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William Henry Jackson

William Henry Jackson was an American painter, Civil War veteran, geological survey photographer and an explorer famous for his images of the American West. He was a great-great nephew of the progenitor of America's national symbol Uncle Sam. Jackson was born in Keeseville, New York, on April 4, 1843, the first of seven children born to George Hallock Jackson and Harriet Maria Allen. Harriet, a talented water-colorist, was a graduate of the Troy Female Academy the Emma Willard School. Painting was William's passion from a young age. By age 19, he had become a talented artist of American pre-Civil War visual arts. Orson Squire Fowler wrote that Jackson was "excellent as a painter". After his childhood in Troy, New York, Rutland, Jackson enlisted in October 1862 as a 19-year-old private in Company K of the 12th Vermont Infantry of the Union Army Jackson spent much of his free time sketching drawings of his friends and various scenes of Army camp life that he sent home to his family as his way of letting them know he was safe.

He served in the American Civil War for nine months including one major battle, the Battle of Gettysburg. Jackson spent most of his tour on garrison duty and helped guard a supply train during the engagement, his regiment mustered out on July 14, 1863. Jackson returned to Rutland, where he worked as an artistic painter in post-Civil War American society. Having broken his engagement to Miss Carolina Eastman, he left Vermont for the American West. In 1866 Jackson boarded a Union Pacific Railroad train and traveled until it reached the end of the line at that time, about one hundred miles west of Omaha, where he joined a wagon train heading west to Great Salt Lake as a bullwhacker, on the Oregon Trail. In 1867 along with his brother Edward Jackson he settled down in Omaha and entered the photography business. On ventures that lasted for several days, Jackson acted as a "missionary to the Indians" around the Omaha region, it was there that Jackson made his now famous photographs of the American Indians: Osages, Pawnees and Omahas.

In 1869 Jackson won a commission from the Union Pacific to document the scenery along the various railroad routes for promotional purposes. When his work was discovered by Ferdinand Hayden, organizing a geologic survey to explore the Yellowstone River region, he was asked to join the expedition; the following year, he got a last-minute invitation to join the 1870 U. S. government survey of the Yellowstone River and Rocky Mountains led by Ferdinand Hayden. He was a member of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 which led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park. Painter Thomas Moran was part of the expedition, the two artists worked together to document the Yellowstone region. Hayden's surveys were annual multidisciplinary expeditions meant to chart the unexplored west, observe flora and geological conditions, identify navigational routes, so as official photographer for the survey, Jackson was in a position to capture the first photographs of legendary landmarks of the West; these photographs played an important role in convincing Congress in 1872 to establish Yellowstone National Park, the first national park of the U.

S. His involvement with Hayden's survey established his reputation as one of the most accomplished explorers of the American continent. Among Hayden's party were Jackson, geologist George Allen, mineralogist Albert Peale, topographical artist Henry Elliot and other scientists who collected numerous wildlife specimens and other natural data. Jackson worked in multiple camera and plate sizes, under conditions that were incredibly difficult, his photography was based on the collodion process invented in 1848 and published in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer. Jackson traveled with as many as three camera-types—a stereographic camera, a "whole-plate" or 8x10" plate-size camera, one larger, as large as 18x22"; these cameras required fragile, heavy glass plates, which had to be coated and developed onsite, before the wet-collodion emulsion dried. Without light metering equipment or sure emulsion speeds, exposure times required inspired guesswork, between five seconds and twenty minutes depending on light conditions.

Preparing, developing, washing drying a single image could take the better part of an hour. Washing the plates in 160 °F hot spring water cut the drying time by more than half, while using water from snow melted and warmed in his hands slowed down the processing substantially, his photographic division of 5 to 7 men carried photographic equipment on the backs of mules and rifles on their shoulders. Jackson's life experience was welcomed; the weight of the glass plates and the portable darkroom limited the number of possible exposures on any one trip, these images were taken in primitive and physically challenging conditions. Once when the mule lost its footing, Jackson lost a month's work, having to return to untracked Rocky Mountain landscapes to remake the pictures, one of, his celebrated view of the Mount of the Holy Cross. Despite the delays and setbacks Jackson returned with conclusive photographic evidence of the various western landmarks that had seemed only a fantastic myth: the Grand Tetons, Old Faithful and the rest of the Yellowstone region, Colorado's Rockies and the Mount of the Holy Cross, the uncooperative Ute Indians.

Jackson's photographs of Yellowstone helped convince

Bearden, Oklahoma

Bearden is a town in Okfuskee County, United States. The population was 133 at the 2010 census. Bearden is located at 35°21′29″N 96°23′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 7.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 140 people, 49 households, 36 families residing in the town; the population density was 18.5 people per square mile. There were 66 housing units at an average density of 8.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.86% White, 7.86% African American, 2.14% Native American, 0.71% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There were 49 households out of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.4% were married couples living together, 2.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.5% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.35. In the town, the population was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $20,417, the median income for a family was $21,875. Males had a median income of $21,429 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,359. There were 24.3% of families and 29.8% of the population living below the poverty line, including 46.7% of under eighteens and 13.6% of those over 64. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Bearden

Alphonse Gondzia

Alphonse Gondzia is a Congolese politician who has served in the Senate of Congo-Brazzaville since 2002. He has been President of the Senate's Judicial and Administrative Affairs Commission since 2002. Gondzia was born at Likombo in the Dongou District of Likouala Region, located in the far north of Congo-Brazzaville, around 1937. During the single-party rule of the Congolese Labour Party, Gondzia was elected to the PCT's 75-member Central Committee at its Third Ordinary Congress, held on 27–31 July 1984; as of 1990, he was a member of the PCT Secretariat, in charge of administration. He worked as Secretary-General of the Ministry of Territorial Administration during the 1990s. Gondzia stood in the July 2002 Senate election as a PCT candidate in Likouala Region, he was elected as a Senator; when the Senate began meeting, Gondzia was elected as President of the Senate's Laws and Administration Commission on 23 August 2002. He was additionally designated as the head of the Senate's Congo–China friendship group on 13 December 2004, he was re-elected as President of the Laws and Human Rights Commission on 11 October 2005.

Gondzia held a Christmas dinner for 400 children in Dongou in December 2005. He was a member of the PCT Political Bureau as of 2006. On that occasion, he noted that China's investment in Congo was concentrated in infrastructure and he expressed hope that "there will be more investment in other fields". Together with many other parties, the PCT formed the Rally of the Presidential Majority, a grouping of parties supporting President Denis Sassou Nguesso, in December 2007. Gondzia led a six-member RMP delegation to Cuvette-Ouest Department in February 2008 in order to oversee the establishment of the RMP's organizational structures in that department. Standing as an RMP candidate, Gondzia was re-elected to the Senate in the August 2008 Senate election, he received the votes of 42 of the 57 electors in Likouala, more than any other candidate in Likouala, thus won the first of the six seats available for the department. Following the election, Gondzia was assigned to head an 11-member ad hoc commission, responsible for drawing up some modifications to the Senate's internal regulations on 20 August 2008.

When the Senate met again on 29 August 2008, the modified internal regulations were adopted and Gondzia was re-elected as President of the Senate's Judicial and Administrative Affairs Commission, in line with a proposal to maintain the existing heads of the Senate commissions in their posts. During a working visit to Likouala from 23 December 2008 to 3 January 2009, Gondzia distributed gifts in the village of Ikouangala, including an electrical generator and a television with a DVD player and satellite dish, he distributed an assortment of other gifts, donated by the Chinese Ambassador to Congo. Gondzia used the visit to highlight the ongoing revision of the voter rolls in preparation for the 2009 presidential election. Gondzia was named a Grand Officer of the Congolese Order of Merit on 16 August 2011. Following the October 2011 Senate election, he was re-elected as President of the Senate's Judicial and Administrative Affairs Commission on 24 October 2011. Gondzia was re-elected to the Senate in October 2014 as a PCT candidate in Likouala, receiving 42 of the 57 possible votes