St. Louis Public Schools
St. Louis Public Schools is the school district that operates public schools in the city of St. Louis, United States. For the 2010-2011 school year, more than 23,500 students enrolled in its schools, in January 1817, the legislature of the Missouri Territory voted to create a Board of Trustees to manage all land and property designated to be used for schools in St. Louis. The Board was given the power to employ teachers and create regulations for the schools, the first chairman of the Board was William Clark, and its first meeting was held in April 1817. In his role as chairman, Clark repeatedly wrote to President James Monroe requesting that Monroe identify land used for military purposes so that land could be used for schools. Starting in 1817, the Board of Trustees began leasing its lands to provide income for future schools, in 1833, the Missouri General Assembly established a second governing body for St. Louis schools, which first met on April 18 of that year. This body, known as the Board of Education, continued to lease vacant land to provide income, in December 1833, the Board began to loan out money on interest, but up to that point, no money had been appropriated for the purposes of an actual school.
For the next four years, the Board continued to loan money and study school plans, but took no action to build a school. In 1836, the people of St. Louis voted to sell the common land. From this sale about $15,000 was provided to the Board, in December, the Board met to purchase supplies and to interview potential teachers, and by March 1838, they had selected two candidates, David Armstrong and Miss M. H. The South School, named Laclede Primary School, opened on April 1,1838, with Edward Leavy, a third school, named Benton School, opened in January 1842 at the northwest corner of 6th and Locust. The North School, for which the Board initially could not find a teacher, was abandoned, with the growth of the city, the school building campaign continued at a rapid pace. Between 1840 and 1860, more than a twenty new schools were built by the Board, among these new schools was the first high school in St. Louis, which opened inside Benton School in February 1853. Approximately 70 students enrolled in the school, and its first principal was Jeremiah D.
Low, courses offered included higher arithmetic and composition, basic and advanced algebra, trigonometry, surveying and the Latin and German languages. The high school proved popular among all social classes. After two years of construction, the first high school building, known as Central High School, in 1848 William Greenleaf Eliot, the Unitarian clergyman in Saint Louis, was elected Chair of the School Board. He had a passion for creating schools and he and his congregants worked on a campaign to fund the expanding district. Only weeks after the St. Louis Fire of 1849, St, during the 1850s, it became a St. Louis school tradition for students at each school to go a Maying, which was to take an excursion into the countryside. These early field trips were more for recreation than for learning, School closed six weeks early in 1861 due to a lack of operating funds and the outbreak of the Civil War
New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford is a city in Bristol County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 95,072. The city, along with Fall River and Taunton, make up the three largest cities in the South Coast region of Massachusetts, the Greater Providence-Fall River-New Bedford area is home to the largest Portuguese-American community in the United States. Their population is believed to have been about 12,000, while exploring New England, Bartholomew Gosnold landed on Cuttyhunk Island on May 15,1602. From there, he explored Cape Cod and the neighboring areas, rather than settle the area, he returned to England at the request of his crew. Europeans first settled New Bedford in 1652, English Plymouth Colony settlers purchased the land from chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag tribe. Whether the transfer of the land was legitimately done has been the subject of intense controversy, like other native tribes, the Wampanoags did not share the settlers concepts of private property. The tribe may have believed they were granting usage rights to the land, the settlers used the land to build the colonial town of Old Dartmouth.
The name was suggested by the Russell family, who were prominent citizens of the community, the Dukes of Bedford, a leading English aristocratic house, bore the surname Russell. The late-18th century was a time of growth for the town, New Bedfords first newspaper, The Medley, was founded in 1792. On June 12,1792, the set up its first post office. William Tobey was its first postmaster, the construction of a bridge between New Bedford and present-day Fairhaven in 1796 spurred growth. In 1847 the town of New Bedford officially became a city, at approximately the same time, New Bedford began to supplant Nantucket as the nations preeminent whaling port, thanks to its deeper harbor and location on the mainland. Whaling dominated the economy of the city for much of the century, many families of the city were involved with it as crew and officers of ships. Until 1800, New Bedford and its communities were, by and large, populated by Protestants of English, Scottish. During the first half of the 19th century many Irish people came to Massachusetts, in 1818, Irish immigrants established the Catholic mission that built St.
Marys Church. As the Portuguese community began to increase, they established the first Portuguese parish in the city, French Canadians secured a foothold in New Bedford at about the same time, and they built the Church of the Sacred Heart in 1877. Similarly, Polish immigrants began arriving in the late 19th century, a number of Jewish families, arriving in the late 19th century, were active in the whaling industry, selling provisions and outfitting ships
Unitarians believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings and is a savior but a human being rather than a deity. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of sin, predestination. Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism depending on ones stance or viewpoint, perhaps it being described a part of Nontrinitarianism, or both, is more accurate. The Unitarian movement was not called Unitarian initially and it began almost simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians, in England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where todays British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In J. Gordon Meltons Encyclopedia of American Religions, it is classified among the family of churches.
Unitarianism is a noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement. In that case it would be a belief system not necessarily associated with the Unitarian religious movement. Although these groups are unitarians in the sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement, for the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism. Recently some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism and these likewise have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement. The term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church, in the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism, for example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship.
As a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they were members of churches that belonged to the American Unitarian Association, after several decades, the non-theistic members outnumbered the theological Unitarians. A similar, though much smaller, phenomenon has taken place in the Unitarian churches in the United Kingdom and other countries. Unitarian theology, therefore, is distinguishable from the system of modern Unitarian and Unitarian Universalist churches. This article includes information about Unitarianism as a theology and about the development of theologically Unitarian churches, for a more specific discussion of Unitarianism as it evolved into a pluralistic liberal religious movement, see Unitarian Universalism. Unitarianism, both as a theology and as a family of churches, was defined and developed in Poland, England, Wales
Abigail Adams was the closest advisor and wife of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. John frequently sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, and their letters are filled with discussions on government. Her letters serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front, Abigail Adams was born at the North Parish Congregational Church in Weymouth, Massachusetts, to William Smith and Elizabeth Smith. On her mothers side she was descended from the Quincy family, through her mother she was a cousin of Dorothy Quincy, wife of John Hancock. Adams was the great-granddaughter of John Norton, founding pastor of Old Ship Church in Hingham, the only remaining 17th-century Puritan meetinghouse in Massachusetts. Smith married Elizabeth Quincy in 1742, and together they had four children and their only son, born in 1746, died of alcoholism in 1787. As with several of her ancestors, Adamss father was a liberal Congregationalist minister, Smith did not focus his preaching on predestination or original sin, instead he emphasized the importance of reason and morality.
In July 1775 his wife Elizabeth, with whom he had married for 33 years. In 1784, at age 77, Smith died, Abigail did not receive formal schooling, she was frequently sick as child, which may have been a factor which prevented her from receiving an education. Later in life, Adams would consider that she was deprived an education because females were given such an opportunity. Her grandmother, Elizabeth Quincy, contributed to Adams education, as she grew up, Adams read with friends in an effort to further her learning. As an intellectually open-minded woman for her day, Adams ideas on womens rights and government would play a major role, albeit indirectly. She became one of the most erudite women ever to serve as First Lady, as third cousins and John had known each other since they were children. In 1762, John accompanied his friend Richard Cranch to the Smith household, Cranch was engaged to Adams older sister and they would be the parents of federal judge William Cranch. John was quickly attracted to the petite, shy, 17-year-old brunette who was bent over some book.
He was surprised to learn she knew so much poetry, philosophy. Smith, Abigails father, presided over the marriage of John Adams, after the reception, the couple mounted a single horse and rode off to their new home, the small cottage and farm John had inherited from his father in Braintree, Massachusetts. Later they moved to Boston, where his law practice expanded, the couple welcomed their first child nine months into their marriage
It was a sensational discovery at the time, the wave nature of light had been well-demonstrated, but the idea that light had both wave and particle properties was not easily accepted. He is known for his leadership of the Manhattan Projects Metallurgical Laboratory, in 1919, Compton was awarded one of the first two National Research Council Fellowships that allowed students to study abroad. He chose to go to Cambridge Universitys Cavendish Laboratory in England, further research along these lines led to the discovery of the Compton effect. During World War II, Compton was a key figure in the Manhattan Project that developed the first nuclear weapons and his reports were important in launching the project. Compton oversaw Enrico Fermis creation of Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor, the Metallurgical Laboratory was responsible for the design and operation of the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Plutonium began being produced in the Hanford Site reactors in 1945, after the war, Compton became Chancellor of Washington University in St.
Louis. Arthur Compton was born on September 10,1892, in Wooster, the son of Elias and Otelia Catherine Compton, Elias was dean of the University of Wooster, which Arthur attended. Arthurs eldest brother, who attended Wooster, earned a PhD in physics from Princeton University in 1912, all three brothers were members of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. Compton was initially interested in astronomy, and took a photograph of Halleys Comet in 1910, around 1913, he described an experiment where an examination of the motion of water in a circular tube demonstrated the rotation of the earth. That year, he graduated from Wooster with a Bachelor of Science degree and entered Princeton, where he received his Master of Arts degree in 1914. Compton studied for his PhD in physics under the supervision of Hereward L. Cooke, writing his dissertation on The intensity of X-ray reflection, and the distribution of the electrons in atoms. When Arthur Compton earned his PhD in 1916, he, later, they would become the first such trio to simultaneously head American colleges.
Their sister Mary married a missionary, C. Herbert Rice, in June 1916, Compton married Betty Charity McCloskey, a Wooster classmate and fellow graduate. They had two sons, Arthur Alan and John Joseph Compton, during World War I he developed aircraft instrumentation for the Signal Corps. In 1919, Compton was awarded one of the first two National Research Council Fellowships that allowed students to study abroad and he chose to go to Cambridge Universitys Cavendish Laboratory in England. Working with George Paget Thomson, the son of J. J. Thomson, Compton studied the scattering and he observed that the scattered rays were more easily absorbed than the original source. Compton was greatly impressed by the Cavendish scientists, especially Ernest Rutherford, Charles Galton Darwin and Arthur Eddington, for a time Compton was a deacon at a Baptist church. Science can have no quarrel, he said, with a religion which postulates a God to whom men are as His children
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
T. S. Eliot
Thomas Stearns Eliot OM was a British essayist, playwright and social critic, and one of the twentieth centurys major poets. He moved from his native United States to England in 1914 at the age of 25, working and he eventually became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39, renouncing his American citizenship. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and it was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, Ash Wednesday, and Four Quartets. He was known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral and he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry. The Eliots were a Boston family with roots in Old and New England, Thomas Eliots paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, had moved to St. Louis, Missouri to establish a Unitarian Christian church there. Eliot was the last of six surviving children, his parents were both 44 years old when he was born, Eliot was born at 2635 Locust St.
property owned by his grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot. His four sisters were between 11 and 19 years older, his brother was eight years older, known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Stearns. Eliots childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors, firstly, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in physical activities. As he was isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the boy immediately became obsessed with books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages. In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot would often curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living. Secondly, Eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his literary vision, I feel that there is something in having passed ones childhood beside the big river, which is incommunicable to those people who have not.
I consider myself fortunate to have been here, rather than in Boston, or New York. From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek, French and he began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgeralds Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam. He said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them and his first published poem, A Fable For Feasters, was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905. Also published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript and he published three short stories in 1905, Birds of Prey, A Tale of a Whale and The Man Who Was King. The last mentioned story significantly reflects his exploration of Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 Worlds Fair of St. Louis, such a link with primitive people importantly antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, in many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives, in most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available, for example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. The United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all, Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age.
What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the governments decision, resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries. The word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning vote, political support, and the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with sources citing Latin suffragari lend support, vote for someone, from sub under + fragor crash, shouts. Other sources say that attempts to connect suffragium with fragor cannot be taken seriously, some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have originally meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth. It typically does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region, distinctions are made in regard to citizenship, age. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25 and this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville.
The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults, so Finland was the first country in the world to give all citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all citizens the right to vote, Womens suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote. This was the goal of the suffragists in the United States, short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jerseys first,1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners
St. Louis Walk of Fame
The St. Louis Walk of Fame honors notable people from St. Louis, who made contributions to the culture of the United States. All inductees were born in the Greater St. Louis area or spent their formative or creative years there. As of April 2014, the walk consisted of 137 brass stars and bronze plaques, each containing an inductees name and a summary of his or her accomplishments. The stars and plaques are set into the sidewalks of Delmar Boulevard in the Delmar Loop area, which is mostly in University City, Missouri, an inner-ring suburb of St. Louis. Anyone can submit a nomination by mail by supplying basic identification information as well as a description of the nominees accomplishments and connection to St. Louis. About 30 to 40 finalists are culled from the nominees by the founder and director. The walk was founded by developer Joe Edwards, owner of Blueberry Hill pub/restaurant and its first stars and plaques were installed in 1989, the inductees that year were musician Chuck Berry and choreographer Katherine Dunham, bridge builder James B.
Ten more were selected for each of the four years. In May 2008, Cedric the Entertainer received the first star, the walk has been expanded eastward by Edwards in recent years as Edwards continues to invest in the areas redevelopment. List of halls and walks of fame List of people from St. Louis stlouiswalkoffame. org, the walks official website
Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, United States. As of June 2015, the Schools mission is to train and educate its students either in the study of religion. It caters to students from other Harvard schools that are interested in the former field, Harvard Divinity School is among a small group of university-based, non-denominational divinity schools in the United States. Harvard College was founded in 1636 as a Puritan/Congregationalist institution and trained ministers for many years, the separate institution of the Divinity School, dates from 1816, when it was established as the first non-denominational divinity school in the United States. During its first century, Harvard Divinity School was unofficially associated with American Unitarianism, however, it retains a historical tie to one of the successor denominations of American Congregationalism, the United Church of Christ. Today and faculty come from a variety of backgrounds, Jewish, Hindu, Sikh.
Its academic programs attempt to balance theology and religious studies—that is and this is in contrast to many other divinity schools where one or the other is given primacy. In April 2014, the Faculty of HDS voted to unify the ThD and PhD in the study of religion in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, suspending admission to the ThD starting in fall 2015. Those previously admitted to the ThD program continue to be candidates for the ThD, since its founding, it has supported more than 100 scholars, representing over 50 institutions of higher learning in the United States and around the world. The WSRP promotes critical inquiry into the interaction between religion and gender, and every year the program brings five postdoctoral scholars to HDS, the research associates each work on a book-length research project and teach courses related to their research. The Center focuses on the understanding of religions globally through its research, funding and it welcomes scholars and practitioners, and highlights the intellectual and historical dimensions of religious dialogue.
Its current director is Francis X. Clooney, SJ, a scholar of Hinduism and comparative theologian focusing on the Hindu, the Center’s Meditation Room is used regularly by individuals and groups. The building that houses the Center was designed by Josep Lluís Sert, as a full-time residential program, holding classes five days a week, the educational focus lies on faith-based case studies of corporations and communities. Since the SLIs inauguration in 1998, more than 450 participants have completed the program, participants developed individual plans of action, on a case-study model, applicable to the local work in their communities. The Program in Religion and Secondary Education is an education program that prepares students to teach about religion in public schools from a non-sectarian perspective. Beginning with the 2009-10 academic year, no new students will be admitted to the program for at least the two years. Students who are already in the PRSE will continue and be able to finish their degree in normal fashion, andover-Harvard Theological Library was founded in 1836 and underwent expansion in 1911 when the collections of HDS and Andover Theological Seminary were combined.
The Library is part of the larger Harvard University library system, which is available to all faculty, staff, in September 2001, the library completed a $12-million renovation that enhanced its technology facilities and improved its information systems
Francis Preston Blair
Francis Preston Blair, Sr. was an American journalist, newspaper editor, and influential figure in national politics advising several U. S. presidents across the party lines. Blair was an member of the Democratic Party, and a strong supporter of President Andrew Jackson. From 1831 to 1845, Blair worked as Editor-in-Chief of the Washington Globe, which served as the primary instrument for the Democratic Party. Blair was an advisor to President Jackson, and served prominently in a group of unofficial advisors. Blair, despite being a slaveholder from Kentucky, eventually came to oppose the expansion of slavery and he supported the Free-Soil Party ticket of Martin Van Buren and Charles Francis Adams in the 1848 presidential election. In 1854, in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he left the Democratic Party, Blair served as an advisor to President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. In 1861, he was sent by Lincoln to offer command of a large Union army to Colonel Robert E. Lee, who declined, Blair helped organize the Hampton Roads Conference of 1865, a failed attempt to end the war.
After the Union victory, Blair became disillusioned with Radical Reconstruction and he eventually left the party and rejoined the Democrats. His son, Francis Preston Blair Jr. was the nominee for vice president on a losing ticket in the 1868 election. Blair died in 1876 at age 85, Blair was born at Abingdon, Virginia to James Blair, a lawyer who became an Attorney General of Kentucky, and Elizabeth Smith. Raised in Frankfort and referred to as Preston by the family members and he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1817 but did not practice due to a vocal defect. He took to journalism, and became a contributor to Amos Kendalls paper, during the social and financial turmoil caused by the Panic of 1819, Blair joined the so-called Relief Party of Kentucky. In 1824, Blair served as a clerk of new, alternative to existing state court of appeals vigorously establishing its authority, as an ardent follower of Andrew Jackson, he helped him to carry Kentucky during the 1828 presidential election.
In 1830, he was editor of The Washington Globe. In this capacity, and as a member of Jackson’s unofficial advisory council, the Washington Globe newspaper was the administrations voice until 1841, and the chief Democratic organ until 1845, when Blair ceased to be its editor. In 1848, he actively supported Martin Van Buren, the Free Soil candidate, next, in 1852, Blair supported Franklin Pierce, but became disillusioned in his administration after Pierce backed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He used his experience and persuasion to create a momentum for a new party. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, he was influential in securing the nomination of John C, Frémont, who was married to Jessie Benton Frémont, a daughter of his old friend, Thomas Hart Benton, for the presidency