Samuel Ward (American statesman)
Samuel Ward was an American farmer, Supreme Court Justice, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, delegate to the Continental Congress. He was the son of Rhode Island governor Richard Ward, was well-educated, grew up in a large Newport, Rhode Island family. After marrying, he and his wife received property in Westerly, Rhode Island from his father-in-law, the couple settled there and took up farming, he entered politics as a young man and soon took sides in the hard-money vs. paper-money controversy, favoring hard money or specie. His primary rival over the money issue was Providence politician Stephen Hopkins, the two men became bitter rivals—and the two alternated as governors of the Colony for several terms. During this time of political activity, Ward became a trustee of Brown University; the most contentious issue that he faced during his three years as governor involved the Stamp Act, passed by the British Parliament just before he took office for the second time.
The Stamp Act placed a tax on all official documents and newspapers, infuriating the American colonists by being done without their consent. Representatives of the colonies met to discuss the act but, when it came time for the colonial governors to take a position, Ward was the only one who stood firm against it, threatening his position but bringing him recognition as a great patriot. Ward's final term as governor ended in 1767. However, he was called back into service in 1774 as a delegate to the Continental Congress. War was looming with England, to this end he devoted all of his energy. After hostilities began, Ward stated, "'Heaven save my country,' is my first, my last, my only prayer." He died of smallpox during a meeting of the Congress in Philadelphia, three months before the signing of the American Declaration of Independence, was buried in a local cemetery. His remains were re-interred in the Common Burying Ground in Newport. Ward was born in Newport in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1725, the son of Rhode Island colonial governor Richard Ward.
His mother Mary Tillinghast was the daughter of John Tillinghast and Isabel Sayles, a granddaughter of Pardon Tillinghast who had come from Seven Cliffs, England. She was a granddaughter of John Sayles and Mary Williams, a great granddaughter of Rhode Island founder Roger Williams, making Ward the great great grandson of the colony's founder. Ward's great grandfather John Ward was born in Gloucester and had been an officer in Oliver Cromwell army, but he came to the American colonies following the accession of King Charles II to the English throne. Ward was the ninth of 14 children, he grew up in a home of liberal tastes and cultivated manners, he was trained under the discipline and instruction of a celebrated grammar school in his home town. He may have been tutored by his older brother Thomas, who had graduated from Harvard College in 1733; as a young man, Ward married Anne Ray, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer on Block Island, from whom the couple received land in Westerly where they settled as farmers.
He devoted much effort to improving the breeds of domestic animals, he raised a breed of racehorse known as the Narraganset pacer. Samuel and Anna Ward had eleven children, their second son Samuel Ward, Jr. served as the lieutenant colonel of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment in the Continental Army. A great-granddaughter was Julia Ward Howe who composed the "Battle Hymn of the Republic". Ward's aunt Mary Ward married a grandson of Governor Benedict Arnold. In 1937, the town of Westerly honored Ward's memory by dedicating its high school to him, it was renamed Westerly High School in the late 20th century, but the main auditorium was given his name. Ward first became active in politics in 1756; the divisive political issue of the day was the use of hard money versus the use of paper money, Ward sided with the former group. His chief rival was Stephen Hopkins of Providence. So bitter was the animosity between these two men that Hopkins commenced an action for slander against Ward; the case was moved to Massachusetts for a fair trial, the judgment went against Hopkins by default in 1759.
For ten years, the two men went back and forth as governor of the colony, each at the head of a powerful party. Josias Lyndon was elected as a compromise candidate in 1768, the constant butting heads stopped. Hopkins won the election as governor in 1758, beat Ward again in the following three elections. In 1761, the Assembly named Ward to the office of Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court, but he only served in this capacity for a year being elected governor in 1762. During this first year in office, the plan was discussed of founding a college in the Rhode Island colony, it received Ward's hearty support, he took an active part in the establishment of "Rhode island College," Brown University. When the school was incorporated in 1765, he was one of the trustees and one of its most generous supporters. In 1763 Hopkins once again beat out Ward in the election for governor, serving for the next two years. However, in 1765 Ward for the second time won the contest between the two men. During this term one of the most contentious issues of the age arose, uniting the divided elements into a common cause.
Two months before Ward's election the Stamp Act was passed by both houses of the Parliament of Great Britain. This act was a scheme for taxing the colonies, directing that all commercial and legal documents, to be valid in a court of law, must be written on
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go
Common Burying Ground and Island Cemetery
The Common Burying Ground and Island Cemetery are a pair of separate cemeteries on Farewell and Warner Street in Newport, Rhode Island. Together they contain over 5,000 graves, including Jewish graves; the pair of cemeteries was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a single listing in 1974. The Common Burial Ground was established in 1640 on land given to city of Newport by John Clarke, it features what is the largest number of colonial era headstones in a single cemetery, including the largest number of colonial African American headstones in the United States. The predominantly African-American northern section of the cemetery is referred to by local African-Americans as "God's Little Acre"; the Island Cemetery was established by the city in 1836, transferred to the private Island Cemetery Corporation in 1848. Many members of Newport's most prominent families have been buried there over the years. Notable people buried there include Medal of Honor recipient Hazard Stevens, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew C. Perry and financier August Belmont.
In 2016, three gravestones were discovered, lost for years. One stone, found in Pennsylvania, was a 12 x 24 marker for a 1-year-old child; the others were 1835 stones for a Newport woman, which were found in a Newport yard during a renovation. The recovered stones were reset in the Common Burying Ground in 2016 by the Newport Historic Cemetery Advisory Commission. John Linscom Boss Jr. - United States Representative. Christopher G. Champlin - United States Representative 1797-1801, United States Senator 1809 - 1811. Michele Felice Cornè - Painter. John Cranston - Colonial Governor of Rhode Island. Samuel Cranston - Colonial Governor of Rhode Island. William Ellery - Signer of the Declaration of Independence and colonial Deputy Governor. James Franklin - Printer and brother of Benjamin Franklin. Ann Smith Franklin - Printer & publisher, wife/widow of James Franklin Ida Lewis - Heroine of the 19th Century. Henry Marchant - Delegate to the Continental Congress. Dutee J. Pearce - United States Representative.
Asher Robbins - United States Senator 1825-1839. William Greene Turner - Sculptor best known for his memorial to Oliver Hazard Perry. Frances Vaughan - "The Mother of Governors," widow to colonial President Jeremy Clarke, mother of colonial governor Walter Clarke. William Vernon - Colonial era merchant. Richard Ward - Colonial governor of Rhode Island. Samuel Ward - Delegate to Continental Congress and colonial Governor of Rhode Island. Hugh D. Auchincloss - Naval officer, government official and stockbroker Janet Lee Bouvier Auchincloss Morris - Mother of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis August Belmont - Chairman of the Democratic National Committee 1860 to 1872 and founder of the Belmont Stakes August Belmont Jr. - Developer of the IRT Subway in New York City and the Cape Cod Canal Perry Belmont - United States Representative and Army officer Sara Swan Whiting Belmont Rives - 1st wife of Oliver H. P. Belmont and 2nd wife George L. Rives Gunner George F. Brady, USN - Medal of Honor recipient Brevet Brigadier General Henry Brewerton - Superintendent of West Point Military Academy.
Melville Bull - United States Representative, 1895 - 1903 George Henry Calvert - Writer and Mayor of Newport Rear Admiral Augustus Case - Career Navy officer William Cole Cozzens - Mayor of Newport and Governor of Rhode Island, 1863 Henry Y. Cranston - United States Representative from Rhode Island and commander of the Artillery Company of Newport Robert B. Cranston - United States Representative from Rhode Island Lieutenant Thomas Eadie, USN - Medal of Honor recipient. William Channing Gibbs - Governor of Rhode Island, 1821 - 1824 George Washington Greene - Historian Richard Morris Hunt - Noted architect of Gilded Age Charles Bird King - Painter Clarence King - Geologist George Gordon King - Congressman Lewis Cass Ledyard - Lawyer and Commodore of the New York Yacht Club Captain Christopher Raymond Perry - Privateer in the American Revolution and naval officer in the Quasi War Commodore Matthew C. Perry - Commander of Black Ships Expedition to Japan in 1853 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry - Hero of the Battle of Lake Erie in War of 1812 Lieutenant Colonel John Hare Powel - Union Army officer, Mayor of Newport and commander of the Artillery Company of Newport George L. Rives - Assistant Secretary of State William Paine Sheffield Sr.
- Congressman and United States Senator 1884 - 1885 William Paine Sheffield Jr. - Congressman Major General Thomas W. Sherman - Civil War general William Watts Sherman - Socialite and treasurer of the Newport Casino Brevet Brigadier General Hazard Stevens - Medal of Honor recipient and son of Isaac Stevens Major General Isaac Ingalls Stevens - Civil War general, killed in action at the Battle of Chantilly Frank K. Sturgis - President of the New York Stock Exchange Brevet Brigadier General George W. Tew - Civil War officer. Lieutenant Colonel of 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. Commander of the Artillery Company of Newport Commodore Benjamin J. Totten - Career U. S. Navy officer Charles C. Van Zandt - Governor of Rhode Island 1877 - 1880 Major General Gouverneur K. Warren - Chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Gettysburg - Commander of V Corps George Peabody Wetmore - Governor of Rhode Island and United States Senator Katherine Prescott Wormeley - Literary translator, founder of the United States Sanitary Commission during the Civil War Touro Cemetery, the old Jewish cemetery at Newport Coddington Cemetery, where six colonial Rhode Island governors are buried Clifton Burying Ground, where four colonial Rhode Island governors are buried National Register of Historic Places li
Sons of Liberty
The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization, created in the Thirteen American Colonies to advance the rights of the European colonists and to fight taxation by the British government. It played a major role in most colonies in battling the Stamp Act in 1765; the group disbanded after the Stamp Act was repealed. However, the name was applied to other local separatist groups during the years preceding the American Revolution. In the popular thought, the Sons of Liberty was a formal underground organization with recognized members and leaders. More the name was an underground term for any men resisting new Crown taxes and laws; the well-known label allowed organizers to make or create anonymous summons to a Liberty Tree, "Liberty Pole", or other public meeting-place. Furthermore, a unifying name helped to promote inter-Colonial efforts against Parliament and the Crown's actions, their motto became "No taxation without representation." In 1765, the British government needed money to afford the 10,000 officers and soldiers living in the colonies, intended that the colonists living there should contribute.
The British passed a series of taxes aimed at the colonists, many of the colonists refused to pay certain taxes. This became known as "No Taxation without Representation." Parliament insisted on its right to rule the colonies despite the fact that the colonists had no representative in Parliament. The most incendiary tax was the Stamp Act of 1765, which caused a firestorm of opposition through legislative resolutions, public demonstrations and occasional hurtful losses; the organization spread hour by hour, after independent starts in several different colonies. In August 1765, the group was founded in Massachusetts. By November 6, a committee was set up in New York to correspond with other colonies. In December, an alliance was formed between groups in New Connecticut. January bore witness to a correspondence link between Boston and New York City, by March, Providence had initiated connections with New York, New Hampshire, Newport, Rhode Island. March marked the emergence of Sons of Liberty organizations in New Jersey and Virginia.
In Boston, another example of violence could be found in their treatment of local stamp distributor Andrew Oliver. They burned his effigy in the streets; when he did not resign, they escalated to burning down his office building. After he resigned, they destroyed the whole house of his close associate Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson, it is believed that the Sons of Liberty did this to excite the lower classes and get them involved in rebelling against the authorities. Their actions made. Early in the American Revolution, the former Sons of Liberty joined more formal groups, such as the Committee of Safety; the Sons of Liberty popularized the use of tar and feathering to punish and humiliate offending government officials starting in 1767. This method was used against British Loyalists during the American Revolution; this punishment had long been used by sailors to punish their mates. In December 1773, a new group calling itself the Sons of Liberty issued and distributed a declaration in New York City called the Association of the Sons of Liberty in New York," which formally stated that they were opposed to the Tea Act and that anyone who assisted in the execution of the act was "an enemy to the liberties of America" and that "whoever shall transgress any of these resolutions, we will not deal with, or employ, or have any connection with him."
After the end of the American Revolutionary War, Isaac Sears, Marinus Willet, John Lamb in New York City revived the Sons of Liberty. In March 1784, they rallied an enormous crowd that called for the expulsion of any remaining Loyalists from the state starting May 1; the Sons of Liberty were able to gain enough seats in the New York assembly elections of December 1784 to have passed a set of punitive laws against Loyalists. In violation of the Treaty of Paris, they called for the confiscation of the property of Loyalists. Alexander Hamilton defended the Loyalists. In 1767, the Sons of Liberty adopted a flag called the rebellious stripes flag with nine vertical stripes, four white and five red. A flag having 13 horizontal red and white stripes was used by Commodore Esek Hopkins and by American merchant ships during the war; this flag was associated with the Sons of Liberty. Red and white were common colors of the flags, although other color combinations were used, such as green and white or yellow and white.
Samuel Adams – political writer, tax collector, cousin of John Adams, fire warden. Founded the Sons Of Liberty, Boston Joseph Allicocke – One of the leaders of the Sons in New York, of African ancestry. Benedict Arnold – businessman General in the Continental Army and the British Army Timothy Bigelow – blacksmith, Worcester John Brown – business leader of Providence, Rhode Island John Crane – carpenter, colonel in command of the 3rd Continental Artillery Regiment, Braintree Benjamin Edes – journalist/publisher Boston Gazette, Boston Christopher Gadsden – merchant, South Carolina John Hancock – merchant, fire warden, Boston Patrick Henry – lawyer, Virginia John Lamb – trader, New York City Alexander McDougall – captain of privateers, New York City Hercules Mulligan – tailor, spy under George Washington for the Continental Army, friend of Alexander Hamilton James Otis – lawyer, Massachusetts Matthew Phripp – a merc
Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
Kyra Minturn Sedgwick Bacon is an American actress and director. She is best known for her starring role as Deputy Chief Brenda Leigh Johnson on the TNT crime drama The Closer. Sedgwick's role in the series won her a Golden Globe Award in 2007 and an Emmy Award in 2010; the series ended following the completion of its seventh season. She is known for her recurring role as Madeline Wuntch on the sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine. Sedgwick was nominated for a Golden Globe award for her performance in Something to Talk About. Sedgwick's other film roles include Oliver Stone's Born on the Fourth of July, Cameron Crowe's Singles and Souls, What's Cooking, Secondhand Lions, The Game Plan, The Possession, she has one of the starring roles in the critically acclaimed 2016 comedy-drama movie The Edge of Seventeen. Sedgwick was born in New York City, the daughter of Patricia, a speech teacher and educational/family therapist, Henry Dwight Sedgwick V, a venture capitalist, her father was Episcopalian and of English heritage, her mother was Jewish.
Sedgwick has stated that she participates in Passover seders. On her father's side, she is a descendant of Judge Theodore Sedgwick, Endicott Peabody, William Ellery, Samuel Appleton, John Lathrop, of Boston, is the great-granddaughter of Henry Dwight Sedgwick III, thus the corresponding niece to his brother Ellery Sedgwick, owner/editor of The Atlantic Monthly. Sedgwick is a sister of actor Robert Sedgwick, half-sister of jazz guitarist Mike Stern, the first cousin once removed of actress Edie Sedgwick, a niece of the writer John Sedgwick, she is the aunt of R&B/pop singer George Nozuka and his younger singer-songwriter brother Justin Nozuka. Sedgwick's parents separated when she was four, divorced when she was six. Sedgwick went to high school with Matthew Broderick; when both were guests on Watch What Happens Live with Andy Cohen, both revealed they dated on and off. Broderick went as far to say he knows Sedgwick's mother well. Sedgwick graduated from Friends Seminary and attended Sarah Lawrence College before transferring to the University of Southern California, where she graduated with a theater degree.
Sedgwick made her debut at the age of 16 on the television soap opera Another World as Julia Shearer, troubled granddaughter of Liz Matthews. In 1988, she made a strong impression in a TV version of Lanford Wilson's Lemon Sky. During the 1990s, she appeared in several Hollywood movies, including Singles and Souls, Something to Talk About, Phenomenon, in which she played the love interest of John Travolta's character, she starred in the Emmy Award–winning 1992 made-for-TV film Miss Rose White as a Jewish immigrant who comes to terms with her ethnicity. She played the parts of Mae Coleman in 2003's Secondhand Lions and Stella Peck in the 2007 film The Game Plan, she starred alongside her husband Kevin Bacon in the 2004 film The Woodsman. She dubbed the voice of Batwoman in the animated movie Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman. Sedgwick starred in the television series The Closer from 2005 to 2012. In 2007, she began earning US$300,000 per episode. Over the life of the series, she was nominated for and won several awards for her starring role as Deputy Chief Brenda Leigh Johnson.
She received a Golden Globe award in 2007 for her performance as lead actress and won a Primetime Emmy Award in 2010. In 2009, Sedgwick was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Television; the Closer ended following the completion of its seventh season. A sequel series starring most of the same cast called. Sedgwick produced the television series Proof for TNT, she is featured in the TV series ‘Brooklyn Nine-Nine’ portraying the character of ‘Commissioner Wuntch’. Sedgwick married actor Kevin Bacon on September 4, 1988. Sedgwick learned in 2011, via her appearance on the U. S. TV show Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, that Bacon and she are 9th cousins, once removed; the couple have Travis Sedgwick Bacon and Sosie Ruth Bacon. The family resides on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Sedgwick and Bacon lost part of their savings in the Ponzi scheme of infamous swindler Bernard Madoff. 2005: Received the Copper Wing Tribute Award presented to her during the Phoenix Film Festival. 2009, June 8: Inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame receiving a star for her contribution to Television located at 6356 Hollywood, Blvd. – the 2,384th star presented to her by the President and CEO of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, Leron Gubler.
2013: Honored with the President's Award by the Society of Camera Operators. 2017: Received the John Cassavetes Award presented to her during the Denver International Film Festival. Kyra Sedgwick on IMDb Kyra Sedgwick on Twitter Kyra Sedgwick at TV.com Kyra Sedgwick at AllMovie Kyra Sedgwick at Hollywood Walk of Fame Kyra Sedgwick at Internet Broadway Database Kyra Sedgwick at Internet Off-Broadway Database "Kyra Sedgwick". TV Tropes