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William Cullen

William Cullen FRS FRSE FRCPE FPSG was a Scottish physician and agriculturalist, one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading centre of medical education in the English-speaking world. Cullen was a central figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, he was David Hume's physician and friend, on intimate terms with Adam Smith, Lord Kames, Joseph Black, John Millar, Adam Ferguson, among others. He was President of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and First Physician to the King in Scotland, he was incidentally, one of the prime movers in obtaining a royal charter for the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, resulting in the formation of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783. Cullen was a beloved teacher, many of his students became influential figures in their own right, his best-known students—many of whom continued to correspond with him during his long life—included Benjamin Rush, a central figure in the founding of the United States of America.

Special mention must be made of Cullen's student-turned-opponent, John Brown, who developed the medical system known as Brunonianism, which rivalled Cullen's. This was to have immense influence in Italy and Germany, during the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century. Cullen was a successful author, he published a number of medical textbooks for the use of his students, though they were popular throughout Europe and the American colonies as well. His best known work was First Lines of the Practice of Physic, published in a series of editions between 1777 and 1784. Cullen was born in Lanarkshire, his father William was a lawyer retained by the Duke of Hamilton as factor, his mother was Elizabeth Roberton of Whistlebury. He studied at the Old Grammar School of Hamilton in 1726, began a General Studies arts course at the University of Glasgow, he began his medical training as apprentice to John Paisley, a Glasgow apothecary surgeon spent 1729 as surgeon on a merchant vessel trading between London and the West Indies.

After two years as assistant apothecary to Mr Murray of Henrietta Street, London, he returned to Scotland in 1732 to establish himself in general medical practice in the parish of Shotts, Lanarkshire. From 1734 to 1736 he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he became interested in chemistry, was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society in his first year of study. In 1736 he began medical practice in Hamilton, where he acquired a high reputation, he continued his study of the natural sciences of chemistry. From 1737 to 1740 William Hunter was his resident pupil, at one time they proposed to enter into partnership. In 1740 Cullen was awarded the degree of MD from Glasgow University. In 1741, he started his family, he became ordinary medical attendant to James Douglas, 5th Duke of Hamilton, his family, his livestock. In 1744, following the Duke's death, the Cullens moved to Glasgow. In Glasgow he gave extramural lectures for the University, on physiology, materia medica, chemistry.

His great abilities and use of practical demonstrations for instruction, made him a successful and popular teacher, attracting large classes. At the same time he maintained a medical practice. In 1747, Cullen was awarded Britain's first independent lectureship in Chemistry and was elected President of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. In 1748 while in Glasgow, Cullen invented the basis for modern refrigeration, although is not credited with a usable application. In 1751 he was appointed Professor of the Practice of Medicine, although he continued to lecture on chemistry. In 1755 he was enticed by Lord Kames to become Professor of Chemistry and Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, it was in Edinburgh, in 1756, that he gave the first documented public demonstration of artificial refrigeration. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which boiled, absorbing heat from the surroundings; this created a small amount of ice. From 1757 he delivered lectures on clinical medicine in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

On the death of Charles Alston in 1760, Cullen at the request of the students undertook to finish his course of lectures on materia medica. On the death of Robert Whytt, the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry. In the same year he had been an unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of the practice of physic, but subsequently an arrangement was made between him and John Gregory, the successful candidate, by which they both agreed to deliver alternate courses on the theory and practice of medicine; this arrangement continued until the sudden death of Gregory in 1773. Cullen was appointed sole professor of the practice of physic, he continued in this office until a fe

Flat-twin engine

A flat-twin engine is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine with the cylinders on opposite sides of the crankshaft. The most common type of flat-twin engine is the boxer-twin engine, where both cylinders move inwards and outwards at the same time; the flat-twin design was patented by Karl Benz in 1896 and the first production flat-twin engine was used in the Lanchester 8 hp Phaeton car released in 1900. The flat-twin engine was used in several other cars since, however a more common usage is in motorcycles. Flat-twin engines were used in several aircraft up until the 1930s and in various stationary applications from the 1930s to the 1960s. Most flat-twin engines use a boxer configuration for the crankshaft and are therefore called "boxer-twin" engines. In a boxer-twin engine, the 180° crankshaft moves the pistons in phase with each other, therefore the forces generated by one piston is cancelled out by the other, resulting in excellent primary balance; the evenly spaced firing order assists in reducing vibration.

The equal and opposite forces in a boxer-twin engine do however generate a rocking couple, due to the offset distance between the pistons along the crankshaft. A used ignition system is wasted spark, a simple ignition system using a double-ended coil firing both spark plugs on each revolution; this system requires only a single contact breaker and coil for the engine. The boxer-twin configuration can cause pressuring of the crankcase during each inward piston stroke and de-pressurisation during each outward piston stroke, since both pistons are moving inwards or outwards at the same time; this crankcase pumping effect is addressed by means of a crankcase breather. The Citroën 2CV boxer-twin engine took advantage of this pumping effect to maintain a partial vacuum inside the crankcase, in order to reduce oil leaks when an oil seal malfunctions; this was achieved by using a one-way valve. The beginnings of the flat-twin engine were in 1896, when Karl Benz obtained a patent for the design. A year his company Benz & Cie unveiled the first flat-twin engine, a boxer design called the "contra engine".

In 1900, The Lanchester Engine Company began production of the Lanchester 8 hp Phaeton, which used a flat-twin engine. This engine had an unusual design of two counter-rotating crankshafts, with each piston was attached to its crankshaft by a thick connecting rod; each piston was connected to the other crankshaft by two thinner connecting rods, causing the two pistons to move on the same axis. It had the torque reaction of one crankshaft cancel the torque reaction of the other, cancelling torque reaction in the engine. Lanchester used this engine design until 1904. Other early uses of flat-twin engines were 1903-04 Ford Model A, the 1904-1905 Ford Model C, the 1905-1906 Ford Model F. and several Jowett Cars models from 1910 to 1937. The Citroën 2CV, produced from 1948 to 1990, was one of the first front-wheel drive cars to use a flat engine; the 2CV was powered by an air-cooled boxer-twin engine. In 1948, the Panhard Dyna X was released with front-wheel drive and an air-cooled boxer-twin engine.

Other cars following World War II using boxer-twin engines were the 1945-1954 Jowett Bradford van, the 1961-1976 DAF Daffodil, the 1961-1978 Toyota Publica, the 1965-1969 Toyota Sports 800 sportscar and several front-wheel drive models from Citroën and Panhard. Several rear-engined cars were produced with boxer-twin engines designed for motorcycles, such as the 1957-1975 Puch 500, the 1957-1959 BMW 600 and the 1959-1965 BMW 700; the Brazilian manufacturer Gurgel Motores used a water-cooled boxer-twin engine in several models from 1988 to 1994. The Toyota U engine was an air-cooled flat-twin engine produced from 1961 to 1976. Introduced in the Toyota Publica subcompact car, the U engine was used in the Toyota MiniAce small commercial vehicle and the Toyota Sports 800 sports car; the benefits of using a flat-twin engine mounted with the crankshaft running perpendicular to the frame are a low centre of gravity and that a belt-drive or chain-drive system can be used to transmit drive to the rear wheel.

However, the downsides are uneven heat distribution and a longer wheelbase is required due to the length of the engine. The first flat-twin motorcycle engine was the built in 1905 by the Light Motors Company in the United Kingdom. Named the Fée, it was designed as a "bicycle engine system" which transmitted power to a pulley on the rear wheel via a chain. Manufacture of the Fairy was taken over by the Douglas Engineering Company, one of Light Motors' suppliers, when the Light Motors Company folded in 1907. In 1907, Douglas changed the drivetrain from the chain and pulley design to a belt-drive system driven directly from the engine. Developments of the Douglas motorcycle were made with the cylinders in line with the frame until the Second World War. Other early flat-twin motorcycles used a similar layout, with their cylinders aligned along the frame and therefore with the crankshaft running transverse to the frame. In 1914 the main supplier of rear-hub gearboxes, Sturmey-Archer, introduced a 3-speed countershaft gearbox with integral kick-starter, which posed a de

Rina Lazarus

Rina Lazarus is a fictional character in a series of mystery novels by Faye Kellerman. Rina, an Orthodox Jew, is the daughter of Holocaust survivors from Hungary, she lived in Israel with him for a time and had two sons. During the First Lebanon War she helped care for wounded Israeli soldiers, gaining a medical skill useful in her American life. At that time she resided in the Israeli settlement of Kiryat Arba in the West Bank, - as she expresses in A Stone Kiss - retained a positive attitude towards the Israeli settlers, her husband died of a brain tumour and she went to a US college to finish her degree in mathematics. She is living and teaching at a yeshiva school when she meets her second husband, Los Angeles police sergeant Peter Decker, in The Ritual Bath. Decker, though raised a Baptist by his adoptive parents in Florida, discovered as an adult that his birth parents were Jewish, which makes him Jewish as well. After meeting Rina during his investigation of a rape at the yeshiva, he is compelled to explore the religion for himself and to become a religiously observant Orthodox Jew.

Religion is a central part of Rina's identity. Though loving Peter, she would never have married him had he not been ready to become a Jew - not only by the accident of birth, but by a conscious decision to become a practising Orthodox Jew with all that involves. Rina keeps the dress code and behaviour appropriate to a "frum" Orthodox Jewish woman. Still, there are some exceptions. In Prayers For the Dead it is revealed that, at one moment of her life, Rina had been involved with Bram Sparks, a Roman Catholic priest, as committed to Catholic Christianity as Rina was to Orthodox Judaism. Though not physically consummated, the two of them loved each other - though such a love was contradictory to the behaviour dictated by both their religions. Moreover, she retains some of her feelings for Bram when married to Peter - which makes Peter jealous. All of the books that follow in the series are rooted in Jewish themes. Major characters in the series include Rina's two sons and Samuel Lazarus. Decker's daughter from his first marriage, Cindy Decker, a teenager in the earliest books follows her father into the police force and is the main character of two of the books and Street Dreams.

The Ritual Bath Sacred and Profane Milk and Honey Day of Atonement False Prophet Grievous Sin Sanctuary Justice Prayers for the Dead Serpent's Tooth Jupiter's Bones Stalker The Forgotten Stone Kiss Street Dreams The burnt house The Mercedes Coffin Blindman's Bluff Hangman Gun Games The Beast Murder 101 Theory of Death Bone Box Analyst Dorothea Fischer-Hornung states that the character of Rina was used to teach the reader about Orthodox Judaism while she "breaks the rules set out for her as an Orthodox Jewish wife", serving "to counterbalance the stereotypical view of traditional Jewish women's roles". Laurence Roth adds that Rina's relationship with the "assimilated American Jewish male", presents a "solution" to "the bane of American Jewish life during the 1990s". Roth suggests that Rina's surname, Lazarus, "signifies the contemporary perception that Jewish tradition is being resurrected"

Ramudu Bheemudu (1988 film)

Ramudu Bheemudu is a 1988 Telugu drama film produced by C. H. V. V. Satyanarayana under the Satyam Cine Enterprises directed by K. Murali Mohana Rao. Starring Nandamuri Balakrishna, Suhasini in the lead roles and music composed by Chakravarthy. Art: Srinivasa Raju Choreography: Raghuram, Siva-Subramanyam Fights: Super Subbarayan Dialogues: Paruchuri Brothers Lyrics: Veturi Sundararama Murthy Playback: SP Balu, S. Janaki, P. Susheela Music: Chakravarthy Story: V. C. Guhanathan Editing: Kotagiri Venkateswara Rao Cinematography: Nandamuri Mohana Krishna Producer: C. H. V. V. Satyanarayana Screenplay - Director: K. Murali Mohana Rao Banner: Satyam Cine Enterprises Release Date: 17 November 1988 Music composed by Chakravarthy. Lyrics written by Veturi Sundararama Murthy. Music released on Cauvery Audio Company. VCDs and DVDs on — VOLGA Videos, Hyderabad


Stelbel was an Italian manufacturer of racing bicycles, founded in 1973 by Stelio Belletti. After World War II, Stelio Belletti joined his father, Antenore, in his workshop in via Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, in the Ortica district of Milan; the mechanical workshop specialized in the construction of other metal tubing structures. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Belletti Workshop collaborated with important Aeronaticaul and motorcycle companies in Italy, it was one of the first companies in Italy to operate a TIG welding machine. Stelio Belletti has always been a huge cycling fan and as a boy was part of local amateur cycling teams. Since the early 1970s, his experience as a welder fabricating motorcycle frames and aircraft fuselages pushed him to begin experimenting with the production of bicycle frames, combining steel tubing with TIG welding which at the time was a new technique in the bicycle industry. Encouraged by his father and by the results he had obtained, in the spring of 1973 he decided to found the Stelbel brand, allowing him to distinguish the production of racing bicycle frames from the other activities carried out in the family workshop.

The frames were produced in Via Alessandro Manzoni, 1 in Lucino, a fraction of Rodano in the province of Milan. Using the knowledge he had acquired as a mechanic and welder, coupled with his experiences as a bicycle racer, Belletti began to work on the production of a frame model that would encompass all the technological advances he had witnessed in his time; the racing frame model he created was called the "Integrale" model. The title on the patent states: Bicycle frame designed for competition with at least a portion of the tubes directly joined together through a welding process. Source: Central Patent Office – Patent N. 166907 The patent description illustrates in detail how the steel tubing is joined together to create a frame through a TIG welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld, protected during the welding process by an inert shielding gas. In August 1975, the UCI World Road Championships were held in Yvoir, Belgium. For the Championships, the Polish national cycling team was provided with Stelbel frames built specially for the event.

It was the debut of Stelio Belletti’s product in an international competition. Belletti made 6 frames for another six frames for the men's road race; the Polish team was made up by racers Tadeusz Mytnik, Mieczyslaw Nowicki, Ryszard Szurkowski and Stanisław Szozda who, racing on Stelbel frames, won the gold medal for the team time trial race. Encouraged by the positive results of his frames, Stelio Belletti renounced all other commitments and began to focus on building racing bicycle frames. During the late 1970s, Stelbel frames continued to evolve, becoming refined and sophisticated, both in terms of technique and aesthetics. In particular, Belletti developed his concept of a fork crown produced in-house, which went on to become a hallmark of Stelbel frames; the development of the fork crown involved a distinctive production process and did not use any prefabricated components. The construction of the first Strada model dates back to 1979, saw the end of the Integrale model. In the 1980s, as the demand for Stelbel products continued to grow, new models were added to the catalogue and the company hired its first employees.

Stelbel began to focus on building time trial frames that featured aerodynamic solutions and were aesthetically pleasing. These years saw the production of the Dynamic frame model and an experimental model called the Punta dell’Est, which had an atypical shape for a frame at the time; the Punta dell'Est model was the main attraction at the Stelbel booth during the "Fiera del Ciclo di Milano" in 1985. Emblazoned above the booth was the slogan: "Stelbel" – Argon T. I. G. Lugless welded frames. Over the course of the 1980s, the internally produced fork crown underwent several modifications and improvements, but it remains one of the most distinctive features of the Stelbel brand; the first experiments with stainless steel frames date back to 1983-1984. The diameter and thickness of the tubes available on the market were not appropriate for constructing bicycle frames and were custom ordered from a steel mill in the province of Milan. Since 1983, the company adopted a serial numbering system for their frames.

Five consecutive numbers were punched into the underside of the bottom bracket, where the first two numbers indicate the year of production. The serial number on the frame should not be confused with the frame dimensions, which were punched into the underside of the bottom bracket as early on as the mid-1970s; the evolution of Stelbel frames continued unabated until 1990, arriving at the production of aluminum frames and the first mountain bikes in Italy. That year, due to problems of a private nature, Stelio Belletti was forced to close his doors with little notice. In September 2013 talks were held to take Stelbel frames in production again. Thanks to a collaboration between Cicli Corsa and Stelio Belletti, a new range of Stelbel frames is available. Notable models Stelio Belletti decided to begin constructing bicycle frames after an unfortunate incident with a racing bicycle he had purchased in Milan; the bicycle frame, according to Stelio Belletti, proved to be not properly aligned. Since the bicycle dealer was not in agreement with his opinion, Belletti decided to solve the problem himself by building his own bicycle frame.

This was in 1970. The time trial bikes that were supplied to the Polish team in 1975 for the UCI Wo

Gabriele Gardel

Gabriele Gardel is a Swiss racing driver. He is the 2005 FIA GT Champion. Complete chronology: 1995: Formula Ford, best finish: 4th. 1996: Italian F3, Italian runner, best driver under 21. 1997: Italian F3, best finish: 6th. 1998: Italian F3, best finish: 5th. 1999: German F3, Junior Team Benetton, best finish: 4th. 2000-2002: Euroseries 3000, 8th absolute. 2003: 2003 FIA GT Championship season, N-GT class best finish: 3rd. 2004: 2004 FIA GT Championship season, vice world champion GT1 with Ferrari Ferrari 550-GTS Maranello. 2005: 2005 FIA GT Championship season, GT1 World Champion with Ferrari 550-GTS Maranello. 2006: 2006 Le Mans Series season, World Champion GT1 with Aston Martin DBR9. 2007: 2007 Le Mans Series season, 4th absolute GT1 category with Aston Martin DBR9. 2007: 24 Hours of Silverstone, 3rd absolute category GTR. 2008: Grand-Am, best finish: 6th and participation in the 2008 24 Hours of Daytona. 2009: Porsche Carrera Cup Italy. 2010: 2010 Le Mans Series season, LMS GT1 champion with Ford Saleen S7R.

2010: 24 Hours of Le Mans, GT1 winner with Saleen S7R with Ford. 2010: 2010 Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, Intercontinental Champion with Ford Saleen S7R in GT1 category. 2011: 24 Hours of Le Mans, winner of the GTE-am class with Corvette C6 - ZR1. 2011: 2011 Intercontinental Le Mans Cup Intercontinental Champion category Gt-am with Corvette C6-ZR1. 2012: 2012 Blancpain Endurance Series season with Emil Frey GT3 Jaguar Racing and 2012 International GT Open season with Maserati MC3. 2013: 2013 Blancpain Endurance Series season with Emil Frey GT3 Jaguar Racing and 2013 Italian GT Championship season with Porsche. 2014: 2014 Blancpain Endurance Series season with Emil Frey GT3 Jaguar Racing. Trofeo Maserati, 4th absolute. NASCAR Whelen Euro Series 2 Elite 2 race winner at Le Mans. 2015: 2015 Blancpain Endurance Series season with Emil Frey GT3 Jaguar Racing. Official website