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William H. Rau

William Herman Rau was an American photographer, active in the latter half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He is best remembered for his stereo cards of sites around the world, for his panoramic photographs of sites along the Pennsylvania Railroad, he was official photographer of the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904, of the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland in 1905, his work is now included in the collections of the Getty Museum. Rau was born in Philadelphia in 1855, the son of German and Swiss immigrants Peter and Mary Witschi Rau, his older brother, operated a photography studio out of the Rau house, William picked up the trade while still young. At the age of 13, he started doing photographic work for his future father-in-law, William Bell, a medical and survey photographer for the federal government. In 1874, with Bell's recommendation, Rau joined an expedition to Chatham Island in the South Pacific to photograph the Transit of Venus. Sailing along the sloop Swatara, Rau photographed some of the world's most remote places while on this expedition.

He was less successful in capturing the transit itself, after his tent caught fire, cloudy skies obscured most of the transit. None of Rau's photographs of the transit were sharp enough to be of use to scientists. After returning, Rau joined the Centennial Photographic Company, set up by photographer and publisher Edward L. Wilson to conduct photographic work for Philadelphia's Centennial Exposition of 1876. After the exposition, he joined his father-in-law's stereo card studio, which he purchased in 1878, he operated this studio in partnership with his brother, until 1880. In 1881, Rau joined Wilson on an expedition to the Middle East, he photographed numerous sites in Egypt and Damascus, captured some of the earliest photographs of the ruins of Petra. The expedition spent 45 days in the desert at one point, Rau recalled being threatened and robbed by locals; the expedition was unable to capture any photographs due to poor lighting. Upon returning, Rau went to work full-time for Photographic Journal of America.

In 1885, he left Wilson's company and set up his own studio in Philadelphia located on Chestnut Street, but moved to South Camac Street. He operated this studio for the remainder of his life, producing stereo cards, lantern slides, silver prints. In 1886, Rau made the first of several trips to Europe, photographing sites in Belgium, Switzerland and Italy. In 1889, he accompanied travel writer John Lawson Stoddard on a tour of Mexico. Rau was hired by the Lehigh Valley Railroad to photograph scenic views along the railroad's route in 1891, became the railroad's official photographer in 1895, he spent a significant portion of the 1890s doing photographic work for both the Lehigh and the Pennsylvania Railroad, published collections of his railroad photos in 1892 and 1900. Rau complemented his travel photographs with event photographs. Notable events he covered included the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Klondike Gold Rush in the late 1890s, the funeral of President William McKinley in 1901, the eruption of Mount Pelée in 1902, the funeral of Admiral William T. Sampson in 1902, the America's Cup race of 1903, the Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, the inauguration of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905, the arrival of the RMS Olympic in New York Harbor in 1911.

He was the official photographer for the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904 and the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland the following year. With the rise of the Photo-Secession in New York in the 1900s, like many commercial photographers fell into obscurity, he died at his home in Philadelphia on November 19, 1920. Rau's photographs span a wide range of topics in places around the world. Cities photographed by Rau include New York City, Moscow, Tokyo, Nablus, St. Pierre, Butte and his native Philadelphia. Individuals who posed for portraits for Rau include Theodore Roosevelt, Admiral George Dewey, poet Edwin Markham, Apache chief Geronimo, Sioux chiefs Luke Little Hawk and Lone Elk. Rau's panoramic subjects include Niagara Falls and Hemlock Lake, the cities of Rochester and Buffalo in New York and Easton in Pennsylvania. In an 1884 article, Rau stated that he preferred cameras with Euryscope lenses and cherry or mahogany cases, oxalate-developed plates, a Loring finder, his photographs were sold as stereo cards or lantern slides, the latter of which Rau described as the most "pleasurable" branch of photography.

For his railroad company panoramics, he used a modified Moessard camera with a Ross 15-inch portable symmetrical lens, 18-inch orthochromatic film, a rail car equipped with a darkroom and developing facilities. He printed many of his railroad company photographs on albumen paper to evoke an earlier era, as most photographers had abandoned albumen by the 1890s. Over the past few decades, Rau's work has been exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art, the Corcoran Gallery, the Whitney Museum, the Southern Alleghenies Museum of Art, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art, his photographs are included in the collections of the Smithsonian, the Getty Museum, the Library Company of Philadelphia. The New United States Navy – written by Charles M. Harvey, illustrated with photographs by Rau

Sarbari Roy Choudhury

Sarbari Roy Chowdhury, was an Indian artist. Chowdhury was born in Ulpur, East Bengal into a Zamindari family, graduated from the Government College of Art and Craft, Kolkata, in 1956, he studied under the sculptors Prodosh Dasgupta and Sankho Chaudhuri at the M. S. University, Baroda. Between 1960 and 1962, he served as the Head of the Department of Sculpture at the Indian Art College, Kolkata, he spent most of his professional life at Visva Bharati at Santiniketan. He joined the Kala Bhavana faculty in 1969 and remained there until his retirement in 1997. Influenced by Indian sculptors like Prodosh Dasgupta as well as Western greats like Rodin, Roy Chowdhury found his inspiration in Hindustani classical music. Roy Chowdhury's figures included a lot of Indian musicians including Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Allauddin Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Siddheswari Devi, etc; as he admitted, music was always one of his most significant inspirations, "I feel that the abstraction of music can be expressed only through another abstract art form…Music moves me, its reaction in my subconscious drives my creative activity…On a personal level, I seek a visual form of music – visual music or the ‘sculpturliness’ of music.

I have tried to achieve that in my work. His works, while pictorial are largely abstract in their style – a result of his travels to the Academia de Belle Arti, Florence, in 1962, where he met Giacometti and Henry Moore in person, who along with Sankho Chaudhuri had an undeniable impact on his style, his sculptures feature a unique mix of the academic realism of the East and the more innovative cubism and abstraction of the West. Roy Chowdhury has won several awards including the Gagan-Abani Puraskar from Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, in 2004, the Abanindra Puraskar from the Government of West Bengal in 2005. Over the years he has exhibited his works at several group and solo shows, the latest of, a retrospective entitled Sensibility Objectified: The Sculptures of Sarbari Roy Choudhury held in May 2009 in New Delhi. A book, Sensibility Objectified: The Sculptures of Sarbari Roy Choudhury, by historian R. Siva Kumar, was released. Roy Chowdhury is survived by his wife Ajanta Roy Chowdhury and two Sons and Sourav.

The younger son, Saurav Roy Chowdhury followed his father's path and become a sculptor, while his elder son Sougata Roy Chowdhury is a practitioner of Hindustani classical music and plays Sarod. Http:// "A Concise Chronicle of Bengal's Modern Sculpture". Retrieved 21 April 2015

Everett W. Stewart

Everett Wilson Stewart was an American flying ace of World War II with 7.83 aerial victories and 1.5 ground victories. Stewart was born on July 1915, in Talmage, Kansas, he was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant through the Army ROTC program at Kansas State University on May 30, 1938, enlisted in the Aviation Cadet Program of the U. S. Army Air Corps on June 23, 1938. Stewart completed pilot training, was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the Army Air Corps, was awarded his pilot wings on May 26, 1939, his first assignment was flying P-40 Warhawk and P-39 Airacobra fighters with the 79th Pursuit Squadron of the 20th Pursuit Group at Moffett Field and Hamilton Field in California, from June 1939 to February 1941, followed by service in Hawaii and on Midway Islands until September 1942. He rose to the rank of squadron commander. After the Battle of Midway, he was given command of the 328th Fighter Squadron of the 352nd Fighter Group, sent to England in mid-1943. Flying the P-47 Thunderbolt, he was credited with the shared destruction of 2 enemy aircraft in aerial combat plus 1 damaged.

In January 1944, he was transferred to the 355th Fighter Group. He became the group's commanding officer in November 1944 to February 1945. During this time, Stewart destroyed 7 enemy aircraft in the air with 1 probable and 2 damaged, while flying the P-51 Mustangs, he was promoted to colonel in January 1945 and given command of the famous 4th Fighter Group from February 1945 to the end of the war. While in command of 4th FG, he was credited in damaging a jet powered Me 262 on March 1945. After his serving with 4th Fighter Group, he was assigned to the Occupation duty at Headquarters U. S. Air Forces in Europe at Wiesbaden, from September 1945 to March 1946. During World War II, Stewart was credited with the destruction of 7.83 enemy aircraft in aerial combat, 1 probable, 4 damaged, 1.5 on the ground while strafing enemy airfields. Stewart served as an Operations and Training Staff Officer at Maxwell Field, from May to December 1946, at Tyndall Field, from December 1946 to August 1947. After completing Air Command and Staff School at Maxwell Air Force Base, Stewart served as an instructor and director with the Air Tactical School at Tyndall Air Force Base, from June 1948 to October 1950, followed by service as a director at Air Command and Staff School at Maxwell Air Force Base from October 1950 to July 1951.

He attended Air War College from July 1951 to June 1952, served with Headquarters U. S. Air Force in the Pentagon until August 1953, his next assignment was on the Joint Intelligence Group in the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon from August 1953 to August 1956, followed by National Defense College in Canada from September 1956 to July 1957. Stewart was Vice Commander of the 30th Air Division at Willow Run Air Force Station, from August 1957 to January 1959, Deputy for Operations for the 37th Air Division and the 30th Air Division at Truax Field, from January 1959 to May 1960, Vice Commander of the 30th Air Division at Truax Field, from May to October 1960, he served on the staff with Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe at Louveciennes, from October 1960 to September 1962, served as Senior Air Force Advisor to the 136th Air Defense Wing at USNAS Dallas, from October 1962 to October 1964. His final assignment was at McConnell Air Force Base. Stewart retired from the Air Force on February 1, 1966.

Stewart died of a heart condition on February 10, 1982 and is buried at Restland Memorial Park in Dallas, Texas. SOURCES: Air Force Historical Study 85: USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II

LEDA 2108986

LEDA 2108986 known by its Case Western Reserve University designation "Case Galaxy 611", is an isolated, early-type dwarf galaxy with an embedded spiral structure residing in what is an intermediate-scale disk. The galaxy was discovered in 1987 by Sanduleak and Pesch, is located at a distance of about 45.7 megaparsecs in the Boötes void and has no significant neighbours within 2.5 Mpc. The galaxy may be a counterpart to the rectangular-shaped galaxy LEDA 74886, in that they both appear to contain an intermediate-scale disk. In the case of LEDA 74886, that disk is orientated edge-on to our line-of-sight; the "early-type galaxy" class is known to contain elliptical galaxies with no substantial stellar disk and lenticular galaxies with their large-scale disks that dominate the light at large radii. Bridging these two types of galaxies are the ES galaxies with their intermediate-scale disks, referred to as "Ellicular" galaxies in recent works. LEDA 2108986 has accreted a gas disk, it displays a young spiral pattern within this stellar disk.

The presence of such faint disk structures and rotation within some dwarf early-type galaxies in galaxy clusters has been heralded as evidence that they were once late-type spiral or dwarf irregular galaxies prior to experiencing a cluster-induced transformation, known as galaxy harassment. The extreme isolation of LEDA 2108986 is proof that dwarf early-type galaxies can be built by accretion events, as opposed to disk-stripping scenarios within the "galaxy harassment" model. LEDA 74886 NGC 1271 Mrk 1216, NGC 1277, NGC 1332, NGC 4291

2010 Baltimore Orioles season

The Baltimore Orioles 2010 season was the 110th season in franchise history. The Orioles made many significant roster moves prior to the 2010 season; the team parted ways with several contributors from the 2009 season including Aubrey Huff, Melvin Mora, the team's longest tenured player. Miguel Tejada returned to the team to replace Mora at third base and brought in Garrett Atkins to play first; the Orioles looked to improve the pitching staff by trading for veteran Kevin Millwood from the Texas Rangers and signing free agent closer Michael Gonzalez. Despite some predictions that the Orioles would have one of their best seasons in years, the Orioles continued to struggle throughout the first half of the season; the Orioles 2010 season got off to a horrendous start the team going 2–16 to start the season, last in the league by some margin and the second-worst in franchise history. On April 12, the team set a club record for the lowest paid attendance in Camden Yards history as only 9,129 attended the game versus the Tampa Bay Rays.

They would end the month of April 5–18. May would be only better as the team posted a 10–18 record for the month. On June 4, 2010; the Orioles fired manager Dave Trembley after compiling a record of 187 wins and 283 losses since being promoted during the 2007 season. At the time they were on an 8 game losing streak and had the worst record in the league at 15-39. Trembley was replaced by third base coach Juan Samuel on an interim basis; the managerial change accomplished little as the team's struggles continued under Samuel. Despite sweeping a four-game series from the Texas Rangers in Texas to head into the All-Star break, the Orioles went 25–59 in the first half; the team went 7–19 in the month of July. On July 29, the Orioles hired Buck Showalter to be the team's full-time manager, he was introduced on August 2 and made his debut on August 3, by which time Samuel's record as manager was 17-34. Showalter chose to wear the number 26 in honor of his friend and former Orioles manager Johnny Oates.

It was announced that Juan Samuel would not resume his role as third base coach and would instead take on a new role as a Dominican scout for the team. With Showalter in the dugout the Orioles went 17–11 in August, their first winning month all season and first winning August since 2004. However, on August 29, the Orioles became the first team to be mathematically eliminated from playoff contention for the MLB 2010 season; the Orioles finished out the season by going 17–13 in the months of September and October, making the team 34–23 under Showalter. This was the best record of any AL team over the same stretch of time, one commentator stating that "The Orioles had two different seasons. Before Buck and After Buck." 2010 marked the first time since 2004 that the Orioles improved on their previous season's win total. Their final record for the 2010 season was 66–96. Source: MLB Standings Grid Note: G = Games played.

National Processed Raspberry Council

The National Processed Raspberry Council is a U. S. organization that promotes and researches processed raspberries. It is part of a commodity checkoff program overseen by the U. S. Department of Agriculture; the National Processed Raspberry Council's self-stated mission is to "conduct nutrition research on the health and wellness benefits of raspberries and to promote the consumption of processed raspberries based on research results" The basic core of the council's work centers on research and promotion. The Washington Red Raspberry Commission approached the U. S. Department of Agriculture about establishing a national research and promotion program, better known as a commodity checkoff program; the USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service conducted a referendum among affected raspberry growers and importers in June 2011. Support for the raspberry checkoff program was around 88 percent in that referendum; as the rule establishing the checkoff program - the Processed Raspberries Research and Promotion Order - was being finalized the USDA put a temporary hold on its implementation.

The delay was due to the backlash surrounding the attempted implementation of a similar rule regarding Christmas trees in November 2011. The proposed Christmas tree checkoff created political controversy when it was characterized as a tax in the media; the Washington Red Raspberry Commission expected the program to be implemented in November 2011. After several months of delay the rule establishing the checkoff program was implemented in May 2012; the council is funded through a fee assessed on producers and importers of raspberries for processing. The fee is $.01 per pound of raspberries imported. Producers and importers are exempted from the assessment if they produce or import less than 20,000 pounds of the crop. National Processed Raspberry Council: official site Processed Raspberries Research and Promotion Order