The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, a fleet of battleships was considered vital for any nation that desired to maintain command of the sea; the term battleship came into formal use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship, now referred to by historians as pre-dreadnought battleships. In 1906, the commissioning of HMS Dreadnought into the United Kingdom's Royal Navy heralded a revolution in battleship design. Subsequent battleship designs, influenced by HMS Dreadnought, were referred to as "dreadnoughts", though the term became obsolete as they became the only type of battleship in common use. Battleships were a symbol of naval dominance and national might, for decades the battleship was a major factor in both diplomacy and military strategy. A global arms race in battleship construction began in Europe in the 1890s and culminated at the decisive Battle of Tsushima in 1905, the outcome of which influenced the design of HMS Dreadnought.
The launch of Dreadnought in 1906 commenced a new naval arms race. Three major fleet actions between steel battleships took place: the decisive battles of the Yellow Sea and Tsushima during the Russo-Japanese War, the inconclusive Battle of Jutland during the First World War. Jutland was the largest naval battle and the only full-scale clash of battleships in the war, it was the last major battle fought by battleships in world history; the Naval Treaties of the 1920s and 1930s limited the number of battleships, though technical innovation in battleship design continued. Both the Allied and Axis powers built battleships during World War II, though the increasing importance of the aircraft carrier meant that the battleship played a less important role than had been expected; the value of the battleship has been questioned during their heyday. There were few of the decisive fleet battles that battleship proponents expected, used to justify the vast resources spent on building battlefleets. In spite of their huge firepower and protection, battleships were vulnerable to much smaller and inexpensive weapons: the torpedo and the naval mine, aircraft and the guided missile.
The growing range of naval engagements led to the aircraft carrier replacing the battleship as the leading capital ship during World War II, with the last battleship to be launched being HMS Vanguard in 1944. Four battleships were retained by the United States Navy until the end of the Cold War for fire support purposes and were last used in combat during the Gulf War in 1991; the last battleships were stricken from the U. S. Naval Vessel Register in the 2000s. A ship of the line was the dominant warship of its age, it was a large, unarmored wooden sailing ship which mounted a battery of up to 120 smoothbore guns and carronades. The ship of the line developed over centuries and, apart from growing in size, it changed little between the adoption of line of battle tactics in the early 17th century and the end of the sailing battleship's heyday in the 1830s. From 1794, the alternative term'line of battle ship' was contracted to'battle ship' or'battleship'; the sheer number of guns fired broadside meant a ship of the line could wreck any wooden enemy, holing her hull, knocking down masts, wrecking her rigging, killing her crew.
However, the effective range of the guns was as little as a few hundred yards, so the battle tactics of sailing ships depended in part on the wind. The first major change to the ship of the line concept was the introduction of steam power as an auxiliary propulsion system. Steam power was introduced to the navy in the first half of the 19th century for small craft and for frigates; the French Navy introduced steam to the line of battle with the 90-gun Napoléon in 1850—the first true steam battleship. Napoléon was armed as a conventional ship-of-the-line, but her steam engines could give her a speed of 12 knots, regardless of the wind condition; this was a decisive advantage in a naval engagement. The introduction of steam accelerated the growth in size of battleships. France and the United Kingdom were the only countries to develop fleets of wooden steam screw battleships although several other navies operated small numbers of screw battleships, including Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Naples and Austria.
The adoption of steam power was only one of a number of technological advances which revolutionized warship design in the 19th century. The ship of the line was overtaken by the ironclad: powered by steam, protected by metal armor, armed with guns firing high-explosive shells. Guns that fired explosive or incendiary shells were a major threat to wooden ships, these weapons became widespread after the introduction of 8-inch shell guns as part of the standard armament of French and American line-of-battle ships in 1841. In the Crimean War, six line-of-battle ships and two frigates of the Russian Black Sea Fleet destroyed seven Turkish frigates and three corvettes with explosive shells at the Battle of Sinop in 1853. In the war, French ironclad floating batteries used similar weapons against the defenses at the Battle of Kinburn. Wooden-hulled ships stood up comparatively well to shells, as shown in the 1866 Battle of Lissa, where the modern Austrian steam two-decker SMS Kaiser ranged across a confused battlefield, rammed an Italian ironclad and took 80 hits from Italian ironclads, many of which were shells, but including at least one 300-pound shot at point-blank range.
Despite losing her bowsprit and her foremast, bei
Media is a borough in and the county seat of Delaware County, United States, about 13 miles west of Philadelphia. Media was incorporated in 1850 at the same time; the population was 5,327 at the 2010 census, down from 5,533 at the 2000 census. Its school district is the Rose Tree Media School District with Penncrest High School and Springton Lake Middle School. In June 2006, it became the first fair trade town in America. Media promotes itself by its motto: "Everybody's Hometown"; the history of the area goes back to William Penn, but the area remained predominantly rural until the twentieth century. Land in the area was sold and settled soon after William Penn was named proprietor of the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681 by King Charles II of England. Peter and William Taylor bought the land. At the time, the land was located in Chester County. Providence Township was organized in 1684, divided into Upper Providence and Nether Providence townships by 1690 though they only had 40 taxable properties at the time.
The current borough, formed in 1850, sits between the two townships. In 1683, the Court of Chester County approved the construction of "Providence Great Road"; the road, which runs north from Chester to within a few blocks of today's downtown, is shown on a 1687 map along with the names of local landowners. It forms the eastern border of the borough. Thomas Minshall, a Quaker, was an early Media resident, settling just outside the small village known as "Providence", along the Providence Great Road; the village included a tailor shop, blacksmith shop, wheelwright shop and other buildings. Minshall bought 625 acres from William Penn and arrived in 1682; the Providence Friends Meeting was established at his house in February 1688, a meetinghouse was built on land he donated for the purpose. The original meetinghouse was built out of logs in 1699 or 1700, the current building dates to 1814. A house on Minshall's property, built c. 1750, still stands and was given to the citizens of the borough in 1975.
Chester County, Pennsylvania was divided in 1789, the eastern portion becoming Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The area in the center of the new county remained rural through 1850. On March 11, 1850, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania by Special Act of Assembly incorporated the Borough of Media, made the sale of malt and spirituous liquors unlawful within its borders. At the same time, the county seat of Delaware County was moved to Media from Chester; the borough was formed from four farms purchased by the county. The borders of the borough have not changed since that time. Streets were plotted in a rectangular grid around the location of the new courthouse, lots were sold at public auctions, the construction of houses began. Sources agree that Minshall Painter, a descendant of Thomas Minshall, suggested the name "Media", but do not agree on the reason; the name most comes from the borough's central location in Delaware County. The John J. Tyler Arboretum occupies part of Thomas Minshall's original 625 acres.
This farm was used by the Underground Railroad. The land was donated to a public trust in 1944 by an eighth-generation descendant; the arboretum was started as a private collection by Minshall Painter. In 1825, they began systematically planting over 1,000 varieties of shrubs. Over twenty of their original trees survive, including a giant sequoia. Minshall Painter was a leader of the Delaware County Institute of Science, formed on September 21, 1833, with just four other members: George Miller, John Miller, George Smith, M. D. and John Cassin. The institute was incorporated in 1836. About 1850, Painter gave the institute the land where its building stands at 11 Veterans Square, the building was constructed in 1867. In the second half of the 19th century, Media was a summer resort for well-to-do Philadelphians; the borough's large vacation hotels included the Idlewild Hotel on Lincoln Street at Gayley Terrace, Chestnut Grove House or "The Colonial" on Orange Street, Brooke Hall on Orange Street and Washington Avenue.
The Chestnut Grove was used for a year by nearby Swarthmore College due to a fire on its campus. The West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad was built through Media on October 19, 1854. Electrified service was opened on December 2, 1928. Up to 50 trains passed through each day; the railroad became part of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad and the Penn Central. SEPTA took over operations in 1983. Woodrow Wilson spoke at the Media Station in 1912 during his first election campaign. Trolley transportation lines spread to and through Media in early 1900s; the Media Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1927. The first'talkie' film, The Jazz Singer, was shown there, it remained a popular cinema through the 1980s. In 1994, the theater underwent a $1 million restoration by Walter Strine Sr. and re-opened as the'Media Theatre for the Performing Arts'. Shows produced there have included The Full Monty and Miss Saigon. On March 8, 1971, the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI raided an FBI "resident agency" in Media.
They released thousands of documents to major newspapers around the country. These documents revealed FBI tactics, like the recruitment of Boy Scouts as informants, confirmed for the first time the existence of COINTELPRO, an FBI program to "expose, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" dissident groups in the United States. In June 2006, Media became the first town in the United States to follow over 300 towns in Europe in attaining fair t
United States Asiatic Fleet
The United States Asiatic Fleet was a fleet of the United States Navy during much of the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, the fleet patrolled the Philippine Islands. Much of the fleet was destroyed by the Japanese by February 1942, after which it was dissolved and incorporated into the naval component of the South West Pacific Area command, which became the Seventh Fleet; the fleet was created when its predecessor, the Asiatic Squadron, was upgraded to fleet status in 1902. In early 1907, the fleet was downgraded and became the First Squadron of the United States Pacific Fleet. However, on 28 January 1910, the ships of that squadron were again organized as the Asiatic Fleet, thus constituted, the Asiatic Fleet, based in the Philippines, was organizationally independent of the Pacific Fleet, based on the United States West Coast until it moved to Pearl Harbor in the Territory of Hawaii in 1940. Although much smaller than any other U. S. Navy fleet and indeed far smaller than what any navy considers to be a fleet, the Asiatic Fleet from 1916 was commanded by one of only four four-star admirals authorized in the U.
S. Navy at the time; this reflected the prestige of the position of Asiatic Fleet commander-in-chief, more powerful and influential with regard to the affairs of the United States in China than was the American minister, or United States Ambassador, to China. In 1904, all armored cruisers were withdrawn from the Far East. Gunboats patrolled the Yangtze River in the Yangtze Patrol. After Rear Admiral Charles J. Train became commander-in-chief of the fleet in March 1905, it was involved in various ways with the closing weeks of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. After the Imperial Japanese Navy's decisive defeat of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Battle of Tsushima Strait in May 1905, units of the Asiatic Fleet escorted three fleeing Russian cruisers into Manila Bay in the Philippine Islands, where Train ensured that their crews were well taken care of during a lengthy stay until they were able to return to Russia. In November 1905, Train was at the center of a diplomatic dispute while with a group of American officers on a pheasant-hunting expedition near Nanking, when he accidentally shot a Chinese woman with birdshot, inflicting minor injuries on her.
A mob of hundreds of Chinese villagers formed around Train's party and attacked it, pushing Train into the mud, seizing the officers' guns, taking Train's son, Navy Lieutenant Charles R. Train, hostage; when the Asiatic Fleet landed 40 United States Marines to rescue the officers, the villagers attacked them with pitchforks and the Marines fired two shots. Local Chinese officials refused to return the officers' guns, but Train and his companions were able to extricate themselves without further injury to anyone; the governor of Nanking apologized for the mob's actions, returned the American officers' guns, punished the ringleaders of the mob. On 4 August 1906, Train died in Yantai, while still in command of the Asiatic Fleet. After a memorial ceremony, which Japanese Admiral Heihachiro Togo and other dignitaries attended at Yokohama, aboard Train's flagship, the battleship USS Ohio, the steamer Empress of China carried his body out of the harbor under escort en route to Washington, D. C. In early 1907, the Asiatic Fleet was abolished, its ships and personnel became the First Squadron of the United States Pacific Fleet.
On 28 January 1910, the United States Asiatic Fleet was reestablished. In December 1922, when the U. S. Navy was restructured, with the U. S. Pacific Fleet and United States Atlantic Fleet combining to form a unified United States Fleet; the Asiatic Fleet remained a separate entity and was charged with defending the Philippines and Guam and with upholding the Open Door Policy in China. In late July 1937, the Asiatic Fleet's commander-in-chief, Admiral Harry E. Yarnell, took his flagship, the heavy cruiser Augusta, to the Soviet Union's main naval base in the Pacific, along with four of the fleet's destroyers; the visit, urged by the Soviet government, was an attempt to display solidarity between the Soviet Union and the United States in the face of aggressive Japanese behavior in China and along the border between the Soviet Union and the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. The visit was unsuccessful in deterring further Japanese military operations in either area. On 25 July 1939, Admiral Thomas C. Hart was appointed the commander-in-chief of the fleet.
It was based at Cavite Naval Base and Olongapo Naval Station on Luzon, with its headquarters at the Marsman Building in Manila. On 22 July 1941, the Mariveles Naval Base was completed and the Asiatic Fleet began to use it as well. Hart had permission to withdraw to the Indian Ocean, in the event of war with Japan, at his discretion. Hart's submarines, commanded by Commander, Asiatic Fleet Captain John E. Wilkes were six elderly S-class submarines and seven Porpoises. In October 1941, 12 Salmons or Sargos—in Captain Stuart "Sunshine" Murray's Submarine Division 15 and Captain Joseph A. Connolly's Submarine Division 16, accompanied by the tender Holland, were added. Walter E. "Red" Doyle was assigned as Wilkes' relief. Hart's defensive plan relied on his submarines, which were believed to be "the most lethal arm of the insignificant Asiatic Fleet", to interdict the Japanese and whittle down their forces prior to a landing, to disrupt attempts at reinforcing after the landings took place; when war began, Doyle's inexperience in Asian waters meant Wilkes remained de facto COMSUBAF.
Problems were encountered from the beginning. No defensive minefields were laid. Ineffective and unrealistic pea
The Yangtze Patrol known as the Yangtze River Patrol Force, Yangtze River Patrol, YangPat and ComYangPat was a prolonged naval operation from 1854–1949 to protect American interests in the Yangtze River's treaty ports. The Yangtze Patrol patrolled the coastal waters of China where they protected U. S. citizens, their property, Christian missionaries. The Yangtze River is the longest river in China and it plays an important commercial role, with ocean-bound vessels proceeding as far upstream as the city of Wuhan; this squadron-sized unit cruised the waters of the Yangtze from Shanghai on the Pacific Ocean into the far interior of China at Chungking. The Yangtze Patrol was formed from ships of the United States Navy and assigned to the East India Squadron. In 1868, patrol duties were carried out by the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy. Under the unequal treaties, the United States and various European powers the United Kingdom, on the Yangtze since 1897, were allowed to cruise China's rivers.
In 1902, the United States Asiatic Fleet took control of the operations of the Yangtze Patrol. In 1922, Yangtze Patrol was established as a formal component of the United States Navy in China. In 1942, at the beginning of World War II, the Yangtze Patrol ceased operations in China because of the limited resources of the United States Navy, which needed the patrol crews and their ships elsewhere in fighting Japanese forces throughout the Pacific. Following the end of World War II, the Yangtze Patrol resumed its duties in 1945, but on a more limited basis with fewer ships during the Chinese Civil War; when the Chinese Communist forces occupied the Yangtze River valley in 1949, the United States Navy permanently ceased operations and disbanded the Yangtze Patrol. As a result of the "unequal treaties" imposed on China by Great Britain and other European powers after the First Opium War and Second Opium War, China was opened to foreign trade at a number of locations known as "treaty ports" where foreigners were permitted to live and conduct business.
Created by the treaties was the doctrine of extraterritoriality, a system whereby citizens of foreign countries living in China were subject to the laws of their home country. Most favoured nation treatment under the treaties assured other countries of the privileges afforded Great Britain, soon many nations, including the United States, operated merchant ships and navy gunboats on the waterways of China. During the 1860s and 1870s, American merchant ships were prominent on the lower Yangtze River, operating up to the deepwater port of Hankow 680 mi inland; the added mission of anti-piracy patrols required U. S. naval and marine landing parties be put ashore several times to protect American interests. In 1874, the U. S. gunboat, USS Ashuelot, reached as far as Ichang, at the foot of the Yangtze gorges, 975 miles from the sea. During this period, most US personnel found a tour in the Yangtze to be uneventful, as a major American shipping company had sold its interests to a Chinese firm, leaving the patrol with little to protect.
However, as the stability of China began to deteriorate after 1890, the U. S. naval presence began to increase along the Yangtze. In 1901, American-flagged merchant vessels returned to the Yangtze when Standard Oil Company placed a steam-powered tanker in service on the lower river. Within the decade, several small motorships began hauling kerosene, the principal petroleum product used in China for that company. At the same time, the United States Navy acquired four Spanish vessels, which it had seized in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War; these vessels became the core of the Yangtze River patrol for the first dozen years of the 20th century, but they lacked the power to go beyond Ichang onto the more difficult stretches of the river. USS Palos and Monocacy were the first American gunboats built for service on the Yangtze River; the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, California built them in 1913. The U. S. Navy had them disassembled and shipped to China aboard the American steamer Mongolia.
The Kiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai reassembled them and put them into service in 1914. In 1914, both vessels demonstrated their ability to handle the rapids of the upper river when they reached Chungking, more than 1,300 mi from the sea, went further to Kiating on the Min River. In 1917, the U. S. entered World War I. The U. S. rendered the guns of Monocacy inoperable to protect Chinese neutrality. After China entered the war on the side of the Allies, the U. S. Navy reactivated the guns. In 1917, the first Standard Oil tanker reached Chungking, a pattern of American commerce on the river began to emerge. On 17 January 1918, armed Chinese men attacked Monocacy and she was forced to return fire with her 6-pounder gun. Passenger and cargo service by American-flag ships began in 1920 with the Robert Dollar Line and the American West China Company, they were followed in 1923 by the Yangtze River Steamship Company, which stayed on the river until 1935, long after the other American passenger-cargo ships were gone.
In the early 1920s, the patrol found itself fighting the forces of bandits. To accommodate its increased responsibilities on the river, the United States Navy constructed six new gunboats in Shanghai during 1926–1927 and commissioned them in late 1927–1928 during the command of Rear Admiral Yates Stirling, Jr. to replace four craft seized from Spain during the Spanish–American War, patrolling since 1903. All were capable of reaching Chungking at high water, all year-round. Collectively referred to by the U. S. press as "th
Naval History and Heritage Command
The Naval History and Heritage Command the Naval Historical Center, is an Echelon II command responsible for the preservation and dissemination of U. S. naval history and heritage located at the historic Washington Navy Yard. The NHHC is composed of 42 facilities in 13 geographic locations including the Navy Department Library, 10 museums and 1 heritage center, USS Constitution repair facility and detachment, historic ship ex-USS Nautilus; the Naval History and Heritage Command traces its lineage to 1800, when President John Adams requested Benjamin Stoddert, the first Secretary of the Navy, prepare a catalog of professional books for use in the Secretary's office. When the British invaded Washington in 1814 this collection, containing the finest works on naval history from America and abroad, was rushed to safety outside the Federal City. Thereafter the library had many locations, including a specially designed space in the State and Navy Building next to the White House; when the library was placed under the Bureau of Navigation in 1882, the director, noted international lawyer and U.
S. Naval Academy professor James R. Soley, gathered the rare books scattered throughout Navy Department offices, collected naval prints and photographs, subscribed to professional periodicals, he began to collect and preserve naval records those of the American Civil War. Congress recognized his efforts by authorizing funds for office staff and combining the library and records sections into the Office of Library and Naval War Records. Six years the United States Congress appropriated the funds to print the first volume in a monumental documentary series, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Completed in 1927 with the publication of volume 31, the series marked the beginning of a commitment to collect and publish historical naval documents, a mission that the History Command continues to carry out in its American Revolution and War of 1812 documentary projects. In 1915 the appropriations for publications, the library, naval war records were combined and the office received a new title—Office of Naval Records and Library.
Once America entered World War I, emphasis shifted to gathering documents on current naval operations. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels directed Admiral William S. Sims, Commander U. S. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters, to collect war diaries, operational reports, other historic war materials of naval commands in his London headquarters. To handle World War I records in Washington, a Historical Section was established in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and housed in the new Navy Department Building on Constitution Avenue; when the war ended, Admiral Sims' London collection, as well as photographs and new motion pictures from the various Navy bureaus, were transferred to the Historical Section. The library, by now holding more than 50,000 volumes, remained in the State and Navy Building. In 1921, a former member of Admiral Sims' wartime staff, Captain Dudley W. Knox, was named head of the Office of Naval Records and Library and the Historical Section. For the next twenty-five years he was the driving force behind the Navy's historical program, earning for the office an international reputation in the field of naval archives and history.
The Historical Section was absorbed into Naval Records and Library in 1927. Knox's additional appointment as the Curator for the Navy envisioned a display of the nation's sea heritage in a naval museum in Washington. In 1961, Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, established the U. S. Naval Historical Display Center. At President Franklin D. Roosevelt's suggestion, Knox began several documentary series. Seven volumes pertaining to the Quasi War with France and seven volumes relating to the war with the Barbary Powers were published. World War II halted plans for similar publications on the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, World War I. During World War II, Knox turned his attention to collecting documents generated by naval operations in the global conflict, he began a campaign to gather and arrange operation plans, action reports, war diaries into a well-controlled archives staffed by professional historians who came on board as naval reservists. To complement the developing World War II operational archives, the Knox group pioneered an oral history program whereby participants in the significant Atlantic and Pacific operations and battles were interviewed as soon as possible after their wartime engagements.
When Pulitzer Prize winner and Harvard history professor Samuel Eliot Morison was commissioned by President Roosevelt to prepare the fifteen-volume History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, he relied not only on his own combat experience, but on those records assembled in Knox's archives. In 1944, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal established the Office of Naval History to coordinate the Morison project, as well as the wartime administrative histories being written by Navy commands, under the direction of Princeton professor Robert G. Albion. Knox served as Deputy Director of Naval History under the Director, Admiral Edward C. Kalbfus, but the Office of Naval Records and Library at first remained separate until March 1949 when it merged with the Office of Naval History to form the Naval Records and History Division of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. In 1952 it was renamed the Naval History Division; the eventual home for the Navy's historians was the Washington Navy Yard in Southeast Washington, which in 1961 was converted from an industrial facility to an administ