Brookhaven, New York
The Town of Brookhaven is the most populous of the ten towns of Suffolk County, New York, United States. Part of the New York metropolitan area, it is located 50 miles from Manhattan, it is the only town in the county that stretches from the North Shore to the South Shore of Long Island. It is the largest of New York State's 932 towns, the second most populous, exceeded only by the Town of Hempstead; the first settlement in what is now Brookhaven was known as Setauket. Founded as a group of agricultural hamlets in the mid-17th century, Brookhaven first expanded as a major center of shipbuilding in the 19th century, its proximity to New York City facilitated the establishment of resort communities and a post-war population boom. In the 2010 census record Brookhaven contained 486,040 people; the township is home to two renowned Research centers, Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combined these two research centers are 50% of the Town's top ten employer's employee count. Tourism is a major part of the local economy.
The largest traditional downtowns are located in Port Jefferson, a regional transportation hub, Patchogue. The area has long been serviced by Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry; the first known inhabitants were Algonquian-speaking Native Americans, of the Setauket and Unkechaug tribes. The first English settlers arrived around 1640, in 1655, several purchased Brookhaven's land from its tribal inhabitants; the latter founding year was recognized in 1976, when the Brookhaven Town Bicentennial Commission proposed setting the date on the seal to 1655 in line with this first deed of settlement of the Town of Brookhaven at Setauket on April 14, 1655. Considering this founding year of 1655, Brookhaven is the fifth English township on Long Island following Southampton, Southold and East Hampton; the first English settlement was named Setauket after the Native American tribe. The names "Brookhaven" and "Setauket" were used interchangeably to describe the village or the town; the verbal division between the smaller hamlet of Setauket and township of Brookhaven was not set until well into the 19th century.
A point of confusion is the existence of the hamlet named Brookhaven, in fact named for the township in 1879. Other names used in the settlement's first decades were Ashford, after Ashford, Kent in England, Cromwell Bay, for English Protestant leader Oliver Cromwell; the original purchase from the native Setalcott tribe that took place in 1655 encompassed the land making up present-day Setauket, Stony Brook, Port Jefferson. A second purchase was made by Richard Woodhull in 1664 expanded this tract eastward along the North Shore to additionally include all lands from the Old Mans area to Wading River. Richard Woodhull was the direct heir of Eustace de Vesci, a British noble, a signator of the Magna Charta. Another land purchase in the same year expanded Brookhaven to the South Shore of Long Island. Brookhaven was integrated into the Province of New York following that colony's establishment in 1664, in 1666 Governor Richard Nicolls granted a patent for the town which confirmed title to the lands purchased.
Governor Thomas Dongan issued a patent in 1686 which granted powers to the town and established a representative form of government. The town seal was authorized at this time; the central element of the town seal, the letter “D”, was designated to the Town of Brookhaven as its official cattle earmark by the Duke’s Laws of 1665. Although no records exist dating to the town seal's original design plan, it is thought that the seal's olive branch signified peace and the whaling tools signified the most lucrative business in the Town of Brookhaven at the time; the current seal is a redesign, retaining the original elements, but adding the Town of Brookhaven and its 1655 date of settlement. Early English settlers farmed and hunted whales. Brookhaven was agrarian, with each hamlet being limited to a handful of families yet containing miles of land; this economy was supplemented in coastal sections with fishing. A major commercial center did. Brookhaven was founded by English colonists that partook in the settlement of Southold, New York, was under the jurisdiction of the theocratic New Haven Colony in the modern state of Connecticut.
Brookhaven was transferred to the more secular Hartford-led Connecticut Colony in 1662. Following the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the new English colony of New York laid claim to Long Island and brought Brookhaven into its jurisdiction. During the early stages of the American Revolutionary War and the rest of Long Island were captured by British forces, many residents sided with the British as loyalists to the English crown. Brookhaven had multiple episodes of celebrated American activity during the war; this included the actions of the Culper Spy Ring, a spy network working for George Washington that consisted of Brookhaveners working in occupied territory. Another episode was Benjamin Tallmadge's successful raid from across Long Island to the British stronghold at the Manor St. George, wherein his raiding party rowed from Connecticut to Cedar Beach and marched across Long Island, culminating in the Battle of Fort St. George and burning of the defensive structure. A more minor skirmish occurred within the settlement of Setauket, where the British had repurposed the local Protestant church as a fortress.
Gunshots were fired and some bullet holes remain within the walls of the adjacent Caroline Church. In the mid-19th century, several communities in Brookhaven prospered as shipbuilding ports; the mos
Collector of the Port of New York
The Collector of Customs at the Port of New York, most referred to as Collector of the Port of New York, was a federal officer, in charge of the collection of import duties on foreign goods that entered the United States by ship at the Port of New York. The most well-known individual to hold the position was Chester A. Arthur, who served as collector from 1871–1878 and who served as the 21st President of the United States; the first Collector, John Lamb, was appointed by the Congress of the Confederation in 1784. Afterwards, the Collectors were appointed by the U. S. President and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the office was described as "the prize plum of Federal patronage not only in this State but in the country, outside of positions in the Cabinet." The annual salary in 1920 was about $8,000 in fees. The position was abolished in 1966 when the structure of the United States Customs Service was changed; the last Collector, Joseph P. Kelly, was kept on as a consultant some time after; the customs collection districts include the Collector of the Port of Newark and Collector of the Port of Perth Amboy.
They became the Port Authority of New New Jersey. Notes Sources Department of the Treasury. Customs Service. Collection District of New York. Port of Entry, New York. 7/31/1789-1927
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Province of New York
The Province of New York was a British proprietary colony and royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States. In 1664, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Province of New Netherland in America was awarded by Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. James raised a fleet to take it from the Dutch and the Governor surrendered to the English fleet without recognition from the Dutch West Indies Company; the province was renamed as its proprietor. England seized de facto control of the colony from the Dutch in 1664, was given de jure sovereign control in 1667 in the Treaty of Breda and again in the Treaty of Westminster, it wasn't until 1674. The colony was one of the Middle Colonies, ruled at first directly from England; when James ascended to the throne of England as James II, the province became a royal colony. When the English arrived, the colony somewhat vaguely included claims to all of the present U.
S. states of New York, New Jersey and Vermont, along with inland portions of Connecticut and Maine in addition to eastern Pennsylvania. Much of this land was soon reassigned by the crown, leaving the territory of the modern State of New York, including the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers, future Vermont; the territory of western New York was disputed with the Iroquois Indian nation, disputed between the English and the French from their northern colonial province of New France. Vermont was disputed with the Province of New Hampshire to the east; the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress of local representatives assumed the government on May 22, 1775, declared the province the "State of New York" in 1776, ratified the first New York Constitution in 1777. During the ensuing American Revolutionary War the British regained and occupied New York Town in September 1776, using it as its military and political base of operations in British North America, Though a British governor was technically in office, much of the remainder of the upper part of the colony was held by the rebel Patriots.
British claims in New York were ended by the Treaty of Paris of 1783, with New York establishing its independence from the crown. The final evacuation of all of New York by the British Army was followed by the return of General George Washington's Continental Army on November 25, 1783 in a grand parade and celebration; this British crown colony was established upon the former Dutch colony of New Netherland, with its core being York Shire, in what today is known as Downstate New York. The Province of New York was divided into twelve counties on November 1, 1683, by New York Governor Thomas Dongan: Albany County: all of the region, now northern and western New York. Claimed the area disputed, now Vermont. In addition, as there was no fixed western border to the colony, Albany County technically extended to the Pacific Ocean. Most of this land, Indian land for most of the province's history, has now been ceded to other states and most of the land within New York has been divided into new counties.
Cornwall County: that part of Maine between the Kennebec River and the St. Croix River from the Atlantic Ocean to the St. Lawrence River. Ceded to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1692. Dukes County: the Elizabeth Islands, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island east of Long Island. Ceded to Massachusetts in 1692. Dutchess County: now Dutchess and Putnam counties. Kings County: the current Kings County. New York County: the current New York County. Orange County: now Orange and Rockland counties. Queens County: now Queens and Nassau counties. Richmond County: the current Richmond County. Suffolk County: the current Suffolk County. Ulster County: now Ulster and Sullivan counties and part of what is now Delaware and Greene counties. Westchester County: now Westchester and Bronx counties. On March 24, 1772: Tryon County was formed out of Albany County, it was renamed Montgomery County in 1784, with a division to Herkimer County around Little Falls. Charlotte County was formed out of Albany County, it was renamed Washington County in 1784.
In 1617 officials of the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland created a settlement at present-day Albany, in 1624 founded New Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island. New Amsterdam surrendered to Colonel Richard Nicholls on August 27, 1664. On September 24 Sir George Carteret accepted the capitulation of the garrison at Fort Orange, which he called Albany, after another of the Duke of York's titles; the capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in July 1667. Easing the transition to British rule, the Articles of Capitulation guaranteed certain rights to the Dutch. In 1664, Duke of York was granted a proprietary colony which included New Netherland and present-day Maine; the New Netherland claim included western parts of present-day Massachusetts putting the new province in conflict with the Massachusetts charter. In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, con
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, early in the American Revolution. It was called in response to the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament, which the British referred to as the Coercive Acts, with which the British intended to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party; the Congress met to consider options, including an economic boycott of British trade and drawing up a list of rights and grievances. The Congress called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts, their appeal to the Crown had no effect, so the Second Continental Congress was convened the following year to organize the defense of the colonies at the onset of the American Revolutionary War. The delegates urged each colony to set up and train its own militia; the Congress met from September 5 to October 26, 1774.
Peyton Randolph presided over the proceedings. Charles Thomson, leader of the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence, was selected to be Secretary of the Continental Congress; the delegates who attended were not of one mind concerning. Conservatives such as Joseph Galloway, John Dickinson, John Jay, Edward Rutledge believed their task to be forging policies to pressure Parliament to rescind its unreasonable acts, their ultimate goal was to develop a reasonable solution to the difficulties and bring about reconciliation between the Colonies and Great Britain. Others such as Patrick Henry, Roger Sherman, Samuel Adams, John Adams believed their task to be developing a decisive statement of the rights and liberties of the Colonies, their ultimate goal was to end what they felt to be the abuses of parliamentary authority, to retain their rights, guaranteed under both Colonial charters and the English constitution. Roger Sherman denied the legislative authority of Parliament, Patrick Henry believed that the Congress needed to develop a new system of government, independent from Great Britain, for the existing Colonial governments were dissolved.
In contrast to these ideas, Joseph Galloway put forward a "Plan of Union" which suggested that an American legislative body be formed with some authority, whose consent would be required for imperial measures. In the end, the voices of compromise carried the day. Rather than calling for independence, the First Continental Congress passed and signed the Continental Association in its Declaration and Resolves, which called for a boycott of British goods to take effect in December 1774, it requested that local Committees of Safety enforce the boycott and regulate local prices for goods. These resolutions adopted by the Congress did not endorse any legal power of Parliament to regulate trade, but consented, nonetheless, to the operation of acts for that purpose. Furthermore, they did not repudiate control by the royal prerogative, explicitly acknowledged in the Petition to the King a few days later; the Congress had two primary accomplishments. The first was a compact among the Colonies to boycott British goods beginning on December 1, 1774.
The West Indies were threatened with a boycott unless the islands agreed to non-importation of British goods. Imports from Britain dropped by 97 percent compared with the previous year. Committees of observation and inspection were to be formed in each Colony to ensure compliance with the boycott. All of the Colonial Houses of Assembly approved the proceedings of the Congress, with the exception of New York. If the Intolerable Acts were not repealed, the Colonies would cease exports to Britain after September 10, 1775; the boycott was implemented, but its potential for altering British colonial policy was cut off by the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The second accomplishment of the Congress was to provide for a Second Continental Congress to meet on May 10, 1775. In addition to the Colonies which had sent delegates to the First Continental Congress, the Congress resolved on October 21, 1774, to send letters of invitation to Quebec, Saint John's Island, Nova Scotia, East Florida, West Florida.
However, letters appear to have been sent only to Quebec. None of these other colonies sent delegates to the opening of the Second Congress, though a delegation from Georgia arrived the following July. List of delegates to the Continental and Confederation congresses Papers of the Continental Congress Timeline of United States revolutionary history Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. Vol 4-10 online edition Burnett, Edmund C.. The Continental Congress. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 0-8371-8386-3. Henderson, H. James. Party Politics in the Continental Congress. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8191-6525-5. Launitz-Schurer, Loyal Whigs and Revolutionaries, The making of the revolution in New York, 1765-1776, 1980, ISBN 0-8147-4994-1 Ketchum, Divided Loyalties, How the American Revolution came to New York, 2002, ISBN 0-8050-6120-7 Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution online edition Puls, Samuel Adams, father of the American Revolution, 2006, ISBN 1-4039-7582-5 Montross, Lynn.
The Reluctant Rebels. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-389-03973-X. Primary sourcesPeter Force, ed. American Archives, 9 vol 1837-1853, major compilation of documents 1774-1776
1792 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 2 to Wednesday, December 5, 1792. Incumbent President George Washington was elected to a second term by a unanimous vote in the electoral college, while John Adams was re-elected as vice president. Washington was unopposed, but Adams faced a competitive re-election against Governor George Clinton of New York. Washington was popular, no one made a serious attempt to oppose his re-election. Electoral rules of the time required each presidential elector to cast two votes without distinguishing, for president and which for vice president; the recipient of the most votes would become president, the runner-up vice president. The Democratic-Republican Party, which had organized in opposition to the policies of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, supported Clinton for the position of vice president. Adams, was backed by the Federalist Party in his bid for another term.
Neither party had organized, partisan divisions had not yet solidified. Washington received one from each elector. Adams won 77 electoral votes. Clinton finished in third place with 50 electoral votes, taking his home state of New York as well as three Southern states. Two other candidates won the five remaining electoral votes; this election was the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors, as did the newly added states of Kentucky and Vermont. It was the only presidential election, not held four years after the previous election, although part of the previous election was held four years prior. In 1792, presidential elections were still conducted according to the original method established under the U. S. Constitution. Under this system, each elector cast two votes: the candidate who received the greatest number of votes became president, while the runner-up became vice president; the Twelfth Amendment would replace this system, requiring electors to cast one vote for president and one vote for vice president, but this change did not take effect until 1804.
Because of this, it is difficult to use modern-day terminology to describe the relationship among the candidates in this election. Washington is held by historians to have run unopposed. Indeed, the incumbent president received one vote from every elector; the choice for vice president was more divisive. The Federalist Party threw its support behind the incumbent vice president, John Adams of Massachusetts, while the Democratic-Republican Party backed the candidacy of New York Governor George Clinton; because few doubted that Washington would receive the greatest number of votes and Clinton were competing for the vice presidency. George Washington, President of the United States from Virginia John Adams, Vice President of the United States from Massachusetts George Washington, President of the United States from Virginia George Clinton, Governor of New YorkBorn out of the Anti-Federalist faction that had opposed the Constitution in 1788, the Democratic-Republican Party was the main opposition to the agenda of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton.
They had no chance of unseating Washington, but hoped to win the vice presidency by defeating the incumbent, Adams. Many Democratic-Republicans would have preferred to nominate Thomas Jefferson, their ideological leader and Washington's Secretary of State. However, this would have cost them the state of Virginia, as electors were not permitted to vote for two candidates from their home state and Washington was a Virginian. Clinton, the Governor of New York and a former anti-Federalist leader, became the party's nominee after he won the backing of Jefferson and James Madison. Clinton was from an electorally-important swing state, he convinced party leaders that he would be a stronger candidate than another New Yorker, Senator Aaron Burr. A group of Democratic-Republican leaders met in Philadelphia in October 1792 and selected Clinton as the party's vice presidential candidate. By 1792, a party division had emerged between Federalists led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, who desired a stronger federal government with a leading role in the economy, the Democratic-Republicans led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Representative James Madison of Virginia, who favored states' rights and opposed Hamilton's economic program.
Madison was at first a Federalist until he opposed the establishment of Hamilton's First Bank of the United States in 1791. He formed the Democratic-Republican Party along with Anti-Federalist Thomas Jefferson in 1792; the elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized in some sense as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest," to use the words of Jefferson strategist John Beckley. In New York, the race for governor was fought along these lines; the candidates were Chief Justice John Jay, a Hamiltonian, incumbent George Clinton, the party's vice presidential nominee. Although Washington had been considering retiring, both sides encouraged him to remain in office to bridge factional differences. Washington was supported by all sides throughout his presidency and gained more popularity with the passage of the Bill of Rights. However, the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists contested the vice-presidency, with incumbent John Adams as the Federalist nominee and George Clinton as the Democratic-Republican nom
Society of the Cincinnati
The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities, it is the oldest hereditary society in the United States. The Society does not allow women to join, though there is a patriarchal consolation society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers; the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency; when the battle was won, he went back to plowing his fields. The Society's motto reflects that ethic of selfless service: Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam; the Society has had three goals: "To preserve the rights so dearly won.
The concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, before the British evacuation from New York City; the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, membership would devolve to their eldest male heir. Members of the larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states and in France. Of about 5,500 men eligible for membership, 2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, organized on July 4, 1784.
Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, but he made an exception in favor of the badge of the Cincinnati. In the 18th century, the Society's rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member. Present-day hereditary members must be descended from an officer who served in the Continental Army or Navy for at least three years, from an officer who died or was killed in service, or from an officer serving at the close of the Revolution; each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture. The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, as the new states did away with laws supporting primogeniture as remnants of the English feudal system. George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society, he served from December 1783 until his death in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton.
Upon Hamilton's death the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The society's members have included notable military and political leaders, including 23 signers of the United States Constitution. Joseph Cilley, Henry Dearborn, Nicholas Gilman, John Sullivan, James Reed. Stephen Abbot, Jeduthan Baldwin, John Brooks, Henry Burbeck, David Cobb, John Crane, Thomas Humphrey Cushing, William Eustis, Constant Freeman, John Greaton, Africa Hamlin, William Heath, William Hull, Thomas Hunt, Henry Knox, Henry Jackson, Michael Jackson, Simon Larned, Benjamin Lincoln, Samuel Nicholson, William North, Rufus Putnam, William Shepard, William Stacy, Benjamin Tupper, Elisha Horton, Abraham Williams, John Yeomans, Dr. Abijah Richardson. Israel Angell, William Barton, Archibald Crary, Nathanael Greene, Moses Hazen, Daniel Jackson, William Jones, Daniel Lyman, Coggeshall Olney, Jeremiah Olney, Stephen Olney, Henry Sherburne, Silas Talbot, William Tew, Simeon Thayer, James Mitchell Varnum, Abraham Whipple, Joseph Arnold.
Abraham Baldwin, Joel Barlow, Zebulon Butler, Henry Champion, John Chester, Jonathan Hart, David Humphreys, Ebenezer Huntington, Jedediah Huntington, Jacob Kingsbury, John Mansfield, Joseph Spencer, Benjamin Tallmadge, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. John Wyllys, Palgrave Wyllys, Amos Walbridge Aaron Burr, George Clinton, James Clinton, John Doughty, Nicholas Fish, Peter Gansevoort, Alexander Hamilton, Rufus King, Joseph Hardy, John Keese,John Lamb, Morgan Lewis, Henry Beekman Livingston, Alexander McDougall, Charles McKnight, David Olyphant, Philip Schuyler, John Morin Scott, William Stephens Smith, John Stagg Jr, Ebenezer Stevens, Silas Talbot, Benjamin Tallmadge, Philip Van Cortlandt, Henry Vanderburgh, Cornelius Van Dyck, John Van Dyck, Richard Varick, William Scudder, Dr. Caleb Sweet, Maj. Gen. Baron von Steuben, Lt. Col. Bernardus Swartwout, Cornelius Swartwout, BG Philip Van Cortlandt, Frederick Von Weisenfels. James Anderson, Abraham Appleton, James Francis Armstrong, Daniel Baldwin, Jeremiah Ballard, William Barton