William Crawford Smith

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For the English bowler, see William Charles Smith.

William Crawford Smith
William Crawford Smith crop.jpg
Born November 26, 1837
Petersburg, Virginia, U.S.
Died February 5, 1899
Manila, The Philippines
Cause of death heat exhaustion
Resting place Mount Olivet Cemetery
Occupation Architect
Military career
Allegiance  Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
 United States (1898–1899)
Service/branch Confederate States Army
United States Army
Years of service 1861–1899
Rank Confederate States of America Sergeant-Artillery.svg Sergeant (CSA)

William Crawford Smith (November 26, 1837 – February 5, 1899) was an American architect who served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and in the United States Army during the Philippine–American War. He designed many buildings in Nashville, Tennessee, including Kirkland Hall, the first building on the campus of Vanderbilt University, and the Parthenon in Centennial Park.

Kirkland Hall on the Vanderbilt University campus, designed by Smith.
Memorial Hall on the Cumberland University campus, designed by Smith.

Early life[edit]

William Crawford Smith was born on November 26, 1837 in Petersburg, Virginia.[1][2] He moved to Nashville, Tennessee in the 1850s.[2]

During the American Civil War of 1861–1865, he returned to Virginia, joined the Confederate States Army and served as a sergeant and ensign in the 12th Virginia Infantry.[1][3] He fought in the First Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Richmond, the Second Battle of Bull Run, and the Battle of Gettysburg.[2] He was wounded twice in the war effort.[2]

The Parthenon in Nashville, designed by Smith.

Career[edit]

After the war, Smith was an architect in Nashville, Tennessee.[1] In 1874, he designed the Main Building of Vanderbilt University, later known as Kirkland Hall, as two French Gothic towers.[4][5][6] The building burnt down in a fire in 1905, and it was later rebuilt with only one tower.[5]

Smith designed the Collier-Crichlow House in Murfreesboro, Tennessee in 1880 for Ingram Banks Collier III, who served as the mayor of Murfreesboro from 1872 to 1873.[7] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 16, 1973.[8]

Smith was commissioned to design the Masonic Temple in Columbia, Tennessee in 1883.[9] A decade later, in 1893, Smith designed the Colemere Mansion in Nashville for Confederate Colonel Edmund William Cole, who served as the President of the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway after the war.[6] The house burnt down in October 1929.[6] Meanwhile, Smith designed Memorial Hall on the campus of Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee, built from 1892 to 1896.[10]

Additionally, Smith was commissioned to two buildings in Downtown Nashville in 1893: a four-storey building on the corner of Printer's Alley and Church Street and a five-story building at 317 North College Street.[11] He was also commissioned to restore a three-story building at 315 North College Street.[11]

Meanwhile, in 1897, Smith designed The Parthenon in Centennial Park.[6][12][13]

Smith quit his architectural career to serve in the Philippine–American War, where he commanded the 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment of the United States Army in 1898–1899.[14]

Personal life[edit]

Smith was married.[2] They had several children, including a son, George J. Smith, who also served in the Philippine–American War,[15] and a daughter, who married Hart B. Blanton.[2]

Smith was a Knight Templar.[16]

Death and legacy[edit]

Smith died of heat exhaustion the Battle of Manila February 5, 1899 in Manila, The Philippines.[1][14][17] His corpse was shipped back to San Francisco, California, where it received a Masonic service.[18] Shortly after, his corpse was returned to Nashville, where it lay in the Nashville Masonic Temple, followed by a service in the Tabernacle.[18] He was buried on April 19, 1899 at the Mount Olivet Cemetery.[2][19]

In 1903, an honorary plaque from the Nashville Red Cross Society was installed inside the Parthenon.[2] The ceremony was attended by Benton McMillin, who served as the Governor of Tennessee from 1899 to 1903.[2]

The Parthenon has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Davidson County since February 23, 1972. Memorial Hall has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Wilson County since April 29, 1977.[20] Meanwhile, one of Smith's apprentices, Clarence Kelley Colley, went on to become a renowned architect in his own right, with buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Regimental Roster First Tennessee. The American Will Present One Complimentary Copy To Each Applicant At The Business Office". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 8, 1899. p. 2. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Valor's Reward Paid His Memory. Tablet Unveiled to the Memory of Col. C. W. Smith. On Walls of the Parthenon. Rare Tribute Paid the Name of Soldier-Architect. Tully Brown and Lieut. Caruthers Deliver Addresses of Occasion Before Several Hundred People, Among Whom Were Comrades of Two Wars." The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. July 6, 1903. pp. 5; 7. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  3. ^ Henderson, William D. (1984). 12th Virginia Infantry, The Virginia Regimental History Series. Petersburg, VA: H. E. Howard Inc. 
  4. ^ "The Vanderbilt. Laying of the Corner Stone of the Great University Yesterday. Interesting Ceremonies and a Large Attendance. Addressed by Bishops McTyeire and Wrightman, Gov. Brown and Chancellor Morgan". Nashville Union and American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 29, 1874. p. 8. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  5. ^ a b Hoobler, James A. (2008). A Guide to Historic Nashville, Tennessee. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. p. 145. 
  6. ^ a b c d Zepp, George (2009). Hidden History of Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press. p. 71. 
  7. ^ Harber, Susan (March 18, 2017). "Collier-Crichlow-Smythe House's beauty shines through years". Rutherford County Tennessee Historical Society. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Collier-Crichlow House". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Columbia. The Contractors Pushing the Work on the Masonic Temple". The Daily American. Nashville, Tennessee. August 1, 1883. p. 3. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  10. ^ Van West, Carroll (1995). Tennessee's Historic Landscapes: A Traveler's Guide. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. p. 309. 
  11. ^ a b "Building Improvements. Important Work Under Contract and Agree On". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 26, 1893. p. 4. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  12. ^ Coleman, Christopher K. (Fall 1990). "From Monument to Museum: The Role of the Parthenon in the Culture of the New South". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 49 (3): 140. JSTOR 42626877. (Registration required (help)). 
  13. ^ "Counting Up The Cost. Executive Committee Considers Plans For Buildings. Several Architects Explain Their Pictures and Discuss Possible Changes, Cost of the Buildings and Other Matters of Interest – Hearing to be Resumed To-Day". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. November 19, 1895. p. 5. Retrieved November 23, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  14. ^ a b Baxter, Colin F. "Spanish–American War". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Tennessee Historical Society & University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved November 23, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Honorably Discharged. George J. Smith, Son of the Late Col. W. C. Smith, Relieved from Duty". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 23, 1899. p. 9. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  16. ^ "Knights Templar". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. May 15, 1896. p. 5. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  17. ^ "Honor The Dead". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. February 10, 1899. p. 4. Retrieved November 23, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  18. ^ a b "Loving Tribute To His Memory. Col. W. C. Smith's Body In State At The Masonic Temple. Hundreds Visit The Hall. Soldiers Who Enlisted In His Command Trend The Silent Watch – Flag Draped About The Casket – Funeral Arrangement." The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 18, 1899. p. 3. Retrieved November 23, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  19. ^ "Col. Smith's Funeral. Time Fixed For April 10 – Meeting of the Committee Yesterday". The Nashville American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 11, 1899. p. 5. Retrieved November 23, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  20. ^ "Memorial Hall, Cumberland University". National Park Service. Retrieved November 23, 2015. 
  21. ^ Adgent, Nancy L. "Clarence Kelley Colley (1868–1956)". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Tennessee Historical Society & University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved November 23, 2015.