William Godwin was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism and the first modern proponent of anarchism. Godwin is most famous for two books that he published within the space of a year: An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, an attack on political institutions, Things as They Are. Based on the success of both, Godwin featured prominently in the radical circles of London in the 1790s, he wrote prolifically in the genres of novels and demography throughout his life. In the conservative reaction to British radicalism, Godwin was attacked, in part because of his marriage to the pioneering feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft in 1797 and his candid biography of her after her death from childbirth, their daughter known as Mary Shelley, would go on to write Frankenstein and marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. With his second wife, Mary Jane Clairmont, Godwin set up The Juvenile Library, allowing the family to write their own works for children and translate and publish many other books, some of enduring significance.
Godwin has had considerable influence on literary culture. Godwin was born in Wisbech in the Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, to Anne Godwin. Godwin's family on both sides were middle-class. Godwin's parents adhered to a strict form of Calvinism. Godwin was the seventh of his parent's thirteen children. Godwin's mother came from a wealthy family but due to her uncle's frivolities the family wealth was squandered. For the family her father was a successful merchant involved in the Baltic Sea trade. Godwin's father, a Nonconformist minister in Guestwick in Norfolk, died young, never inspired love or much regret in his son. William Godwin was educated for his father's profession at Hoxton Academy, where he studied under Andrew Kippis the biographer, Dr. Abraham Rees of the Cyclopaedia. At eleven years old, he became the sole pupil of Samuel Newton, a strict hyper-Calvinist, a Sandemanian, a disciple of Robert Sandeman. Godwin characterised Newton as, "... a celebrated north country apostle, after Calvin damned ninety-nine in a hundred of mankind, has contrived a scheme for damning ninety-nine in a hundred of the followers of Calvin."He acted as a minister at Ware and Beaconsfield.
At Ware the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcett, who held strong republican opinions. Godwin came to London in 1782, still nominally as a minister, to regenerate society with his pen – a real enthusiast, who never shrank from conclusions of the premises which he laid down, he adopted the principles of the Encyclopédistes, his own aim was the complete overthrow of all existing political and religious institutions. He believed, that calm discussion was the only thing needful to carry every change, from the beginning to the end of his career he deprecated every approach to violence, his first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord Chatham. He published under his own name Sketches of History, consisting of six sermons on the characters of Aaron and Jesus, in which, though writing in the character of an orthodox Calvinist, his character enunciates the proposition "God Himself has no right to be a tyrant." Introduced by Andrew Kippis, he began to write in 1785 for the New Annual Register and other periodicals, producing three novels now forgotten.
His main contributions for the "Annual Register" were the Sketches of English History he wrote annually, which were summaries of domestic and foreign political affairs. He joined a club called the Revolutionists, associated much with Lord Stanhope, Horne Tooke and Holcroft. Godwin first met Mary Wollstonecraft at the home of their mutual publisher. Joseph Johnson was hosting a dinner for another of his authors, Thomas Paine, Godwin remarked years that on that evening he heard too little of Paine and too much of Wollstonecraft. In the interim, Wollstonecraft went to live in France to witness the Revolution for herself, had a child, Fanny Imlay, with an American adventurer named Gilbert Imlay. In pursuit of Gilbert Imlay's business affairs, Wollstonecraft travelled to Scandinavia, soon afterwards published a book based on the voyage. Godwin read it, wrote that "If there was a book calculated to make a man in love with its author, this appears to me to be the book."When Godwin and Wollstonecraft were reintroduced in 1796, their respect for each other soon grew into friendship, sexual attraction, love.
Once Wollstonecraft became pregnant, they decided to marry so that their child would be considered legitimate by society. Their marriage revealed the fact that Wollstonecraft had never been married to Imlay, as a result she and Godwin lost many friends. Godwin received further criticism because he had advocated the abolition of marriage in Political Justice. After their marriage at St. Pancras on 29 March 1797, they moved into two adjoining houses in Somers Town so that they could both still retain their independence. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin was born in Somers Town on the couple's only child. Godwin had hoped for a son and had been planning on naming the child "William." On 10 September 1797 Wollstonecraft died of complications following the birth. By all accounts, it had been a
The Northern Plains Resource Council is a grassroots conservation and family agriculture group that organizes Montanans to protect our water quality, family farms and ranches, unique quality of life. Their mission is to protect Montana’s greatest assets: the quality of our natural resources, the character and viability of family-based agriculture, the ability of citizens to shape the public policies that affect our land, our water, our lives so that we may pass them on, unimpaired, to future generations. Montana ranch families formed the Northern Plains Resource Council in 1972 as a way to fight back against the prospect of damaged land, condemned property, dewatered aquifers, polluted surface waters, fouled air, industrial development that would undermine their ability to earn a living, they and many other Montanans were aware of the North Central Power Study, produced by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, 21 private and public utility companies, plus electric cooperatives, public power districts, cities.
That study proposed siting 42 coal-burning power plants in the Northern Great Plains, 21 of them in Montana. The plan would have included using 2.6 million acre-feet of water annually from the Yellowstone, Big Horn, Tongue and North Platte rivers in order to cool all those plants. The late Boyd Charter, Montana rancher and co-founder of Northern Plains, described his contact with a coal company land man this way: “I told that son-of-a-bitch with a briefcase that I knew he represented one of the biggest coal companies and he was backed by one of the richest industries in the world, but no matter how much money they came up with, they would always be $4.60 short of the price of my ranch..... Some people cannot understand that money is not everything.... He must have decided that I was stupid, because he offered me a contract for one dollar entitling him to explore for coal. I had to tell him the door swings out just the way it swings in.”Northern Plains member Wally McRae said, “This is my heritage, the land and livestock are no less important to me than they were to my grandfather.
I can assure you that I and others like me will not allow our land to be destroyed because it is convenient for the coal company to tear it up.” Northern Plains proclaimed in a 1974 flyer: “The Council is committed to maintaining a viable agricultural economy, protecting land upon which agriculture depends, our way of life, recognizing that all of us draw our livelihood from the land, that we have an obligation to insure a viable and self-sustaining homeland for future generations.”Those deep roots in family agriculture have guided Northern Plains through many issues since those days, but the biggest and most persistent of those issues has been fossil fuel development. Because the impacts of fossil fuel development can be so hard on nearby farms and ranches, because it lays such heavy impacts on land and air, because the effects of fossil fuel development reach so far into the future, Northern Plains will be involved with these issues for many years to come. "In the consideration of any number of issues, the group has been the key that opened public debate."
- Billings Gazette, 1991 The Northern Plains Resource Council: Worked with other organizations in coal states for several years in the 1970s to gain passage of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Was the leading citizen organization working toward enactment of Montana's Environmental Policy Act, Major Facility Siting Act, Hard Rock Mining Impact Act. Is credited with playing the key lobbying role that led to Montana's adoption of America’s most forward-looking policy toward coal severance taxation. Counseled over 1,500 family farmers and ranchers faced with losing their land and homes during the farm crisis of the mid-1980s; as a result of Northern Plains trainings on the rights and responsibilities of lenders and borrowers, more than 500 families were able to resolve their debt problems without losing their farms and ranches. Led a campaign and 1988 Montana Supreme Court case which saved Montana ratepayers $22 million in unfair electric rate increases. Stopped the development of mega-landfills in Montana communities until Montana could develop waste disposal policies requiring stringent controls for mega-landfills.
Led the case that resulted in a 1997 decision by the Montana Supreme Court withdrawing a speculative mine permit from the long-proposed and never-developed Montco coal mine. Used litigation, agency work, technical consultants, public education, formal comments, public outreach to fight off plans for the Tongue River Railroad, a coal-hauling railroad, first proposed in 1977 to service the proposed Montco coal mine near Ashland, Montana; the Tongue River Railroad went through multiple versions, but every proposal involved condemning ranch land in order to haul coal. Northern Plains resisted all these proposals and, in 2016, the federal Surface Transportation Board suspended its permit application. Collaborated with other Montana groups to enact a 1998 initiative that bans new cyanide heap leach mining in Montana. In 2004, again in collaboration with other groups, Northern Plains defended that law from a ballot box attack by the mining industry. Worked with two of its affiliate groups to negotiate the historic Stillwater Good Neighbor Agreement with America’s only platinum/palladium mine, resulting in vastly improved protections for two important watersheds, setting aside 4,000 acres of ranch land into conservation easements, a free flow of information on mine operations to the citizen groups involved in the Agreement.
Vladimir Petrovich Zamansky is a Russian film and theater actor, People's Artist of the RSFSR, citizen of Murom, a Recipient of the Order of the Patriotic War, 2nd class. As a boy, Zamansky grew up without a father, in 1941, when the Germans entered the city, was left without a mother. Deceiving the commission and adding to his age, the boy Vladimir Zamansky volunteered to go to the front. In the winter of 1942 he became a student of the Tashkent Polytechnic, in 1943 he was drafted into the Red Army, he fought from May 1944, in one occasion saved his commander from their burning M10 Wolverine. In June 1944 he served as a radio operator in 1223th self-propelled artillery regiment of the 3rd Belarusian Front during a breakthrough near Orsha; as part of the regiment with a short break due to injury he served until the end of the war. After the war, as part of a military unit p / n 74256 in the Northern Group of Forces he continued to serve in the Soviet Army. In 1950, for participating in the beating of a platoon commander he was sentenced by the Military Tribunal to nine years imprisonment under article 193-B of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR.
Among other prisoners he worked on construction sites in Moscow University building. For high-altitude life-threatening operation his prison term was reduced, he was released in 1954. After the amnesty, for admission to theater school. In 1958, he graduated from the Moscow Art Theatre School. From 1958–1966, he was an actor in the Moscow theater Sovremennik Theatre. From 1972–1980 years, he was a theatre-studio movie actor, since 1992 he was at the theater Yermolova, he is married to actress Natalia Klimova. In 1998, Vladimir Zamansky retired and he and his wife settled in Murom, where they live. Vladimir Zamansky on IMDb Brief biography