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William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. Albert Pollard wrote, "From 1558 for forty years the biography of Cecil is indistinguishable from that of Elizabeth and from the history of England."Cecil set as the main goal of English policy the creation of a united and Protestant British Isles. His methods were to complete the control of Ireland, to forge an alliance with Scotland. Protection from invasion required a powerful Royal Navy. While he was not successful, his successors agreed with his goals. Cecil was not an original thinker. In 1587, Cecil persuaded the Queen to order the execution of the Roman Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, after she was implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth, he was the father of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury and founder of the Cecil dynasty which has produced many politicians including two prime ministers. Cecil was born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, in 1520, the son of Sir Richard Cecil, owner of the Burghley estate, his wife, Jane Heckington.

Pedigrees, elaborated by Cecil himself with the help of William Camden the antiquary, associated him with the Welsh Cecils or Seisyllts of Allt-Yr-Ynys, Walterstone, on the border of Herefordshire and Monmouthshire. Cecil is an anglicisation of the Welsh Seisyllt. Lord Burghley acknowledged that the family was from the Welsh Marches in a family pedigree painted at Theobalds; the Lord Treasurer's grandfather, David had moved to Stamford. David Cecil secured the favour of the first Tudor king, Henry VII, to whom he was yeoman of the chamber, he was elected Member of Parliament for Stamford five times, between 1504 and 1523. He was Sergeant-of-Arms to Henry VIII in 1526, Sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1532, a Justice of the Peace for Rutland. He, according to Burghley's enemies, kept the best inn in Stamford, his eldest son, Yeoman of the Wardrobe, married Jane, daughter of William Heckington of Bourne, was father of three daughters and the future Lord Burghley. William, the only son, was put to school first at The King's School and Stamford School, which he saved and endowed.

In May 1535, at the age of fourteen, he went to St John's College, where he was brought into contact with the foremost scholars of the time, Roger Ascham and John Cheke, acquired an unusual knowledge of Greek. He acquired the affections of Cheke's sister and was in 1541 removed by his father to Gray's Inn, without having taken a degree, as was common at the time for those not intending to enter the Church; the precaution proved useless and four months Cecil committed one of the rare rash acts of his life in marrying Mary Cheke. The only child of this marriage, the future Earl of Exeter, was born in May 1542, in February 1543 Cecil's first wife died. Three years on 21 December 1546 he married Mildred Cooke, ranked by Ascham with Lady Jane Grey as one of the two most learned ladies in the kingdom, whose sister, was the wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon, the mother of Sir Francis Bacon. William Cecil's early career was spent in the service of the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector during the early years of the reign of his nephew, the young Edward VI.

Cecil accompanied Somerset on his Pinkie campaign of 1547, being one of the two Judges of the Marshalsea. The other was William Patten, who states that both he and Cecil began to write independent accounts of the campaign, that Cecil generously contributed his notes for Patten's narrative, The Expedition into Scotland. Cecil, according to his autobiographical notes, sat in Parliament in 1543. In 1548, he is described as the Protector's Master of Requests, which means that he was clerk or registrar of the court of requests which Somerset at Hugh Latimer's instigation, illegally set up in Somerset House to hear poor men's complaints, he seems to have acted as private secretary to the Protector, was in some danger at the time of the Protector's fall in October 1549. The lords opposed to Somerset ordered his detention on 10 October, in November he was in the Tower of London. Cecil ingratiated himself with John Dudley Earl of Warwick, after less than three months he was out of the Tower. On 5 September 1550 Cecil was sworn in as one of King Edward's two secretaries of state.

In April 1551, Cecil became chancellor of the Order of the Garter. But service under Warwick carried some risk, decades in his diary, Cecil recorded his release in the phrase "ex misero aulico factus liber et mei juris". To protect the Protestant government from the accession of a Catholic queen, Northumberland forced King Edward's lawyers to create an instrument setting aside the Third Succession Act on 15 June 1553. Cecil resisted for a while, in a letter to his wife, he wrote: "Seeing great perils threatened upon us by the likeness of the time, I do make choice to avoid the perils of God's

Marsh Creek Township, Mahnomen County, Minnesota

Marsh Creek Township is a township in Mahnomen County, United States. The population was 128 at the 2000 census; this township was named for Marsh Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 37.7 square miles, of which 37.7 square miles of it is land and 0.03% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 128 people, 45 households, 31 families residing in the township; the population density was 3.4 people per square mile. There were 46 housing units at an average density of 1.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 85.16% White, none Black or African American, 7.03% Native American, none Asian, none Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 6.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.56% of the population. There were 45 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.9% were non-families.

22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.41. In the township the population was spread out with 34.4% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 14.8% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $37,321, the median income for a family was $45,417. Males had a median income of $20,000 versus $18,500 for females; the per capita income for the township was $13,599. There were 9.1% of families and 8.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 2.4% of under eighteens and 17.9% of those over 64


Rosarno is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region of Calabria. It is about 70 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 50 kilometres northeast of Reggio Calabria. Rosarno stands on a natural terrace cloaked in olive plantations and vineyards on the left bank of the river Mesima, overlooking the Gioia Tauro plain; the town is an important agricultural and commercial centre known for the production of citrus fruits, olive oil, wines. Within the borders of Rosarno is the site of the ancient city of Medma. Present day Rosarno appeared during the Byzantine Era, mentioned for the first time in a document in 1037. Ownership of Rosarno was contested, due to its strategic importance in giving a hold over of the fertile Mesima valley and was controlled by various feudal lords, including the Ruffo and the Pignatelli families. An earthquake in 1783 destroyed the town. In the plain surrounding Rosarno, the tremors caused huge landslides which blocked the course of rivers.

The town was rebuilt and became a borough in 1816. The town plan is typified by large squares and straight, wide streets that cross each other perpendicularly; the remains of the old feudal castle are preserved, along with a 16th-century coastal tower, the clock tower, the beautiful church of St. John the Baptist, the small church of the Crucifix, various noblemen's homes, many of which have magnificent marble doorways from the last century. Rosarno is agricultural, with citrus and olive groves and juice and candied peel factories. Much of the work is done by illegal immigrants from Africa and Eastern Europe, who gather every morning in the main street in the hope of being picked for a day job. In 2006 it was estimated. Many live in squalid conditions in abandoned factories with no running water. Médecins sans Frontières runs free clinics for undocumented migrants in Rosarno and other parts of Calabria. For a 12-hour work day they get have to pay € 5 for transport to the fields; the level of immigration has led to tensions between the immigrants.

In December 2008, a gunman entered a dilapidated factory where over a hundred farm workers were sleeping and shot two of them injuring a 21-year-old migrant from Côte d'Ivoire. The migrant workers took to the streets peacefully, marching through Rosarno to deliver a request to the prefectoral commissioner at the town hall for more humane treatment. In January 2010, after an attack on immigrant farm workers by local youths, rioting broke out. Youths in a car used air rifles to shoot and hurt several immigrants returning from working on the farms; the migrants clashed with police after taking to the streets. Cars were burned and shop windows smashed; some 2,000 immigrants, most of them from Ghana and Burkina Faso, demonstrated in front of the town hall shouting "We are not animals" and carried signs saying "Italians here are racist". Several of the protesters were arrested and locals and immigrants were injured in clashes between the two groups and riot police. After the attacks, the Italian interior minister, Roberto Maroni, a member of the anti-immigrant Northern League party, said the tensions were a result of "too much tolerance towards clandestine immigration".

Father Carmelo Ascone, the parish priest of Rosarno, said the situation of the immigrants reminded him of the circles of hell in Dante's Divine Comedy: "These people live in inhuman and desperate conditions." A spokesman for the International Organization for Migration called the unrest "among the worst of its kind in recent Italian history." After two days of violence the number of injured stood at 53, comprising 18 police, 14 local people and 21 immigrants, eight of whom were in hospital. Attacks against the migrant workers included setting up a roadblock and hunting down stray Africans in the streets of Rosarno; some of the crop-pickers were shot. All African migrant workers were moved out of town by police, while local inhabitants cheered and applauded their departure, they were loaded onto buses destined for immigrant holding centres elsewhere in Calabria and Bari. Among the locals arrested for the attacks was Antonio Bellocco, related to members of the feared Bellocco clan, which controls the area in which the fruit farms are situated.

He was arrested and received another arrest warrant due to a police operation against the'Ndrangheta clan on January 12, 2010. The operation was unrelated to the unrest, but the result of an ongoing investigation against the organization. Rosarno is a hotbed of a Mafia-type criminal organisation based in Calabria; the local'Ndrangheta dominates the fruit and vegetable businesses in the area, according to Francesco Forgione, a former head of Italy's parliamentary Antimafia Commission. Several powerful criminal clans originate from the town, such as the Bellocco and Ascone'ndrine. In October 2008 the mayor of Rosarno, Carlo Martelli from Berlusconi's Forza Italia party, was arrested for having links to organised crime and of having illegally favoured businesses linked to the Piromalli family, one of the'Ndrangheta's most powerful clans, from the nearby town of Gioia Tauro; the former mayor was cleared of all charges in July 2009 after a year of legal battles with the 466/09 Corte d'Appello di Reggio Calabria decision.

In December 2008, the entire town council was dissolved on orders from the central government and replaced by a prefectoral commissioner because it had been infiltrated by'Ndrangheta members and their known associates. Koa Bosco Camilla Devitt; the Rosarno Rev

Trigana Air Flight 267

Trigana Air Flight 267 was a scheduled passenger flight from Sentani to Oksibil in the eastern Indonesian province of Papua. On 16 August 2015, the ATR 42 turboprop operating the service crashed on approach in the Bintang highlands region of Oksibil, killing all 49 passengers and 5 crew members. With 54 deaths, it is the deadliest accident involving the ATR 42, the airline's deadliest accident since its establishment in 1991; the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee published its final report into the accident in December 2017. Deviation from visual approach guidance and visual flight rules without regard to weather and terrain, the deactivation of the EGPWS system contributed directly to the crash, compounded by shortcomings in Trigana Air's safety culture; the Trigana Air flight took off from Sentani Airport in Jayapura at 14:22 WIT and was scheduled to land in Oksibil at about 15:16. Oksibil is a remote town near the country's border with Papua New Guinea. Oksibil Airport did not have an instrument landing system to guide aircraft in to land because it is located close to a mountain.

Contact was lost with the aircraft at about 14:55. There was no indication; the crew had been expected to make contact with ground staff at Oksibil Airport at around 15:00. At the time of the accident, the aircraft was on the final section of its scheduled route. Conflicting statements regarding the weather conditions were released. Stormy weather was cited as a possible cause of the crash, however it was confirmed that the weather was good. Minister of Transportation Ignasius Jonan stated. Data from the local Indonesian Agency for Meteorology and Geophysics office showed that the weather at the time of the crash was sunny; the crew of another aircraft landing prior to the crash reported conditions at the time as "good". Several pilots stated. A pilot, Captain Andhy Gunawan, stated that the terrain in Papua was dangerous and warned that the weather conditions in the area are dangerous, as visibility could be limited; the Ministry of Transportation acknowledged that Indonesia's air navigation system equipment was outdated and dated back to the 1950s in remote areas such as Papua.

Most airports in Papua did not have modern navigation aids at the time. Without this equipment, the airports and flight crew must conduct operations under instrument flight rules and rely on visual flight rules; this however could turn out to be dangerous as Papua's weather was "unforgiving and unpredictable" with most airports not receiving reports about weather condition in the area. At 15:30, Indonesia's National Search and Rescue Agency deployed a search aircraft to find the missing ATR 42; the search was suspended due to foggy weather and was resumed, with several additional search aircraft augmented by a search team on foot, on 17 August. Local residents contacted police and reported that they saw the aircraft crash into the Tangok Mountain in the Okbape district of Pegunungan Bintang Regency. Airborne searchers spotted the wreckage about 12 km from Oksibil; the Indonesia Transportation Ministry confirmed that the wreckage was located at an elevation of 8,300 feet. All 54 passengers and crew were found to have died.

The terrain itself had never been explored by humans, according to BASARNAS officials. BASARNAS sent 250 personnel to Oksibil in response to the crash. Due to the thin air at this high altitude rescuers were unable to use air transport to recover victims or wreckage, necessitating an overland recovery; the terrain itself is described as "very steep". It took around three days to reach six hours by vehicle. Indonesian National Police sent three Disaster Victim Identification teams into the area to identify the victims of the crash; the bodies will be transported to a military hospital in Jayapura. However, bad weather and low visibility hamper the rescue effort. Weather systems around the wreckage were "unpredictable", according to BASARNAS; the identification of the victims will use DNA, tooth samples and forensic DNA analysis from surviving family members. The families have sent ante-mortem data to the police. By 18 August 2015 all of the dead had been found, but bad weather prevented the recovery of victims' bodies.

Some victims' bodies were intact and exhibited burn injuries, others were mutilated and difficult to be identified. Photos taken from the crash site reveal that the aircraft had been fragmented into smaller pieces by the force of the impact with no chance of survival. By nightfall on 19 August seventeen bodies had been carried out from the crash site. Initial reports that both flight recorders had been found in good condition were contradicted, as authorities revealed on 19 August that the flight data recorder was still missing; the Flight Data Recorder was found on 20 August and shown to media. The ATR 42 aircraft was registered PK-YRN, it was manufactured in 1988 and operated in the United States before being transferred to Trigana Air in 2005; the airline operated five more of the same aircraft type and three aircraft of the larger ATR 72 variant at the time of the crash. Aircraft operated by Trigana Air were involved in fourteen serious accidents between 1992 and 2016, eleven of which resulted in hull loss.

The aircraft was carrying 5 crew members. The passenger manifest. There were 3 children and 2 infants among the passengers. There were two

Turner House (Little Rock, Arkansas)

The Turner House known as the Turner-Fulk House, is a historic house at 1701 Center Street in Little Rock, Arkansas. It is a two-story wood-frame structure, with a gabled roof, clapboarded exterior, brick foundation, its most prominent feature is a massive two-story temple portico, with a pedimented and modillioned gabled pediment supported by fluted Ionic columns. The main entry is framed by sidelight windows and an elliptical fanlight, there is a shallow but wide balcony above; the house was built in 1904-05 to a design by noted Arkansas architect Charles L. Thompson; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. National Register of Historic Places listings in Little Rock, Arkansas


The unrelated scurvy-grass sorrel is sometimes called "scurvygrass". For the Roman era spoons see Cochlearia Cochlearia is a genus of about 30 species of annual and perennial herbs in the family Brassicaceae, they are distributed in temperate and arctic areas of the northern hemisphere, most found in coastal regions, on cliff-tops and salt marshes where their high tolerance of salt enables them to avoid competition from larger, but less salt-tolerant plants. They form low, rounded or creeping plants 5–20 cm tall; the leaves are smoothly rounded spoon-shaped, or in some species, lobed. The flowers are borne in short racemes. About 30 species are accepted. Cochlearia acutangula Cochlearia aestuaria – Estuarine scurvy-grass Cochlearia alatipes Cochlearia anglica – English scurvy-grass Cochlearia aragonensis Cochlearia changhuaensis Cochlearia cyclocarpa – Roundfruit scurvy-grass Cochlearia danica – Early or Danish scurvy-grass Cochlearia fenestrata – Arctic scurvy-grass Cochlearia formosana Cochlearia excelsa Cochlearia fumarioides Cochlearia furcatopilosa Cochlearia glastifolia Cochlearia groenlandica – Greenland scurvy-grass Cochlearia henryi Cochlearia hui Cochlearia lichuanensis Cochlearia longistyla Cochlearia megalosperma Cochlearia microcarpa Cochlearia oblongifolia – East Asian scurvy-grass Cochlearia officinalis – Common scurvy-grass Cochlearia paradoxa Cochlearia rivulorum Cochlearia rupicola Cochlearia sessilifolia – Sessile-leaved or Alaskan scurvy-grass Cochlearia sinuata Cochlearia tatrae Cochlearia tridactylites – Three-fingered scurvy-grass Cochlearia warburgiiTwo species included in the genus Cochlearia are now treated in separate genera: Horseradish Armoracia rusticana Wasabi Wasabia japonica Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum, was used by James Cook to prevent scurvy, but is now extinct.

In the first century A. D. Pliny the Elder writes in his Naturalis Historia, about a disease suffered by Roman soldiers in Germany, their symptoms resemble those of scurvy, Pliny recommends a Herba britannica, suggested to be scurvy-grass. Scurvy-grass was eaten in the past by sailors suffering from scurvy after returning from long voyages; the leaves are rich in vitamin C, which cures this deficiency disease resulting from a lack of fresh vegetables in the diet. The Rev. George Moore recorded the purchase of "a pint of scurvey-grasse" for 1 s in 1662, he "suffered much" from scurvy, purchasing scurvey-grasse in both bundled and bottled form. The book Cochlearia curiosa: or the curiosities of scurvygrass was published in English in 1676, Described as "both a learned and accurate work", it was well received, and brought scurvy-grass "into great repute" as a remedy. The book contained "not only a description of the several kinds of this plant, with its several names and time of growth and general vertues, but an enumeration of the uses, medicinal vertues and manner of applying each part of this plant."

In 1857, Cochlearia officinalis was described in The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics as "A gentle stimulant and diuretic. It has long been esteemed as an antiscorbutic, it has been used in visceral obstructions. It is eaten with bread and butter, like the water-cress."The leaves, which have a strong acrid, bitter, or peppery taste similar to the related horseradish and watercress, are sometimes used in salads or eaten with bread and butter. Scurvy-grass sorrel is an unrelated plant from southern South America and the Falkland Islands, used to treat scurvy; the advent of modern fast roads treated with salt in winter for ice clearance has resulted in the colonisation by scurvy-grass of many inland areas where it did not occur. The scurvy-grass seeds become trapped on car wheels, transported for a considerable distance, washed off, to grow in the salt-rich soil at the side of the road where other plants cannot survive. Flora Europaea: Cochlearia Flora of China: Cochlearia species list