Giambattista Marino was an Italian poet who was born in Naples. He is most famous for his long epic LAdone, the Cambridge History of Italian Literature thought him to be one of the greatest Italian poets of all time. He is considered the founder of the school of Marinism, known as Secentismo or Marinismo, characterised by its use of extravagant and excessive conceits. He was widely imitated in Italy, France and other Catholic countries, including Portugal and Poland, as well as Germany, in England he was admired by John Milton and translated by Richard Crashaw. He remained the point for Baroque poetry as long as it was in vogue. In the 18th and 19th centuries, while being remembered for historical reasons, he was regarded as the source and exemplar of Baroque bad taste. Marino remained in his birthplace Naples until 1600, leading a life of pleasure after breaking off relations with his father who wanted his son to follow a career in law. These formative years in Naples were very important for the development of his poetry, even though most of his took place in the north of Italy.
Marinos father was a highly cultured lawyer, from a family probably of Calabrian origin and it seems that both Marino and his father took part in private theatrical performances of their hosts plays at the house of the Della Porta brothers. But more importantly, these surroundings put Marino in direct contact with the philosophy of Della Porta. Other figures who were influential on the young Marino include Camillo Pellegrini. Pellegrini was the author of Il Carrafa overo della epica poesia, Marino himself is the protagonist of another of the prelates dialogues, Del concetto poetico. Marino gave himself up to literary studies, love affairs and a life of pleasure so unbridled that he was arrested at least twice. In this as in other ways, the path he took resembles that of another great poet of the same era with whom he was often compared. But some witnesses, who include both Marinos detractors and defenders have firmly asserted that Marino, much of whose poetry is heavily ambiguous, had homosexual tendencies.
Elsewhere, the reticence of the sources on this subject is due to the persecutions to which sodomitical practices were particularly subject during the Counterreformation. Marino fled Naples and moved to Rome, first joining the service of Melchiore Crescenzio that of Cardinal Aldobrandini, in 1608 he moved to the court of Duke Carlo Emanuele I in Turin. This was not a time for the poet, in fact he was the victim of an assassination attempt by his rival Gaspare Murtola
Sir Philip Sidney was an English poet, courtier and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age. His works include Astrophel and Stella, The Defence of Poesy, born at Penshurst Place, Kent, he was the eldest son of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Dudley. His mother was the eldest daughter of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, and his younger brother, Robert was a statesman and patron of the arts, and was created Earl of Leicester in 1618. His younger sister, married Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and was a writer, Sidney dedicated his longest work, the Arcadia, to her. After her brothers death, Mary reworked the Arcadia, which known as The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia. Philip was educated at Shrewsbury School and Christ Church, Oxford and he spent the next several years in mainland Europe, moving through Germany, Poland, the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria. On these travels, he met a number of prominent European intellectuals, returning to England in 1575, Sidney met Penelope Devereux, the future Lady Rich, though much younger, she would inspire his famous sonnet sequence of the 1580s, Astrophel and Stella.
Her father, Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, is said to have planned to marry his daughter to Sidney, in England, Sidney occupied himself with politics and art. He defended his fathers administration of Ireland in a lengthy document, more seriously, he quarrelled with Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, probably because of Sidneys opposition to the French marriage, which de Vere championed. In the aftermath of episode, Sidney challenged de Vere to a duel. He wrote a letter to the Queen detailing the foolishness of the French marriage. Characteristically, Elizabeth bristled at his presumption, and Sidney prudently retired from court, during a 1577 diplomatic visit to Prague, Sidney secretly visited the exiled Jesuit priest Edmund Campion. Sidney had returned to court by the middle of 1581 and in 1584 was MP for Kent and that same year Penelope Devereux was married, apparently against her will, to Lord Rich. An early arrangement to marry Anne Cecil, daughter of Sir William Cecil, in 1583, he married Frances, teenage daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham.
In the same year, he made a visit to Oxford University with Giordano Bruno and his artistic contacts were more peaceful and more significant for his lasting fame. During his absence from court, he wrote Astrophel and Stella, somewhat earlier, he had met Edmund Spenser, who dedicated The Shepheardes Calender to him. Both through his heritage and his personal experience, Sidney was a keenly militant Protestant. In the 1570s, he had persuaded John Casimir to consider proposals for a united Protestant effort against the Roman Catholic Church, in the early 1580s, he argued unsuccessfully for an assault on Spain itself
Robert III of Scotland
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was known primarily as John, Earl of Carrick before ascending the throne at the age of 53 and he was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimated with the marriage of his parents in 1347. John joined his father and other magnates in a rebellion against his grand-uncle, David II early in 1363 and he married Anabella Drummond, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall before 31 May 1367 when the Steward ceded to him the earldom of Atholl. In 1368 David created him Earl of Carrick and his father became king in 1371 after the unexpected death of the childless King David. In the succeeding years Carrick was influential in the government of the kingdom, in 1384 Carrick was appointed the kings lieutenant after having influenced the general council to remove Robert II from direct rule. Carricks administration saw a renewal of the conflict with England, in 1388 the Scots defeated the English at the Battle of Otterburn where the Scots commander, Earl of Douglas, was killed.
In 1390, Robert II died and Carrick ascended the throne as Robert III, Fife continued as lieutenant until February 1393 when power was returned to the king in conjunction with his son David. After this, Robert III withdrew to his lands in the west and he was powerless to interfere when a dispute between Albany and Rothesay arose in 1401 which led to Rothesays arrest and imprisonment at Albanys Falkland Castle where Rothesay died in March 1402. The general council absolved Albany from blame and reappointed him as lieutenant, the only impediment now remaining to an Albany Stewart monarchy was the kings only surviving son, Earl of Carrick. In February 1406 the 11-year-old James and a group of followers clashed with Albanys Douglas allies resulting in the death of the kings counsellor Sir David Fleming of Cumbernauld. James escaped to the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth accompanied by Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, the vessel was intercepted near Flamborough Head and James became the prisoner of Henry IV of England and would remain captive for the next 18 years.
Robert III died in Rothesay Castle on 4 April 1406 shortly after learning of his sons imprisonment and was buried at Paisley Abbey, John Stewart was born c. 1337/40 to Robert, Steward of Scotland and Elizabeth Mure. Following his parents marriage sometime after 22 November 1347 after Pope Clement VIs dispensation, styled Lord of Kyle, John is first recorded in the 1350s as the commander of a campaign in the lordship of Annandale to re-establish Scottish control over English occupied territory. In 1363, he joined his father along with the earls of Douglas, the reasons for the rebellion were varied. In 1362, David II supported several of his favourites in their titles to lands in the Stewart earldom of Monteith. These nobles were unhappy at the kings squandering of funds provided to him for his ransom. The dissension between the king and the Stewarts looked to have settled before the end of spring 1367. David II reinforced the position of John and Annabella by providing them with the earldom of Carrick on 22 June 1368 and the tacit approval of John as the kings probable heir
Edmund Spenser was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse. He was deeply affected by Irish faerie mythology, which he knew from his home at Kilcolman and his genocidal tracts against Gaelic culture were war propaganda. His house was burned to the ground during the war, causing him to flee Ireland, Edmund Spenser was born in East Smithfield, around the year 1552, though there is some ambiguity as to the exact date of his birth. As a young boy, he was educated in London at the Merchant Taylors School, while at Cambridge he became a friend of Gabriel Harvey and consulted him, despite their differing views on poetry. In 1578, he became for a time secretary to John Young. In 1579, he published The Shepheardes Calender and around the time married his first wife. They had two children and Katherine, in July 1580, Spenser went to Ireland in service of the newly appointed Lord Deputy, Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton.
Spenser served under Lord Gray with Walter Raleigh at the Siege of Smerwick massacre, when Lord Grey was recalled to England, Spenser stayed on in Ireland, having acquired other official posts and lands in the Munster Plantation. Raleigh acquired other nearby Munster estates confiscated in the Second Desmond Rebellion, some time between 1587 and 1589, Spenser acquired his main estate at Kilcolman, near Doneraile in North Cork. He bought a second holding to the south, at Rennie and its ruins are still visible today. A short distance away grew a tree, locally known as Spensers Oak until it was destroyed in a strike in the 1960s. Local legend has it that he penned some of The Faerie Queene under this tree. In 1590, Spenser brought out the first three books of his most famous work, The Faerie Queene, having travelled to London to publish and promote the work and he was successful enough to obtain a life pension of £50 a year from the Queen. By 1594, Spensers first wife had died, and in that year he married Elizabeth Boyle, the marriage itself was celebrated in Epithalamion.
They had a son named Peregrine, in 1596, Spenser wrote a prose pamphlet titled A View of the Present State of Ireland. This piece, in the form of a dialogue, circulated in manuscript and it is probable that it was kept out of print during the authors lifetime because of its inflammatory content. The pamphlet argued that Ireland would never be totally pacified by the English until its indigenous language and customs had been destroyed, in 1598, during the Nine Years War, Spenser was driven from his home by the native Irish forces of Aodh Ó Néill
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotlands ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city of Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh was ranked 17th and 21st in the world by the 2014–15 and 2015-16 QS rankings. It is now ranked 19th in the according to 2016-17 QS Rankings. It is ranked 16th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2015–16 Times Higher Education Ranking and it is ranked the 23rd most employable university in the world by the 2015 Global Employability University Ranking. It is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News Best Global Universities Ranking and it is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and it continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives approximately 50,000 applications every year, making it the fourth most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants, after St Andrews, it is the most difficult university to gain admission into in Scotland, and 9th overall in the UK. This was a move at the time, as most universities were established through Papal bulls. Established as the Tounis College, it opened its doors to students in October 1583, instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock. It was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the more populous. It was renamed King Jamess College in 1617, by the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. The universitys first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School and its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor and it went under what was North College Street, and under the university buildings until it reached the universitys anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection.
It was from this tunnel the body of William Burke was taken after he had been hanged, towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875. The medical school was more or less built to his design and was completed by the addition of the McEwan Hall in the 1880s. The building now known as New College was originally built as a Free Church college in the 1840s and has been the home of divinity at the university since the 1920s. The two oldest schools – law and divinity – are both well-esteemed, with law being based in Old College and divinity in New College on the Mound and they are represented by the Edinburgh University Sports Union which was founded in 1866. The medical school is renowned throughout the world and it was widely considered the best medical school in the English-speaking world throughout the 18th century and first half of the 19th century
The Poly-Olbion is a topographical poem describing England and Wales. Written by Michael Drayton and published in 1612, it was reprinted with a part in 1622. Drayton had been working on the project since at least 1598, the Poly-Olbion is divided into thirty songs, written in alexandrine couplets, consisting in total of almost 15,000 lines of verse. Drayton intended to compose a part to cover Scotland. Each song describes between one and three counties, describing their topography and histories, copies were illustrated with maps of each county, drawn by William Hole, whereon places were depicted anthropomorphically. The first book was accompanied by historical and philological summaries written by John Selden, because of its length and its authors conflicting goals the Poly-Olbion was almost never read as a whole, but is an important source for the period nevertheless. 1612 in poetry 1622 in poetry William H. Moore, Poly-Olbion Summary Oliver Elton, Michael Drayton, a Critical Study, with a Bibliography Poly-Olbion in The Complete Works of Michael Drayton, vol
Scottish National Portrait Gallery
The Scottish National Portrait Gallery is an art museum on Queen Street, Edinburgh. The gallery holds the collections of portraits, all of which are of. It holds the Scottish National Photography Collection, the gallery reopened on 1 December 2011 after being closed since April 2009 for the first comprehensive refurbishment in its history, which was carried out by Page\Park Architects. The founder of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, David Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan, formed a collection of Scottish portraits in the late 18th century, eventually John Ritchie Findlay stepped in and paid for the entire building, costing £50,000. The museum was established in 1882, before its new building was completed, the famous collection of portraits housed in the Vasari Corridor in Florence remains only accessible to the public on a limited basis. The work generally restores the gallery spaces to their layout, with areas set aside for education, the shop & café. In total the Portrait Gallery has 60% more gallery space after the changes, the cost of the refurbishment was £17.6 million.
The museums collection totals some 3,000 paintings and sculptures,25,000 prints and drawings, in the 16th century most painted portraits are of royalty or the more important nobility, the oldest work in the collection is a portrait of James IV of Scotland from 1507. The gallery holds several works by Bronckhorst and his successor, Adrian Vanson, the first significant native Scot to be a portrait painter, George Jamesone only once got the chance to paint his monarch, when Charles I visited Edinburgh in 1633. The collection includes two Jamesone self-portraits and portraits of the Scottish aristocracy, as well as some imagined portraits of heroes of Scotlands past. There are three portraits by Jamesones talented pupil John Michael Wright and ten aristocratic portraits by Sir John Baptist Medina, wearing tartan is Flora MacDonald, painted by Richard Wilson in London after her arrest for helping Bonnie Prince Charlie to escape after the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion. The museum owns the iconic portrait of Robert Burns by Alexander Nasmyth and his subjects include Adam Smith, James Beattie and Robert Adam.
The 19th century in Scotland had no such dominant figures, but many fine artists, and saw the beginning of photography
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in quick succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 to 1800 rounds per minute. Note that not all fully automatic firearms are machine guns, submachine guns, assault rifles, pistols or cannons may be capable of fully automatic fire, but are not designed for sustained fire. Many machine guns use belt feeding and open bolt operation, unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per round fired, a machine gun is designed to fire for as long as the trigger is held down. Nowadays the term is restricted to heavy weapons, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic fire for as long as ammunition lasts. Machine guns are used against personnel and light vehicles, or to provide suppressive fire. Some machine guns have in practice sustained fire almost continuously for hours, because they become very hot, practically all machine guns fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts.
They usually have either a barrel cooling system, slow-heating heavyweight barrel, although subdivided into light, heavy or general-purpose, even the lightest machine guns tend to be substantially larger and heavier than standard infantry arms. Medium and heavy guns are either mounted on a tripod or on a vehicle, when carried on foot. Medium machine guns use full-sized rifle rounds and are designed to be used from fixed positions mounted on a tripod. 50in, the M249 automatic rifle is operated by an automatic rifleman, but its ammunition may be carried by other Soldiers within the squad or unit. The M249 machine gun is a crew-served weapon, Machine guns usually have simple iron sights, though the use of optics is becoming more common. Many heavy machine guns, such as the Browning M2.50 caliber machine gun, are enough to engage targets at great distances. During the Vietnam War, Carlos Hathcock set the record for a shot at 7382 ft with a.50 caliber heavy machine gun he had equipped with a telescopic sight.
This led to the introduction of.50 caliber anti-materiel sniper rifles, selective fire rifles firing a full-power rifle cartridge from a closed bolt are called automatic rifles or battle rifles, while rifles that fire an intermediate cartridge are called assault rifles. Unlocking and removing the spent case from the chamber and ejecting it out of the weapon as bolt is moving rearward Loading the next round into the firing chamber. Usually the recoil spring tension pushes bolt back into battery and a cam strips the new round from a feeding device, cycle is repeated as long as the trigger is activated by operator. Releasing the trigger resets the trigger mechanism by engaging a sear so the weapon stops firing with bolt carrier fully at the rear, the operation is basically the same for all autoloading firearms, regardless of the means of activating these mechanisms. Most modern machine guns use gas-operated reloading, a recoil actuated machine gun uses the recoil to first unlock and operate the action.
Machine guns such as the M2 Browning and MG42, are of this type, a cam, lever or actuator demultiplicates the energy of the recoil to operate the bolt
John Milton was an English poet, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of flux and political upheaval. Miltons poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, Samuel Johnson praised Paradise Lost as a poem which. The phases of Miltons life parallel the major historical and political divisions in Stuart Britain, the Restoration of 1660 deprived Milton, now completely blind, of his public platform, but this period saw him complete most of his major works of poetry. Miltons views developed from his extensive reading, as well as travel and experience. By the time of his death in 1674, Milton was impoverished and on the margins of English intellectual life, yet famous throughout Europe, John Milton was born in Bread Street, London on 9 December 1608, the son of composer John Milton and his wife Sarah Jeffrey. The senior John Milton moved to London around 1583 after being disinherited by his devout Catholic father Richard Milton for embracing Protestantism, in London, the senior John Milton married Sarah Jeffrey and found lasting financial success as a scrivener.
He lived in and worked from a house on Bread Street, the elder Milton was noted for his skill as a musical composer, and this talent left his son with a lifelong appreciation for music and friendships with musicians such as Henry Lawes. Miltons fathers prosperity provided his eldest son with a tutor, Thomas Young. Research suggests that Youngs influence served as the introduction to religious radicalism. After Youngs tutorship, Milton attended St Pauls School in London, there he began the study of Latin and Greek, and the classical languages left an imprint on his poetry in English. Miltons first datable compositions are two psalms done at age 15 at Long Bennington, one contemporary source is the Brief Lives of John Aubrey, an uneven compilation including first-hand reports. In the work, Aubrey quotes Christopher, Miltons younger brother, When he was young, he studied hard and sat up very late. In 1625, Milton began attending Christs College, Cambridge and he graduated with a B. A. in 1629, and ranked fourth of 24 honours graduates that year in the University of Cambridge.
Preparing to become an Anglican priest, Milton stayed on to obtain his Master of Arts degree on 3 July 1632, Milton was probably rusticated for quarrelling in his first year with his tutor, Bishop William Chappell. He was certainly at home in the Lent Term 1626, there he wrote his Elegia Prima, a first Latin elegy, to Charles Diodati, based on remarks of John Aubrey, Chappell whipt Milton. This story is now disputed, though certainly Milton disliked Chappell, historian Christopher Hill cautiously notes that Milton was apparently rusticated, and that the differences between Chappell and Milton may have been either religious or personal. It is possible that, like Isaac Newton four decades later, Milton was sent home because of the plague, in 1626, Miltons tutor was Nathaniel Tovey
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales was the elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his fathers thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever and his younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English and Scottish thrones. Henry was born at Stirling Castle and became Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland automatically on his birth. His father placed him in the care of John Erskine, Earl of Mar, although the childs removal caused enormous tension between Anne and James, Henry remained under the care of Mars family until 1603, when James became King of England and his family moved south. Henrys baptism on 30 August 1594 was celebrated with complex theatrical entertainments written by poet William Fowler, Henrys tutor Adam Newton continued to serve the Prince in England, and some Scottish servants from Stirling were retained, including poet David Murray.
The king greatly preferred the role of schoolmaster to that of father, the princes popularity rose so high that it threatened his father. Relations between the two could be tense, and on occasion surfaced in public. At one point, the two were hunting near Royston when James criticised his son for lacking enthusiasm for the chase, and Henry initially moved to strike his father with a cane, most of the hunting party followed the son. Upright to the point of priggishness, he fined all who swore in his presence, according to Charles Carlton, a biographer of Charles I, in addition to the alms box that Henry forced swearers to contribute to, he made sure his household attended church services. His religious views were influenced by the clerics in his household, Charles stamped on the cap and had to be dragged off in tears. With his fathers accession to the throne of England in 1603, as a young man, Henry showed great promise and was beginning to be active in leadership matters. Among his activities, he was responsible for the reassignment of Sir Thomas Dale to the Virginia Company of Londons struggling colony in North America.
The Irish Gaelic lord of Inishowen, Sir Cahir ODoherty, had applied to gain a position as a courtier in the household of Henry, unknown to Sir Cahir, on 19 April 1608, the day he launched ODohertys Rebellion by burning Derry, his application was approved. Because of this Tyrone and his entourage mourned when the Prince met his early death, Henry died from typhoid fever at the age of 18. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, Prince Henrys death was widely regarded as a tragedy for the nation. According to Charles Carlton, Few heirs to the English throne have been as widely and deeply mourned as Prince Henry and his body lay in state at St. Jamess Palace for four weeks. On 7 December, over a thousand people walked in the cortege to Westminster Abbey to hear a two-hour sermon delivered by George Abbot
Lasswade is a village and parish in Midlothian, Scotland, on the River North Esk, nine miles south of Edinburgh city centre, between Dalkeith and Loanhead. Melville Castle lies to the north east, Lasswade lies within the Edinburgh Green Belt. Most of the population is retired or commutes to Edinburgh to work, the name Lasswade probably derives from the Old English for læs - meaning meadow and wæd - meaning ford. Although the settlement may date back to the 8th century the first written record of Leswade dates to 1150, on William Roys map of 1750 it appears as Laswaid. Up until the late 18th century all spelling was unfixed and was based upon the sound as perceived, the old parish church was built in the 13th century, though little of it today survives. It was abandoned in 1793 and much of its ruins collapsed in 1866, the 17th century Scottish poet, William Drummond of Hawthornden was buried within its grounds. Sir John Lauder, 1st Baronet of Fountainhall was born at Melville Mill, Lasswade, in 1595, and he was visited here by the writer James Hogg and the Wordsworths.
Thomas de Quincey, author of Confessions of an English Opium Eater, lived in nearby Polton for some years from 1843, the Scottish landscape artist William McTaggart moved to Lasswade in 1889, and many of his works depict the Moorfoot Hills. Former 19th century industries include paper mills, flour mills and a carpet factory, created a police burgh in 1881, Lasswade merged with Bonnyrigg in 1929. It was a holiday resort in the 19th Century for wealthy Edinburgh residents. Groome noted as chief proprietors in the parish, Lieut. -Col, gibsone of Pentland, Viscount Melville, Drummond of Hawthornden, Sir Geo. Clerk of Penicuik, and Mrs Durham of Polton, the parish has used this building since 1956, because of a structural fault in the Old Parish Church discovered in the late 1940s. St Leonards Episcopal Church on Lower Broomieknowe dates from 1890 and is by Hippolyte Blanc, the former board school of 1875 stands with commanding views over the village on the northern slopes next to the Old Kirkyard.
It is now converted to flats, the parish of Lasswade is bounded on the north by the City of Edinburgh, on the east, by Dalkeith, Newbattle and Carrington, on south by Penicuik and on the west by Glencorse. It extends about 7 miles from north to south and its greatest breadth is about 6 miles, prior to 1633 the north-east salient of the parish, around Melville Castle, formed the separate parish of Melville and Lugton. The parish lies between the Pentland Hills to the north and the Moorfoot Hills to the south and includes the easternmost part of the Pentland Hills, around the estate of Pentland. At Lasswade the river forms the boundary on the north-east side, the chief antiquities within the parish are Rosslyn Chapel and the mansions of Hawthornden Castle and Melville Castle. The parish includes the villages of Lasswade and Rosewell, Lasswade is one of the most ancient Parishes is Scotland
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin