilion style', which opened on the Albert Embankment by Westminster Bridge in 1871, including a teaching hospital and a nursing school to a design approved by Florence Nightingale.
He was the architect and surveyor to Coram's Foundling Hospital and to the Magdalen Hospital in London. Other notable works include: the hotel at London Bridge Station, 1861–62, a grand 250-room terminus hotel built at a cost of £111,000 turned into offices for the LBSCR in 1892 and demolished after bomb damage in 1941 the Pump Room at Buxton, 1875 and the nearby Natural Baths, he was a Fellow of the RIBA from 1856 and served as its vice-president in 1874–77 and 1889–93. He was a fellow of the Surveyors' Institute and an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers. In 1859, he was appointed by the 7th Duke of Devonshire, the owner of many buildings and much land in Eastbourne, to replace his former architect, James Berry. In 1870, he designed the original College House for Eastbourne College, a project, followed three years by drawings for the chapel, in 1879, Currey was to design the school's Cavendish Library; the gables and dormer windows of many of the large houses in the same part of Eastbourne bear witness to his style of architecture.
Between 1874 and 1875, he designed the Winter Garden and Pavilion in Devonshire Park, both of which are now Grade II listed buildings. Nearby is the Devonshire Park Theatre, in Italianate style, a building, influenced by his travels to Italy in the early 1860s; the Queen's Hotel on Marine Parade was his largest single project in the town. The building took a mere 11 months to erect and opened for guests in June 1880; the hotel stands in a prominent position opposite the pier and enjoys easterly views to Hastings and to Beachy Head in the west. Between 1881 and 1883, he designed the Bedfordwell Pumping Station for the Eastbourne Waterworks Company, his Kentish ragstone and Bath Stone St Peter's Church, again in the'Lower Meads' area of the town, was completed in 1895 in Early English Gothic Revival style and could accommodate 800 worshippers. It was, made redundant and demolished in 1971, he died at his home, The Chestnuts, Lawrie Park, Sydenham, on 23 November 1900 and was buried in West Norwood Cemetery.
Listed buildings in Eastbourne List of demolished places of worship in East Sussex Works by or about Henry Currey at Internet Archive For more about Henry Currey see For more about St Thomas's Hospital see British History Online at
Compton Place is a mansion house in the parish of Eastbourne, East Sussex, England. It was rebuilt from 1726 by Sir Spencer Compton, to the design of the architect Colen Campbell, was completed after Campbell's death by William Kent; the predecessor Elizabethan/Jacobean mansion house on the site was called East Borne or Borne Place and was the seat of Sir William Wilson, 1st Baronet. The tenant from 1714 was Spencer Compton, Treasurer to George, Prince of Wales. In 1724 Compton liked the place well enough to purchase the house and estate outright and to rename it Compton Place; the E-shaped plan, of which the central range had been doubled in depth in the seventeenth century, was retained. Campbell presented a plan for the south elevation, modified in the execution, but he was principally involved in remaking the interiors, where his presence is commemorated in the stucco portrait bust of him in the soffit of the bay window at the south end of the Gallery, the sole surviving contemporary image of the Scottish architect.
The London plasterer John Hughes supervised the plasterwork. Carving in the house was by the London carver John Richards. Opening out of the south end of the Gallery are state bedroom with alcoves. Engravings of the alcove and the compartmented ceiling of the East Bedroom appear in Campbells Five Orders; the Duke's Bedroom", "one of the most opulent examples in England", has a stucco relief following Titian's Venus and Adonis. Sir Spencer was created Earl of Wilmington in 1728. At his death in 1743, Compton Place passed to his nephew the 5th Earl of Northampton, it passed by marriage in 1759 to George Cavendish, 1st Earl of Burlington. He renovated the building in 1806; when the brick and flint exterior was faced with stucco and composition and a Doric peristyle added to the bay window. The estate passed down to his grandson 7th Duke of Devonshire, who from 1859 laid out the new town of Eastbourne on the south half of the estate. More the park north and east of the house has been laid out in golf courses of the Royal Eastbourne Golf Club, whose first President was William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, the dukes continue to be Presidents.
In 1954, as part of the 11th Duke's retrenchment following the 80% death duties levied on his father's estate, the house was let to a language school, its successor remains in residence as of 2009. Listed buildings in Eastbourne
Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey
Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey was a Scottish judge and literary critic. He was born in the son of George Jeffrey, a clerk in the Court of Session. After attending the Royal High School for six years, he studied at the University of Glasgow from 1787 to May 1789, at Queen's College, from September 1791 to June 1792, he had begun the study of law at Edinburgh before going to Oxford, returned to it afterwards. He became a member of the Speculative Society, where he measured himself in debate with Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham, Francis Horner, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Kinnaird and others, he was admitted to the Scottish bar in December 1794, having abandoned the Tory principles in which he had been educated, he found that his Whig politics hampered his legal prospects. In consequence of his lack of success at the bar he went to London in 1798 to try his hand at journalism, but without success, his marriage to Catherine Wilson in 1801 made the question of a settled income more pressing. A project for a new review, brought up by Sydney Smith in Jeffrey's flat in the presence of Henry Brougham, Francis Horner and others, resulted in the appearance on 10 October 1802 of the Edinburgh Review.
At the outset the Review did not have an editor. The first three numbers were edited by Sydney Smith. On his leaving for England the work devolved chiefly on Jeffrey, who, by an arrangement with Archibald Constable, the publisher, was appointed editor at a fixed salary. Most of those involved were Whigs; this article expressed despair of the success of the British arms in Spain, Scott at once withdrew his subscription, the Quarterly being soon afterwards started in opposition. According to Lord Cockburn the effect of the first number of the Edinburgh Review was "electrical." The English reviews were at that time publishers' organs, with articles by hack writers instructed to obey the publishers' interests. The Edinburgh Review, on the other hand, enlisted a brilliant and independent staff of contributors, guided by the editor, not the publisher, they received sixteen guineas a sheet, increased subsequently to twenty-five guineas in many cases, instead of the two guineas earned by London reviewers.
The review was not limited to literary criticism but became the accredited organ of moderate Whig public opinion. The particular work which provided the starting-point of an article was in many cases the occasion for the exposition, always brilliant and incisive, of the author's views on politics, social subjects, ethics or literature; these general principles and the novelty of the method ensured the success of the undertaking after the original circle of exceptionally able men who founded it had been dispersed. It had a circulation of 12,000. Jeffrey's editorship lasted about twenty-six years, ceasing with the ninety-eighth number, published in June 1829, when he resigned in favour of Macvey Napier. Jeffrey's own contributions numbered two hundred, all except six being written before his resignation of the editorship, he wrote at odd moments of leisure and with little special preparation. Great fluency and ease of diction, considerable warmth of imagination and moral sentiment, a sharp eye to discover any oddity of style or violation of the accepted canons of good taste, made his criticisms pungent and effective.
But the essential narrowness and timidity of his general outlook prevented him from detecting and estimating latent forces, either in politics or in matters intellectual and moral. A criticism in the sixteenth number of the Review on the morality of Thomas Moore's poems led in 1806 to a duel between the two authors at Chalk Farm; the proceedings were stopped by the police, Jeffrey's pistol was found to contain no bullet. The affair led to a warm friendship, Moore contributed to the Review, while Jeffrey made ample amends in a article on Lalla Rookh. Jeffrey's wife had died in 1805, in 1810 he became acquainted with Charlotte, daughter of Charles Wilkes of New York, great-niece of John Wilkes; when she returned to the United States, Jeffrey followed her, they were married in 1813. Before returning to Scotland, they visited several of the chief American cities, his experience strengthened Jeffrey in the conciliatory policy he had advocated towards the States. Notwithstanding the increasing success of the Review, Jeffrey continued to look to the bar as the chief field of his ambition.
His literary reputation helped his professional advancement. His practice extended in the civil and criminal courts, he appeared before the general assembly of the Church of Scotland; as an advocate his sharpness and rapidity of insight gave him a formidable advantage in the detection of the weaknesses of a witness and the vulnerable points of his opponent's case, while he grouped his own arguments with an admirable eye to effect excelling in eloquent closing appeals to a jury. Jeffrey was twice, in 1822, elected Rector of the University of Glasgow. In 1829 he w
Holker Hall is a owned country house located about 2 km to the southwest of the village of Cartmel, England, a location in the historic county of Lancashire. It is "the grandest of its date in Lancashire...by the best architects living in the county." The building dates from the 16th century, with alterations and rebuilding in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century rebuilding was by George Webster in Jacobean Revival style and subsequent renovations were by E. G. Paley. Hubert Austin had a joint practice with Paley by the 1870s and they both rebuilt the west wing after it was destroyed by a major fire in 1871, only a decade after Paley's previous work on the structure; the fire destroyed a number of notable artworks. Holker Hall is Paley and Austin's "most important country house commission." The architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner expressed the opinion that the west wing is the "outstanding domestic work" of Paley and Austin. In 1970 the hall itself, together with its terrace wall, were designated Grade II* Listed buildings.
The house stands in an estate of about 80 hectares, is surrounded by formal gardens and woodland. Within the grounds are six structures listed at Grade II. Since becoming a private house following the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the estate has never been sold, having passed by inheritance from the Preston family to the Lowther family, to the Cavendish family; the house and grounds are open to the public at advertised times on payment of an admission fee. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the'Holkerian' derives its name from Holker Hall; the land on which the house stands was owned by Cartmel Priory. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century it was bought by the Preston family, who were local landowners; the first house was built in the early 16th century by George Preston. In 1644 the estate was confiscated from his successor, Thomas Preston, by Parliament, but was restored to him. On the death of Thomas Preston, the estate passed to the Lowther family by the marriage of Thomas' heiress, Catherine, to Sir William Lowther, 1st Baronet, of Marske.
In 1756 it passed again by marriage to Lord George Augustus Cavendish, has remained in the ownership of the Cavendish family since. The Jacobean house was altered in 1783–84 by John Carr of York; the parkland around the house was laid out in the late 18th century. Additions to the grounds were made during the 19th century and included an arboretum, a conservatory, a walled garden; the conservatory has since been demolished. The house was rebuilt in 1838–41 for the 7th Duke of Devonshire by George Webster of Kendal in Jacobean Revival style. In 1859–61 the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley carried out some minor alterations. In 1871 the front wing of the house was completely destroyed by fire. An estimated 103 works of art were lost and the more notable items were: Canaletto: Saint Mark’s Place during the Carnival Collier: A piece of wild life Holbein: a landscape Sir Godfrey Kneller: King William III; this they did on the same footprint, but on a grander scale, adding two towers, the whole being in Elizabethan Revival style.
The estimated cost of this was about £38,000. The hall continues to be the home of his wife; the older wing is not open to the public. Paley and Austin's west wing and the gardens are open to the general public during the summer months, an admission charge being payable; the former stable buildings have been converted into a gift shop. A series of events are organised including an annual garden festival. Other events are organized from time to time in grounds. Webster's remaining wing is in roughcast stone with a slate roof. Paley and Austin's west wing is in variegated red sandstone, its entrance front faces the east has a porch placed asymmetrically, flanked by turrets with domes and pinnacles. Behind the porch is a tower with a copper-covered ogee-shaped cupola, to the right of this is another tower, broad and square with a lead-covered pyramidal roof. At each end of the long central corridor in the old wing are spiral staircases, which are contained in semicircular projections. On one side of the corridor are rooms including a small dining room.
On the other side are service rooms, behind these is a courtyard. The contents of the wing include panelling removed from Canon Winder Hall, Flookburgh, a chimneypiece from Conishead Priory, a pair of Baroque barley-sugar columns. In the Paley and Austin wing, the entrance porch leads into a long hall, which opens into the library, the billiards room, the drawing room and the dinin
Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles east of Brighton. Eastbourne is to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate. With a seafront consisting of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets, it has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries. Though Eastbourne is a new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age; the town grew as a fashionable tourist resort thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration; the resulting mix of architecture is Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, education, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector. Eastbourne's population is growing; the 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students and those commuting to London and Brighton. Flint mines and Stone Age artefacts have been found in the surrounding countryside of the Eastbourne Downs. Celtic people are believed to have settled on the Eastbourne Downland in 500BC. There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel. In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa. An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stream at Burne; the original name came from the'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens; the bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which lies on the site of a Saxon ‘moot’, or meeting place; this gives Motcombe its name. In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia, in a field near the town, it is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence.
Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill and salt pans; the Book referred to the area as'Borne'.'East' was added to ‘Borne’ in the 13th century, renaming the town. A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, the manor house called Bourne Place. In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands; this manor house is owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place.
It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town. Eastbourne has Cornish connections, most notably visible in the Cornish high cross in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, brought from an unspecified location in Cornwall. In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside, his views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places". Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill.
Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, built as a barracks and storage depot, armed with 10