Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a time, coins with mint errors. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same, a numismatist may or may not be a coin collector, and vice versa. A coins grade is a determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party service like PCGS or NGC will grade, attribute. Over 80 million coins have been certified by the four largest services, people have hoarded coins for their bullion value for as long as coins have been minted. However, the collection of coins for their value was a development. Evidence from the archaeological and historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and it seems probable that individual citizens collected old, exotic or commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art.
Contemporary coin collecting and appreciation began around the fourteenth century, during the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of the privileged classes, especially kings and queens. The Italian scholar and poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuits first and most famous aficionado, following his lead, many European kings and other nobility kept collections of ancient coins. Perhaps because only the wealthy could afford the pursuit, in Renaissance times coin collecting became known as the Hobby of Kings. During the 17th and 18th centuries coin collecting remained a pursuit of the well-to-do, but rational, Enlightenment thinking led to a more systematic approach to accumulation and study. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coin collecting increased further in popularity, the market for coins expanded to include not only antique coins, but foreign or otherwise exotic currency. Coin shows, trade associations, and regulatory bodies emerged during these decades, as one of the oldest and most popular world pastimes, coin collecting is now often referred to as the King of Hobbies.
The motivations for collecting are varied, possibly the most common type of collector is the hobbyist, who amasses a collection purely for fun with no real expectation of profit. This is especially true of casual collectors and children who collect items on the basis of chance, another frequent reason for purchasing coins is as an investment. As with stamps, precious metals or other commodities, coin prices are based on supply
The Union League Club
The Union League Club is a private social club in New York City. The building was designated a New York City landmark on October 25,2011, Union League clubs, which are legally separate but share similar histories and maintain reciprocal links with one another, are located in Chicago and Philadelphia. Defunct Union League Clubs were located in Brooklyn and New Haven, the club dates its founding from February 6,1863, during the Civil War. Thus, pro-Union men chose to form their own club, with the goals of cultivating a profound national devotion and to strengthen a love. The Union League was actually a political movement before it became a social organization, the New York League was founded by four prominent professionals and intellectuals, Henry Whitney Bellows, Frederick Law Olmsted, George Templeton Strong, and Oliver Wolcott Gibbs. The men, all members of the United States Sanitary Commission, desired to strengthen the nation state and they first aimed to recruit a coalition of moneyed professionals like themselves.
Strong believed that the club would only thrive with a catalogue of moneyed men. Olmsted especially desired to recruit the new generation of young, wealthy men, so that the club might teach them the obligations, the founders aimed to win the political governing elite over to support of the Union and abolition. They believed that a government was essential to their prosperity. As they bought more and more war bonds, the holders had an economic interest in the success of the Union. The club held its first official meeting on March 20,1863, at this first meeting, Robert B. Minturn, head of the second largest shipping firm, was elected president. Some of the vice presidents included William H. Aspinwall, Moses Taylor. It did not take long for the enemies to make their displeasure felt with the new organization. A few months later, the decided to make an unmistakable gesture that they had not been intimidated. The club decided to recruit and equip a Colored infantry regiment for Union service, Colored Infantry was formed on Rikers Island in February 1864.
The next month, it marched from the Union League Club, down Canal Street, in spite of numerous threats, the members of the Union League Club marched with the men of the 20th, and saw them off. During World War I, the club sponsored the 369th Infantry, the famed Harlem Hellfighters, which was commanded by William Hayward, during Reconstruction, Union Leagues were formed all across the South
W. Hugh Woodin
William Hugh Woodin is an American mathematician and set theorist at Harvard University. He has made notable contributions to the theory of inner models. A type of cardinal, the Woodin cardinal, bears his name. Born in Tucson, Woodin earned his Ph. D. from the University of California and his dissertation title was Discontinuous Homomorphisms of C and Set Theory. He served as chair of the Berkeley mathematics department for the 2002–2003 academic year, Woodin is a managing editor of the Journal of Mathematical Logic. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and he is the great-grandson of William Hartman Woodin, former Secretary of the Treasury. Woodin criticizes this view arguing that it leads to a reduction in which all truths in the set theoretical universe can be decided from a small part of it. He claims that these and related mathematical results lead to the conclusion that Continuum Hypothesis has a truth value, in particular, the Continuum Hypothesis would be true in this universe. AD+ W.
Hugh Woodin at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Woodin, the Axiom of Determinacy, Forcing Axioms, and the Nonstationary Ideal
Berwick is a borough in Columbia County, United States,28 miles southwest of Wilkes Barre. As of the 2010 census, Berwick had a population of 10,477, Berwick was founded by Evan Owen, a Welsh Quaker and surveyor. He was the son of Hugh Owen from Trefeglwys, Berwick was named after Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. Situated on the bank of the Susquehanna River, the borough was first settled in 1769, founded in 1786. The population of Berwick in 1910 was 5,357, in 1920, after consolidation, the population was 12,181, the population was 10,477 at the 2010 census. Berwick is famous for its high school team, the Bulldogs. Berwick is the home of the 2008 PIAA AAA baseball state champions and it is the schools first ever baseball state championship. Since 1947, the Berwick Christmas Boulevard, created by the Jaycees, displays over a mile long Christmas show of lights, the Berwick Christmas Boulevard is seen by thousands of visitors every year, and it has been a regional favorite for over 60 years. Santa Claus is present every year to serve Berwicks famous Wise Potato Chips to everyone who drives past him, the Berwick Armory and Jackson Mansion and Carriage House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The borough of Nescopeck in Luzerne County is to the southeast, across the Susquehanna. According to the United States Census Bureau, Berwick has an area of 3.25 square miles, of which 3.08 square miles is land and 0.18 square miles. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of Berwick as Front Street, US11 leads northeast 26 miles to Kingston, across the Susquehanna from Wilkes-Barre, and southwest 12 miles to Bloomsburg, the Columbia County seat. Pennsylvania Route 93 shares Front and Second Streets with US11 in the center of Berwick, in the other direction, PA93 splits west from US11 as Orange Street and leads 10 miles to Orangeville. Interstate 80 passes south of Berwick, with the closest exits being at US11,6 miles southwest of town, the eastern terminus of the Susquehanna and Berwick Railroad used to be in Berwick. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,774 people,4,595 households, the population density was 3,477.0 people per square mile. There were 4,992 housing units at a density of 1,611.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 97. 10% White,0. 88% African American,0. 28% Native American,0. 43% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,0. 61% from other races, and 0. 65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 62% of the population, the Berwick area had a large influx of immigrants approximately between 1890–1920, which had a great impact on the current population that continues to this day
Johnny Gruelle was an American artist, political cartoonist, childrens book author and illustrator, and songwriter. He is known as the creator of Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy, john Barton Gruelle was born in Arcola, Illinois, on December 24,1880. A the age of two, he moved with his family to Indianapolis, where his father, Richard Gruelle, john Gruelles cartoons first appeared in print in the Indianapolis Star in 1905. From 1906 to 1911, his work appeared in many newspapers usually signed as Grue, including The Toledo News-Bee, The Pittsburgh Press, The Tacoma Times. After he beat out 1,500 entrants to win a cartooning contest sponsored in 1911 by The New York Herald, Gruelle created Mr. Twee Deedle, which was in print from that year to at least 1914. He combined the names of two James Whitcomb Riley poems, The Raggedy Man and Little Orphant Annie and suggested calling the doll Raggedy Ann, as Myrtle Gruelle recalled, There was something he wanted from the attic. While he was rummaging around for it, he found an old rag doll his mother had made for his sister and he said that the doll would make a good story.
The couples daughter, had not yet born when Gruelle found the doll. Johnny Gruelle kept in his mind until we had Marcella and he remembered it when he saw her play dolls. He wrote the stories around some of the things she did and he used to get ideas from watching her. Gruelles patent application for the Raggedy Ann doll was already in progress, patent office the same month as Marcellas death. Regardless, some sources repeat the myth. In 1915, Gruelle patented and trademarked the design and name, patent D47,789 was dated September 7,1915. Gruelle began approaching publishers and in 1918, the P. F, volland Company published Raggedy Ann Stories, promoting it with a Raggedy Ann doll. In 1920, Gruelle introduced Raggedy Anns brother, the mischievous and adventuresome Raggedy Andy, Gruelle was awarded a patent for a stuffed animal in 1921 U. S. Gruelles Raggedy Anns Sunny Songs was set to music by William H. Woodin, one of Gruelles characters is Little Wooden Willie, a reference to Will Woodin. Gruelle lived in the Silvermine section of New Canaan, Gruelle spent a year in Ashland, from 1923 to 1924.
He died at home in Miami Springs, Florida, on January 9,1938, mcEvoy Quacky Doodles and Danny Daddles Book Works by Johnny Gruelle at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Johnny Gruelle at Internet Archive Works by Johnny Gruelle at LibriVox
Dean Gooderham Acheson was an American statesman and lawyer. As United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman from 1949 to 1953, Acheson helped design the Marshall Plan and was a key player in the development of the Truman Doctrine and creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Achesons most famous decision was convincing President Truman to intervene in the Korean War in June 1950 and he persuaded Truman to dispatch aid and advisors to French forces in Indochina, though in 1968 he finally counseled President Lyndon B. Johnson to negotiate for peace with North Vietnam. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy called upon Acheson for advice, bringing him into the executive committee, Dean Gooderham Acheson was born in Middletown, Connecticut. Like his father, Acheson was a staunch Democrat and opponent of prohibition, Acheson attended Groton School and Yale College, where he joined Scroll and Key Society, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity.
At Groton and Yale he had the reputation of a partier and prankster, he was somewhat aloof, Achesons well-known, reputed arrogance—he disdained the curriculum at Yale as focusing on memorizing subjects already known or not worth knowing more about—was apparent early. At Harvard Law School from 1915 to 1918, however, he was swept away by the intellect of professor Felix Frankfurter, on May 15,1917, while serving in the National Guard, Acheson married Alice Caroline Stanley. She loved painting and politics and served as an influence throughout their enduring marriage. Frankfurter and Brandeis were close associates, and future Supreme Court Justice Frankfurter suggested that Brandeis take on Acheson, when Secretary William H. Woodin fell ill, Acheson suddenly found himself acting secretary despite his ignorance of finance. Because of his opposition to FDRs plan to deflate the dollar by controlling gold prices, he was forced to resign in November 1933, in 1939–1940 he headed a committee to study the operation of administrative bureaus in the federal government.
Brought back as assistant secretary of state in 1941, Acheson implemented much of United States economic policy aiding Great Britain, Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets merely to disconcert them. He did not intend the flow of oil to Japan to cease, the president departed Washington for Newfoundland to meet with Churchill. While he was gone Acheson used those frozen assets to deny Japan oil, upon the presidents return, he decided it would appear weak and appeasing to reverse the de facto oil embargo. In 1944, Acheson attended the Bretton Woods Conference as the delegate from the State department. At this conference the post-war international economic structure was designed, the conference was the birthplace of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the last of which would evolve into the World Trade Organization. And, as late as 1945 or 1946 Acheson sought détente with the Soviet Union, in 1946, as chairman of a special committee to prepare a plan for the international control of atomic energy, he wrote the Acheson–Lilienthal report.
At first Acheson was conciliatory towards Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Unions attempts at regional hegemony in Eastern Europe and in Southwest Asia, changed Achesons thinking. From this point forward, one writes, Acheson was more than present at the creation of the Cold War
American Car and Foundry Company
American Car and Foundry is an American manufacturer of railroad rolling stock. One of its subsidiaries was once a manufacturer of coaches and trolley coaches under the brand names of ACF. Today ACF is known as ACF Industries LLC and is based in St. Charles and it is owned by investor Carl Icahn. American Car and Foundry was formed and incorporated in New Jersey in 1899 as the result of the merger of 13 smaller railroad car manufacturers, the company was made up of, Later in 1899 ACF acquired Bloomsburg Car Manufacturing Company. Two years later, ACF acquired Jackson and Sharp Company, the unified company made a great investment in the former Jackson & Woodin plant in Pennsylvania, spending about $3 million. It was at this plant that ACF built the first all-steel passenger car in the world in 1904, the car was built for the Interborough Rapid Transit system of New York City, the first of 300 such cars ordered by the railroad. 1904 and 1905 saw ACF build several motor cars and trailers for the London Underground, in those two years ACF acquired Southern Car and Foundry, Indianapolis Car and Foundry and Indianapolis Car Company.
During World War I ACF produced artillery gun mounts and ammunition, submarine chasers and other boats, railway cars, ACF ranked 36th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts. 1899, American Car & Foundry is formed from the merger of 13 smaller companies. G. August 2,1941, ACFs 1, 000th military tank is completed for the United States military effort of World War II1954, The company officially changes its name to ACF Industries,1954, ACF purchases Engineering and Research Corporation. 1954–1955, ACF delivers 35 Astra Dome dome cars to the Union Pacific Railroad January 1961, ACF delivers its last passenger car,1977, Southern Pacific Railroad came up with the idea of the first double-stack intermodal car in 1977. SP designed the first car with ACF Industries that same year,1984, ACF is purchased by Carl Icahn 1997, ACF reaches leasing agreement with GE Capital Railcar for 35000 of its 46000 railcars, mostly on 16 year leases with optional purchase agreements.
2003, ACF Industries LLC became a successor to ACF Industries, in the past ACF built passenger and freight cars, including covered hopper cars for hauling such cargo as corn and other grains. One of the largest customers was the Union Pacific Railroad, whose armour-yellow carbon-steel lightweight passenger rolling stock was built by ACF. The famous dome-observation car Native Son was an ACF product, today the U. S. passenger car market is erratic in production and is mostly handled by specialty manufacturers and foreign corporations. Competitors Budd, Pullman-Standard, Rohr Industries, and the St. Louis Car Company have all left the market or gone out of business. The manufacturing facility in Milton, Pennsylvania, is serviced by the Norfolk Southern Railway and is capable of manufacturing railcars and all related railcar components. The plant is capable of producing pressure vessels in sizes 18, 000–61,000 gwc, including tanks, compressed gas storage, LPG storage
Ogden L. Mills
Ogden Livingston Mills was an American lawyer and politician. He served as United States Secretary of the Treasury in President Herbert Hoovers cabinet. Mills was born on August 23,1884, in Newport, Rhode Island, the son of Ogden Mills, a financier and racehorse owner, and his wife, the former Ruth T. Livingston. He had twin sisters, Beatrice Mills Forbes and Gladys Mills Phipps, Mills graduated from Harvard University in 1904, and graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907. He was admitted to the bar in 1908, Mills married his first wife, Margaret Styuvesant Rutherford, the step-daughter of William Kissam Vanderbilt, on September 20,1911. Mills married his wife, the former Dorothy Randolph Fell. She was the wife of the banker John R. Fell. While in New York, Mills was an member of the New York Civitan Club. Mills was a delegate to the 1912,1916 and the 1920 Republican National Conventions and he resigned his seat on July 31,1917 to enlist in the United States Army, and served with the rank of captain until the close of World War I.
After the war, he served as President of the New York State Tax Association, in 1926, Mills ran on the Republican ticket for the Governor of New York, but was defeated by Al Smith, the incumbent Democrat. Mills was appointed in 1927, by the President Calvin Coolidge as the Undersecretary of the Treasury, in 1932, Mills was appointed by President Herbert Hoover as Secretary of the Treasury. He remained in office until March 3,1933, after leaving the Treasury Department, Mills was highly critical of Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal policies. He continued to be active in business, and published his views in two books, What of Tomorrow in 1935 and The Seventeen Million in 1937. Mills served on the boards of the Lackawanna Steel Company, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, Virginia & Truckee Railroad, Mergenthaler Linotype Company, Mills died of heart disease in Manhattan, New York, on October 11,1937. He was interred in St. James Churchyard, Hyde Park and his sister Gladys owned Wheatley Stable, a horse racing and breeding operation.
Their stable owned and bred Seabiscuit as well as Bold Ruler, Mills owned Kantar who won the 1928 Prix de lArc de Triomphe. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Ogden L. Mills at Time magazine Staatsburgh State Historic Site at www. staatsburgh. org
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in US banks. The insurance limit was initially US$2,500 per ownership category, since the passage of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2011, the FDIC insures deposits in member banks up to US $250,000 per ownership category. The FDIC and its reserves are not funded by public funds, the FDIC has a US$100 billion line of credit with the United States Department of the Treasury. Only banks are insured by the FDIC, credit unions are insured up to the insurance limit by the National Credit Union Administration. As of August 27,2014, the FDIC provided deposit insurance at 6,638 institutions, the FDIC examines and supervises certain financial institutions for safety and soundness, performs certain consumer-protection functions, and manages receiverships of failed banks. Each ownership category of a money is insured separately up to the insurance limit.
For joint accounts, each co-owner is assumed to own the same fraction of the account as does each other co-owner. Thus if three people own a $750,000 account, the entire account balance is insured because each depositors $250,000 share of the account is insured. The owner of a revocable trust account is insured up to $250,000 for each unique beneficiary. Thus if there is a owner of an account that is specified as in trust for three different beneficiaries, the funds in the account are insured up to $750,000. The Board of Directors of the FDIC is the body of the FDIC. The board is composed of five members, three appointed by the president of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate, the three appointed members each serve six-year terms. No more than three members of the board may be of the political affiliation. The two ex officio members are the Comptroller of the Currency and the director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. As of January 1,2016, the members of the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation were, both of the panics renewed discussion on deposit insurance.
In 1893, William Jennings Bryan presented a bill to Congress proposing a national insurance fund. No action was taken, as the legislature paid more attention to the depression at the time. After 1907, eight states established deposit insurance funds, in 1921, there were about 31,000 banks in the US
Oliver Wolcott Jr.
Oliver Wolcott, Jr. was an American politician. He was United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1795 to 1800, born in Litchfield, Wolcott was the son of Oliver Wolcott, Sr. and Laura Collins Wolcott. He was able to graduate from Yale University in 1778, despite serving in the Continental Army from 1777 to 1779 and he read law and studied at Litchfield Law School to be admitted to the bar in 1781. He was a clerk in Connecticuts Office of the Committee on the Pay Table from 1781 to 1782, Wolcott was appointed in 1784 as one of the commissioners to mediate claims between the U. S. and the state of Connecticut. After serving as comptroller of Connecticut from 1788–90, he was named auditor of the federal treasury. He was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by George Washington in 1795 to succeed Alexander Hamilton, in 1799, as Secretary of the Treasury, he designed the United States Customs Service flag. He was appointed as a committee member pertaining to the construction of the monument at Groton Heights, commemorating the battle fought there on September 6,1781.
Wolcott was one of President John Adams so-called midnight judges, appointed to a new seat as a judge on the United States circuit court for the Second Circuit. 89, almost on the eve of Jeffersons inauguration in 1801, nominated by Adams on February 18,1801, Wolcott was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 20,1801, and received his commission the same day. Wolcotts service was terminated on July 1,1802, due to abolition of the court, from 1803 to 1815 he operated in private business in New York City, afterwards retiring to Litchfield and farming. Wolcott lost a campaign for Governor of Connecticut in 1816, running as a Toleration Republican and he ran again in 1817 and won, following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather as governor, and serving ten years in the post. His tenure was noted for the growth and moderate policies that attended it. Additionally, he presided over a convention that created a new constitution in 1818. Nevertheless, he was defeated for reelection as Governor of Connecticut in 1827, whipple met with Oney, discussed why she had escaped and tried to ascertain the facts of the case.
In their correspondence, Washington said that he wanted to avoid controversy, Washington made another attempt to apprehend her in 1798. This time he asked his nephew, Burwell Bassett Jr. to convince her to return or to take her by force, wolcotts involvement with this case ended with the first attempt to return Oney Judge to slavery. Wolcott died in New York City and is interred at East Cemetery in Litchfield, Wolcott was the last surviving member of the Washington Cabinet. The town of Wolcott, Connecticut was named in honor of Oliver, Jr. and his father Oliver, about 1798, Fort Washington on Goat Island in Newport, Rhode Island was renamed Fort Wolcott