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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Xylotomy

Xylotomy is the preparation of small slivers of wood for examination under a microscope using a microtome. It is useful for providing forensic evidence in some criminal cases where finding a fragment of wood on an individual and matching it to a weapon used in a crime would be helpful. During the trial of Bruno Richard Hauptmann, accused in the Lindbergh kidnapping during the 1930s, the xylotomist Arthur Koehler was able to provide crucial evidence by linking a piece of pine from a ladder used in a kidnapping to one particular factory whose machinery was defective, from there to one particular lumberyard. Koehler searched for eighteen months for the yard, presented his evidence in court by presenting the court with a chalk rubbing of the samples, which he made there and demonstrating that they were identical, he matched other pieces of the ladder to a chisel used to create the joists, missing from the defendant's tool chest, to a missing plank from the suspect's attic floor. It may be useful in forestry studies.

Identifying the species of a piece of wood is not always easy, in which case a xylotheque may provide samples with which the xylotomist can compare his own. Xylotomy may be carried out by a forensic biologist. People who specialize in xylotomy are rare; the public have been known to confuse it with someone who plays the xylophone and they do not tend to take much interest in the subject. Wood Forensics

Jean Baptiste Dieussart

Jean Baptiste Dieussart Jean Baptista Dusart was a Flemish sculptor who worked in the Dutch Republic and in Sweden. He created lead statues of which only a few have survived to modern times. Dieussart may have been born in Rome and was the brother of the architect and sculptor Charles Philippe Dieussart, he first appears around 1664 in Stockholm, when he entered service with count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, the Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, his main employer and patron until around 1668. Coming to Sweden, he was accompanied by his wife and his stepchildren, including Abraham-César Lamoureux and his brother Claude, who were both sculptors, as well as their sister Magdalena, who married the sculptor Johann Gustav Stockenberg. While Dieussart was a Baroque sculptor and one of the first representatives a free-standing style of sculpture in Sweden, his work has been described as examples of a renaissance-like pseudo-classicism, his work consists of statues, for which he used different materials, although the majority of his known works were made from lead or gilded lead.

Due to metal fatigue caused by the softness of the material, few of Dieussart's works survive. For Läckö Castle he is known to have created busts of various members of the De la Gardie family and is believed to be the creator of two full sized statues of Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie and his father Jakob that were moved there. To decorate another palace owned by the De la Gardie family, namely Makalös palace, Dieussart created several lead statues, including a lead replica of a classical Diana statue. Assisted by his stepsons he created several sculptures to decorate the gardens and fountains of Jakobsdal Palace. In 1667 he was contracted by De la Gardie to create a number of lead sculptures for the roof of the Riddarhuset, which he delivered in 1668, he was commissioned to complete the northern and southern portals of the building, begun by Heinrich Lichtenberg, which he was still working on in 1669, his stepson Abraham-César replaced him as sculptor in De la Gardie's service between 1671 and 1672 and Dieussart is believed to have stayed in Sweden until around 1672 employed in his stepson's workshop, but may have moved back to the Netherlands, appearing again in Swedish records in 1677, returning to the Swedish mainland around 1679 returning to De la Gardie's service.

What became of him after 1680 is unknown, as are the date and place of his death. Lead statues "Amor Dei" and "Amor Patriae" on the roof of the Riddarhuset. Garden sculpture group "Perseus and Andromeda" in the park of Jakobsdal Palace. Lead statues of Magnus Gabriel and Jakob De la Gardie made for Karlberg Palace moved to Läckö Castle, but relocated to the De la Gardie family mausoleum in Varnhem Abbey. Th. Westrin. "Dusart I. Dieussart, Jean Baptiste", Nordisk familjebok, 35, Stockholm: Nordisk familjeboks förlags aktiebolag, p. 414 Ulrich Thieme, ed. "Dusart, Jean Baptist", Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 10, Leipzig: E. A. Seemann, p. 226

Julian Marshall

Julian Marshall was an English music and print collector, tennis player and writer. Marshall was born in Yorkshire to a flax-spinning family, his father, John Marshall had been Member of Parliament for Leeds. His grandfather was industrialist John Marshall, an MP. Marshall attended Harrow School in London, before joining the family business; as a young man, Marshall started collecting prints, music manuscripts. He was a music writer and contributed work to the first edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Marshall codified the rules of real tennis in 1872. In 1873 he played an important early lawn match with William Hart Dyke and John Moyer Heathcote at Lullingstone Castle. By 1877 the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club was proposing the first Wimbledon Championships, a review of the rules was required. Marshall, with his fellow MCC commissioner Heathcote and Henry Jones of the All England club, laid down the rules that are little changed to this day, in time for the first Wimbledon tournament on 9 July 1877.

Marshall died on 21 November 1903 at Hampstead. The Annals of Tennis Lawn-tennis,: With the laws adopted by the M. C. C. and A. E. C. & L. T. C. and Badminton by Julian Marshall Tennis cuts and quips,: In prose and verse, with rules and wrinkles Tennis, fives 1890 Bell Marshall married Florence Ashton Thomas on 7 October 1864. She was letters of Mary W. Shelley. One of their three daughters was Dorothy Marshall. Footnotes Sources

LIFE Factory Microgrid

Factory Microgrid is a demonstrative project cofinanced by the LIFE+ 2013 programme of the European Commission and whose origin can be explained within the framework of the 20-20-20 challenge of the European Union to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption. More it can be framed in theme 1, "Climate Change", within the line of action "Development of innovative practices for the management of smart grids in the context of decentralized production of renewable energy", its main objective is to demonstrate, through the implementation of a full-scale industrial smartgrid that microgrids can become one of the most suitable solutions for energy generation and management in factories that want to minimize their environmental impact. At a national level it is one of the first experiences regarding the implementation of a smartgrid in an industrial plant with and integrated fleet of electric vehicles. Factory Microgrid will take place between July 2014 and June 2017 and it represents an investment of around 2 million euros.

50% of the total amount will be financed by the LIFE + programme. Project partners are the Jofemar Corporation and the National Renewable Energy Centre, CENER. Project Manager: Isabel Carrilero What is a microgrid or a smartgrid? Smart grids are energy networks that can automatically monitor energy flows and adjust to changes in energy supply and demand accordingly; when coupled with smart metering systems, smart grids reach consumers and suppliers by providing information on real-time consumption. Smart grids can help to better integrate renewable energy. Enhance the use of renewable energies, while reducing CO2 emissions. Decrease power peak consumption and provide ancillary services, increasing grid reliability and reducing, at the same time, the need of reserve generation capacity in the electric system. Minimize energy consumption due to the management of dispatchable loads, reducing CO2 emissions. Reduce the use of land for electric generation. Reduce transport and distribution losses. Transport electrification, advantageous when electricity mix comes from a low CO2 origin.

The LIFE program programme is the EU's funding instrument for the environment. The general objective of LIFE is to contribute to the implementation and development of EU environmental policy and legislation by co-financing pilot or demonstration projects with European added value LIFE Factory Microgrid project LIFE Programme European Commission. Https://web.archive.org/web/20160306010537/https://m2m.telefonica.com/blog/factory-microgrid-an-energy-efficient-solution-for-industrial-environments Article Beenergy. Article Interempresas

USS Cohoes (1867)

USS Cohoes — a single-turreted, twin-screw monitor — was still under construction at the close of the American Civil War. She was a Casco-class, light-draft monitor intended for service in the shallow bays and inlets of the Confederacy; these warships sacrificed armor plate for a shallow draft and were fitted with a ballast compartment designed to lower them in the water during battle. Though the original designs for the Casco-class monitors were drawn by John Ericsson, the final revision was created by Chief Engineer Alban C. Stimers following Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont's failed bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1863. By the time that the plans were put before the Monitor Board in New York, NY, Ericsson and Stimers had a poor relationship, Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair John Lenthall l had little connection to the board; this resulted in the plans being approved and 20 vessels ordered without serious scrutiny of the new design. $14 million US was allocated for the construction of these vessels.

It was discovered that Stimers had failed to compensate for the armor his revisions added to the original plan and this resulted in excessive stress on the wooden hull frames and a freeboard of only 3 inches. Stimers was removed from the control of the project and Ericsson was called in to undo the damage, he was forced to raise the hulls of the monitors under construction by 22 inches to make them seaworthy. As a result, the Cohoes was laid up at League Island Navy Yard, in 1867, her name was changed to Charybdis on 15 June 1869 and back to Cohoes on 19 August 1869. She was sold in July 1874; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. History.navy.mil: USS Cohoes