Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence
Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence, PC was a British Labour politician, campaigned for women’s suffrage. Born Frederick Lawrence in London, he was the son of wealthy Unitarians who were members of the Liberal Party. Three of his father's brothers, William and Edwin, were politically active in various roles, including as Lord Mayor of London and as members of parliament. Frederick was educated at Wixenford and Trinity College, where he was a member of Cambridge University Liberal Club, he became a barrister. Lawrence met and fell in love with Emmeline Pethick, an active socialist and campaigner for women's votes, they married in 1901 after Lawrence converted to socialism. They kept separate bank accounts and they both took the surname'Pethick Lawrence', he published various left-wing newspapers, including Votes for Women and became involved in the Labour Party. His involvement in the Women's Social and Political Union, on behalf of women's rights, led to him serving a nine-month prison sentence in 1912, following Christabel Pankhurst's window-smashing campaign though he had disagreed with that form of action.
On account of his prison sentence he was expelled from the Reform Club Early in the First World War Pethick-Lawrence joined with others in founding the Union of Democratic Control, a leading anti-war organisation of which he became Treasurer. After acceptance by a Tribunal in Dorking in 1918, he worked on a farm in Sussex as a conscientious objector. In 1923 Pethick-Lawrence was elected Member of Parliament for Leicester West, was Financial Secretary to the Treasury from 1929 until the formation of the National Government in 1931, he was elected for Edinburgh East in 1935 and sworn of the Privy Council in 1937. From 1942 acted as Leader of the Opposition to the coalition government. In 1945 Pethick-Lawrence was elevated to the peerage as Baron Pethick-Lawrence, of Peaslake in the County of Surrey. From 1945 to 1947 he was Secretary of State for India and Burma, with a seat in the cabinet, was involved in the negotiations that led to India's independence in 1947. Prime Minister Clement Attlee, made all the government's major decisions regarding India.
His first wife, Lady Pethick-Lawrence, died in 1954. Lord Pethwick-Lawrence married Helen Craggs, he died at Hendon, London, in September 1961, aged 89. His name and picture are on the plinth of the statue of Millicent Fawcett in Parliament Square, unveiled in 2018. Works by or about Frederick Pethick-Lawrence, 1st Baron Pethick-Lawrence at Internet Archive Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Frederick Pethick-Lawrence spartacus-educational.com
Francis Hastings, 16th Earl of Huntingdon
Francis John Clarence Westenra Plantagenet Hastings, 16th Earl of Huntingdon, styled Viscount Hastings until 1939, was a British artist, academic and a Labour parliamentarian. The son and heir of Warner Hastings, 15th Earl of Huntingdon by his wife Maud Margaret, he was educated at Eton College, Christ Church Oxford, the Slade School of Art, London. At Oxford, in 1922, he represented its Polo Varsity Team. Huntingdon was a pupil of the Mexican mural painter Diego Rivera and held exhibitions notably in London, Paris and San Francisco, he was appointed a professor at the Camberwell College of Arts and the Central School of Arts & Crafts, London. He served as chairman of the Society of Mural Painters between 1951 and 1958. During the Second World War he was Deputy Controller of Defence of the Andover Rural District Council from 1941 to 1945. Huntingdon succeeded in the earldom in 1939 and took his seat on the Labour benches in the House of Lords, he served under Clement Attlee as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries from 1945 to 1950.
He was Commonsense about India. Lord Huntingdon's first marriage was to Cristina Casati, daughter of Camillo, Marquis Casati Stampa di Soncino by his wife, the artistic muse Luisa, in 1925, she was from 1957 to 1966 the wife of politician and diarist Woodrow, Lord Wyatt of Weeford before marrying the adman Brinsley Black, named as one of the best-dressed Englishmen in the inaugural issue of Men in Vogue in 1965. Lady Moorea, famously unmaternal, had one son each with each of her husbands: Hon. Pericles Plantagenet James Casati Wyatt, became an owner and operator of water parks and recreational vehicle camps in Arizona. Octavius Orlando Irvine Casati Black. Huntingdon and his first wife divorced in 1943. Huntingdon married secondly Margaret Lane, daughter of Harry George Lane, former wife of Bryan Wallace, son of the writer Edgar Wallace, in 1944. Lady Huntingdon was a writer and critic and published books on Beatrix Potter, Samuel Johnson and the Brontë sisters, they had two daughters: Lady Selina Shirley Hastings.
Lady Caroline Harriet Hastings. Lord Huntingdon died in August 1990, aged 89, was succeeded in the earldom by his first cousin once removed William Edward Robin Hood Hastings-Bass, his wife, Dowager Countess of Huntingdon, died in 1994. In 2014 his daughter Selina, a noted biographer, wrote The Red Earl: The Extraordinary Life of the 16th Earl of Huntingdon. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Lundy, Darryl. "Francis John Clarence Westenra Plantagenet Hastings, 16th Earl of Huntingdon". The Peerage; the New York Times article on the death of Margaret, Countess of Huntingdon Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Huntingdon www.burkespeerage.com
Roger Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough
Lawrence Roger Lumley, 11th Earl of Scarbrough, was a British Conservative statesman and British Army general. Lumley was the son of youngest child and son of the 9th Earl, he attended Magdalen College, Oxford. Lumley followed his father into the military, passing out from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 11th Hussars on 26 January 1916, was promoted to lieutenant on 26 July 1917. He served in France during World War I, he was demobilised on 3 June 1919, with the rank of lieutenant, but retained a reserve lieutenant's commission in the 11th Hussars, as well as being attached to the Yorkshire Dragoons. From 1920 to 1921, he was attached to an Officer Training Corps University Contingent, with the local rank of captain. Lumley sat in the House of Commons as Member of Parliament for Hull East 1922–29 York 1931–37. In 1923 he was Parliamentary Private Secretary to William Ormsby-Gore, from 1924–26 to Sir Austen Chamberlain and subsequently to Anthony Eden.
On 8 March 1931, he was promoted to captain in the reserves in both the 11th Hussars and the Yorkshire Dragoons. He was brevetted to the rank of major in the Yorkshire Dragoons on 1 January 1937, was awarded the Efficiency Decoration on 11 May. In 1937, he was appointed Governor of Bombay, serving until 1943. Upon his return from India, Lumley served as acting Major-General in World War II. Following the War, he continued his connections as an honorary colonel, he succeeded to the Earldom of Scarbrough in 1945 following the death of his uncle. He served as Lord Chamberlain from 1952 to 1963 and chancellor of the University of Durham from 1958 to 1969, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1948. Outside politics, the Earl had a keen interest in African studies, he presided over the Interdepartmental Commission of Enquiry on Oriental, East European and African Studies set up after the Second World War to consider how Britain might maintain and increase the links it had built up during the war in the geographical areas under the Commission's consideration.
The Commission's report, presented in 1947, argued for considerable strengthening of university departments' capacity to carry out research and training related to these areas, for significant funds to be made available to this end. However, after five years of strong growth following the presentation of the Scarbrough report, in 1952 much of the funding was withdrawn. Lumley was initiated into freemasonry on 3 May 1923 in Apollo University Lodge No 357 in Oxford. From 1951 to 1967 he served as the Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England. Lumley married Katherine Isobel McEwen, sister of Sir John McEwen, 1st Baronet on 12 July 1922 at St Margaret's, Westminster, they had five children: Lady Mary Constance Lumley. Their older son is 5th Baron Grimthorpe. Lady Anne Katharine Gabrielle Lumley. Richard Aldred Lumley, 12th Earl of Scarbrough. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Scarbrough R. L. T. "Obituary – Lawrence Roger Lumley". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 32: 686–689. JSTOR 612577. "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas". Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. Retrieved 3 August 2017
Ministry of Information (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Information, headed by the Minister of Information, was a United Kingdom government department created at the end of the First World War and again during the Second World War. Located in Senate House at the University of London during the 1940s, it was the central government department responsible for publicity and propaganda. In the Great War, several different agencies had been responsible for propaganda, except for a brief period when there had been a Department of Information and a Ministry of Information. Colour key: Conservative Liberal The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, the first Minister was sworn into Office on 5 September 1939; the Ministry's function was "To promote the national case to the public at home and abroad in time of war" by issuing "National Propaganda" and controlling news and information. It was responsible for censorship, issuing official news, home publicity and overseas publicity in Allied and neutral countries.
These functions were matched by a responsibility for monitoring public opinion through a network of Regional Information Offices. Responsibility for publicity in enemy territories was organised by Department EH. Secret planning for a Ministry of Information had started in October 1935 under the auspices of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Draft proposals were accepted on 27 July 1936 and Sir Stephen Tallents was appointed as Director General Designate. Tallents drew together a small group of planners from existing government departments, public bodies and specialist outside organisations; the MOI's planners sought to combine experience gained during the First World War with new communications technology. Their work reflected an increasing concern that a future war would exert huge strain on the civilian population and a belief that government propaganda would be needed to maintain morale; however it was hindered by competing visions for the Ministry, a requirement for secrecy which disrupted the making of key appointments, the reluctance of many government departments to give up their public relations divisions to central control.
The shadow Ministry of Information came into being between 26 September and 3 October 1938 after the Nazi annexation of the Sudetenland heightened international tensions. The seventy one officials who were assembled in temporary accommodation had responsibility for censoring press reports surrounding the Munich Agreement; the week-long experiment was not regarded as a success. Instead it highlighted the extent to which questions over appointments, links to the media and the relationship with other government departments had been left unresolved; the confusion had been made worse by tensions between the shadow MOI and the Foreign Office News Department. This tension spilled over into the Committee for Imperial Defence which considered proposals to abandon plans for the Ministry of Information. Tallents left his post as Director General Designate on 2 January 1939. Planning efforts would increase again after Nazi troops moved into Prague on 15 March 1939; the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain publicly announced his government's intentions for the MOI in a parliamentary speech on 15 June 1939.
Home Office officials were given until 31 December 1939 to complete their plans. The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, Lord Macmillan was sworn in as its first Minister on 5 September 1939; the MOI's headquarters were housed within the University of London's Senate House and would remain in place until the end of the war. The MOI was organised in four groups. A "Press Relations" group was responsible for both the issue of censorship. A "Publicity Users" group was responsible for propaganda policy. A "Publicity Producers" group was responsible for production; these were overseen by a "Intelligence" group responsible for administration. This structure had only been finalised in May–June 1940 and senior officials were unsure about their responsibilities; the press reacted negatively to the MOI. Initial confusion between the MOI and service departments led to accusations that the MOI was delaying access to the news, a newspaper campaign against censorship was started.
Other commentators pointed to the ministry's large staff and satirised it as ineffective and out of touch. The MOI's first publicity campaign misfired with a poster bearing the message "Your Courage, Your Cheerfulness, Your Resolution, Will Bring Us Victory" criticised for appearing class-bound; these factors led to political scrutiny and resulted in the removal of the Press Relations Group on 9 October 1939 and an announcement on 25 October 1939 that the MOI's staff was to be cut by a third. Lord Macmillan was replaced as Minister by Sir John Reith on 5 January 1940. Reith sought to improve the MOI's governance, expanded its network of Regional Information Offices and introduced a Home intelligence division, he sought to secure the reintegration of the Press and Censorship Division in the belief that the decision to separate this function had been "obviously and monstrously ridiculous and wrong". These changes were announced by Neville Chamberlain on 24 April 1940 but were not operational until June 1940.
Neville Chamberlain's resignation and replacement by Winston Churchill on 10 May 1940 resulted in Reith's s
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C