The Philippine Commission was the name of two bodies, both appointed by the President of the United States to assist with governing the Philippines. The first Philippine Commission was appointed by President William McKinley on January 20,1899 to make recommendations, the second Philippine Commission, known as the Taft Commission, was a body appointed by the President to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President McKinley in 1900 under his executive authority, in 1902, the Philippine Organic Act was passed by the United States Congress which enshrined into law the Commission legislative and executive authority. The Jones Act of 1916 ended the Commission replacing it an elected Philippine Senate as the Legislatures upper house, between September 1900 and August 1902, it issued 499 laws. A judicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, the 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards.
The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, on 4 July 1901, Taft became governor of a civil administration for the Philippines. This regime, called the Insular Government, administered the country until 1935, the two houses would share legislative powers, although the upper house alone would pass laws relating to the Moros and other non-Christian peoples. The act provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos, in July 1907, the first elections for the assembly were held, and the legislature opened its first session on October 16,1907. Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library The Presidents of the Senate of the Republic of the Philippines, the LAWPHiL Project - Philippine Laws and Jurisprudence Databank. NB, very little material actually online Acts of the Philippine Commission, NB, very little material actually online
Roxas, officially the City of Roxas or Roxas City, is a component city in the province of Capiz, Philippines. It is considered as one of Panay Islands center of education, economic activity, according to the 2015 census, it has a population of 167,003 people. The abundance of life makes Roxas City the Seafood Capital of the Philippines. It has received Cleanest and Greenest Component City in Western Visayas Award in the Gawad Pangulo sa Kapaligiran Cleanliness, the Department of Health awarded the city with the Red Orchid Award for being 100 percent tobacco-free. It has gained the Department of Interior and Local Government Seal of Good Housekeeping, Roxas City is situated just east of the north-central coast of Panay Island with geographic coordinates of 11°35 N, 122°45 E. Its boundaries are, the Sibuyan Sea to the north, the municipality of Panitan to the south, the municipality of Ivisan to the west, and the municipality of Panay to the East. It is located 250 nautical miles southeast of Manila,116 kilometres north of Iloilo City,86 kilometres from Kalibo, Travel time to Manila is 45 minutes by air and 18 hours by sea.
The City of Roxas is politically subdivided into 47 barangays of which 31 are urban and 16 are rural, in 1569, Captain Diego de Artieda who was sent by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi from Cebu, landed on the town of Panay and proclaimed it as the capital. Later the capital was moved to its present site upon realising that the town of Capiz was near the sea with better docking facilities, the Spaniards saw the long coastal cover and envisioned a trading and shipping center. Ports were constructed in Libas and in Culasi, a river meanders across the town, dividing it in two. Tributaries from the mountains flowed into the head of Panay River through settlements formed along its shores and it provides water to fishponds during high tide. In 1590, the navy of Acapulco, Mexico made Capiz Port its naval yard where ships sought shelter when the sea was rough, Capiz grew into a bustling port and houses of stone were built. The social and political status enjoyed by the chieftains of Capiz often resulted in mixed marriages with the Spaniards.
The mestizo descendants became the base of the principalia or influential citizens and their privileged positions allowed them to build houses around the favored square of the poblacion - around the church and the government complex. Their children became the beneficiaries of the Augustinian mission in 1593, in 1746, Capiz was made the seat of the politico-military government, although it was ecclesiastically controlled by the Bishopric of Cebu. In the latter part of 1795, under Gobernadorcillo Miguel Bautista, the town of Capiz was frequently attacked by Muslims that in 1814, stone forts at Baybay Beach were built through the initiative of Gobernadorcillo Jose Consolacion. In 1870, the ground was broken for the foundation of the Cathedral of Capiz under the guidance of Reverend Apolonio Alvarez and it was built by sturdy hands and blood of Capizeños who were victims of forced labor. In 1876, the diocese of Jaro in Iloilo was erected, in 1877, the cathedral was finally finished
An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. A similar position, called either Secretary at War or Secretary of War, had appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position, when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department, at first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, from 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State. The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britains Secretary at War, the office of Secretary at War was meant replaced both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia.
The Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and Adjutant General served on the Secretarys staff, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005, Portraits and Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History, encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Charlottesville, The Judge Advocate Generals School, U. S. Army
Baguio, officially the City of Baguio and often referred to as Baguio City, is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzon of the Philippines, now known as Summer Capital of the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and education in northern Luzon, according to the 2015 census, Baguio has a population of 345,366. Baguio was established as a station by the Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It was the United States only hill station in Asia, the name of the city is derived from bagiw, the Ibaloi word for moss. The city is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,500 meters in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive for the growth of mossy plants, most of the lands in Kafagway were owned by Ibaloys even prior to the appointment of Mateo Cariño as chieftain. The Spanish presidencia, which was located at Bagyiw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was moved to Cariños house where the current City Hall stands. Bagyiw, a term for moss once abundant in the area was converted by the Spaniards into Baguio.
Baguio was converted into a town, with Mateo Cariño being the presidente, when the United States took possession of the Philippines after the Spanish–American War, Baguio was selected to become the summer capital of the Philippine Islands. Governor-General William Taft on his first visit in 1901, noted the air as bracing as Adirondacks or Murray Bay, temperature this hottest month in the Philippines on my cottage porch at three in the afternoon sixty-eight. In 1903, Filipino and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road, and it was largely a horse trail at higher elevations. It was named after Roosevelts Secretary of State, John Milton Hay, the Mansion, built on 1908, served as the official residence of the American Governor-General during the summer to escape Manilas heat. In 1904 the rest of the city was planned out by the American architect Daniel Burnham, on September 1,1909 Baguio was declared as a chartered city and the Summer Capital of the Philippines.
Prior to World War II, Baguio was the capital of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Following the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, the Japanese used Camp John Hay, the nearby Philippine Constabulary base, Camp Holmes, was used as an internment camp for about 500 civilian enemy aliens, mostly Americans, between April 1942 and December 1944. By late March, Baguio City was within range of the American, president José P. Laurel of the Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state established on 1943, departed the city on March 22 and reaching Taiwan on March 30. The remainder of the Second Republic government, along with Japanese civilians, were ordered to evacuate Baguio on 30 March and his staff relocated to Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioners Residence in Camp John Hay on September 3,1945, the 1990 Luzon earthquake destroyed much of the city of Baguio on July 16,1990. Some of the buildings were built on or near fault lines
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, in the U. S. state of Connecticut, is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut. It is the second-largest city in Connecticut, with a population of 129,779 people as of the 2010 United States Census, according to a census of 1 July 2012, by the Census Bureau, the city had a population of 130,741. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans, and a year eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square, and the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark and the Nine Square Plan is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark, New Haven is the home of Yale University. The university is an part of the citys economy, being New Havens biggest taxpayer and employer. Health care, professional services, financial services, and retail trade help to form a base for the city.
The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, New Haven has since billed itself as the Cultural Capital of Connecticut for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven is the birthplace of George W. Bush, New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave New Haven the nickname The Elm City. The area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic. In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area, the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, the theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place. However, the north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, at the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony, which had been established to the north centering on Hartford.
Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Havens development in the face of the rising power of Boston. In 1660, founder John Davenports wishes were fulfilled, and Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins, in 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu, is the capital city of the province of Cebu in Central Visayas and is the second city of the Philippines after Manila. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 630,003 registered voters, Cebu City is a significant center of commerce and education in the Visayas. The city is located on the side of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement, the countrys oldest city, and it is considered as the Fount of Christianity in the Far East. Cebu is the Philippines main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the countrys shipping companies. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island, Metro Cebu has a total population of 2,849,213 as of 2015, making it the second most-populous metropolitan area of the nation after Metro Manila in Luzon. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire, before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya, now better known as the Rajahnate of Cebu.
It was founded by a prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the name Sugbu refers to Sri Lumays scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders. On 7 April 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu and he was welcomed by Rajah Humabon, the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, the last ruler of Sugbu, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabons nephew, Rajah Tupas. They Christianized some natives and Spanish remnants in Cebu, the Spanish arrived in Cebu on 15 April 1565. They attempted to parley with the ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on 8 May, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, the Treaty of Cebu was formalized on 3 July 1565. López de Legazpis party named the new city Villa de San Miguel de Cebú, in 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain. The growing colony was fortified by Fort San Pedro, by 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago.
Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went to Mindoro and Luzon, one year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. On 14 August 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Governor-General of the Philippines
They were the representative of the executive of the ruling power. On November 15,1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino President of the Philippine Commonwealth, as the executive of the Philippines. The former American Governor-General became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines, from 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes, when there was a vacancy, the Royal Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members. Ad interim Real Audiencia Great Britain occupied Manila and the port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years War. After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist, the Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.
The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War, during the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor. Disagreements between the two were not uncommon, the following year, on July 4,1902, Taft became the sole executive authority. Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30,1902, the title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress. The term insular refers to U. S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district, all insular areas was under the authority of the U. S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department. On November 15,1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a government to prepare the country for independence.
The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioners Residence, after the Philippine independence on July 4,1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines. In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II, the next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic
Elks Club Building (Manila)
The Manila Elks Club building is the second and former clubhouse of the Manila Elks Lodge #761—Manila Lodge 761, better known as the Manila Elks Club, in Manila, the Philippines. It was designed by William E. Parsons, the Manila Elks Lodge #761 is a unique branch club of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks—BPOE, an American fraternal order. The Grand Exalted Ruler of the Grand Lodge in the United States approved the petition in 1905, the first clubhouse, formerly Clubhouse of the Order of the Elks, was established along Calle Victoria in Intramuros, Manila. In 1904, it moved to Calle San Luis opposite the Old Luneta, finally in 1910, it built its permanent home at the site that was used to be occupied by the Manila Overseas Press Club and now occupied by the Museo Pambata ng Maynila. One building housed a club and the other a military club. This first Elks Club building was left in ruins by the wars end and it was destroyed during the war, after which a two-story edifice was built by the Cojuangco family in February 1949.
In February 1949, the Elks Lodge #761 opened the newly rebuilt Manila Elks Club building on the site of the first, the Elks occupied this building until the 1960s. The building along Roxas Boulevard was acquired by the Philippine government, in 1977, the Elks Lodge #761 moved again, acquiring 1000 square meters of space on the 7th floor of the Corinthian Plaza building in central Makati City, Metro Manila, where they are still located. It still is the American Club in the Philippines, the 1949 second Manila Elks Club building and its grounds, on renamed Roxas Boulevard, now houses the Museo Pambata or the childrens museum. History of the Philippines Official website of the Manila Elks Club
Cabanatuan, officially the City of Cabanatuan, or simply Cabanatuan City is a first class component city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. It is the most populous city in Nueva Ecija and the 5th populous in Central Luzon with a population of 302,231 in 2015 and it has earned the moniker Gateway to the North. Cabanatuan remained as Nueva Ecijas capital until 1965 when the government created Palayan City as the new provincial capital, Nueva Ecijas old capitol and other government offices are still used and maintained by the provincial administration. Cabanatuan was founded as a Barrio of Gapan in 1750 and became a Municipality, Cabanatuan is the site of the historical Plaza Lucero and the Cabanatuan Cathedral, where General Antonio Luna was assassinated by Captain Pedro Janolino and members of the kawit battalion. Cabanatuan lost the title of capital in 1850 when the capital of Nueva Ecija was moved to San Isidro. It was only in 1917, when the Administrative code was enacted, however, in 1965, Congress created Palayan City, which has been the capital ever since.
During World War II, the occupying Japanese built Cabanatuan Prison Camp, in January 1945, elements of the U. S. Army 6th Ranger Battalion marched 30 miles behind enemy lines to rescue the prisoners in what became known as the Raid at Cabanatuan. As a result of the raid on January 30,1945, victorious Filipino guerrillas, Cabanatuan was the epicenter of a very strong earthquake at roughly 3 P. M. on July 16,1990. It leveled some buildings, including the Christian College of the Philippines in the midst of class time, at 7.8 on the surface wave magnitude scale, it killed 1,653 people. Cabanatuan became a city by virtue of Republic Act No,526, approved on June 16,1950. In 1998, Cabanatuan was declared by then-president Fidel V. Ramos as an urbanized city however it failed ratification after the majority of votes in the plebiscite was negative. Cabanatuan was declared as highly urbanized city by President Benigno S. Aquino III under Presidential Proclamation No.418 on July 14,2012. Incumbent Governor Aurelio Matias Umali, who had a voter base in the city, opposed the conversion.
The Supreme Court issued a restraining order on January 24,2014. On April 23,2014, voting 9-5-1, the Supreme Court granted a petition for certiorari filed by Nueva Ecija Gov. Aurelio Umali and declared as null, 12-0797 dated September 11,2012 and Minute Resolution No. 12-0925 dated October 16,2012 setting a date for the conduct of a plebiscite in which registered voters of Cabanatuan would be allowed to vote. The province-wide plebiscite was rescheduled for November 8,2014, No new date has been set until city government certifies that ₱101 million is available for the holding of the plebiscite. Cabanatuan City is located in the central plains of Luzon drained by the Pampanga River