William Hodges RA was an English painter. He was a member of James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific Ocean, is best known for the sketches and paintings of locations he visited on that voyage, including Table Bay, Easter Island, New Zealand, Dusky Sound and the Antarctic. Hodges was born on 28 October 1744 in London, he studied under William Shipley, afterwards in the studio of Richard Wilson, where he met Thomas Jones. During his early career, he made a living by painting theatrical scenery. Between 1772 and 1775 Hodges accompanied James Cook to the Pacific as the expedition's artist. Many of his sketches and wash paintings were adapted as engravings in the original published edition of Cook's journals from the voyage. Most of the large-scale landscape oil paintings from his Pacific travels for which Hodges is best known were finished after his return to London; these paintings depicted a stronger light and shadow than had been usual in European landscape tradition. Contemporary art critics complained that his use of light and colour contrasts gave his paintings a rough and unfinished appearance.
Hodges produced many valuable portrait sketches of Pacific islanders and scenes from the voyage involving members of the expedition. In 1778, under the patronage of Warren Hastings, Hodges travelled to India, one of the first British professional landscape painters to visit that country, he remained there for six years, staying in Lucknow with Claude Martin in 1783. His painting of "Futtypoor Sicri" is in Sir John Soane's Museum. Hodges travelled across Europe, including a visit to St. Petersburg in Russia in 1790. In 1793 Hodges published an illustrated book about his travels in India. In December 1794 Hodges opened an exhibition of twenty-five of his own works at Orme's Gallery, 14 Old Bond Street, London that included two large paintings called The Effects of Peace and The Effects of War. In late January, 1795, with Britain engaged in the War of the First Coalition against Revolutionary France and feelings running high, the exhibition was visited by Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, the second son of King George III.
The Duke took offence at the political nature of Hodges' paintings and ordered the exhibition closed. Many of his works were sold by auction but produced only an inconsiderable sum. Hodges retired to Devon and became involved with a bank, which failed during the banking crisis of March, 1797. On 6 March of that year, he died from what was recorded as "gout in the stomach", but, rumoured to be suicide from an overdose of laudanum. Hodges Knoll in Antarctica is named after William Hodges. On 11 May 1776 Hodges married Martha Bowden Nesbit, the daughter of William and Jane Nesbit, at St George's, Hanover Square, London; the couple settled in Pimlico. They undertook a tour of Wales and the Midlands, during which they visited Derby, where Joseph Wright of Derby painted a portrait of Martha Hodges. Sadly, Martha died within a year during childbirth. Having finished his work for the Admiralty, with the death of his wife, Hodges was free to travel. Hodges left India in November 1783, in Worcester; this ship was nearly wrecked at St Helena, but reached Britain in June 1784.
Hodges is reputed to have returned a rich man, settled in Queen Street, where he built himself a studio. He brought home with him James. Hodges' mother looked after her new grandson in a house in Tunbridge Wells. William Hodges began preparing a collection, "Select Views in India in the Years 1780–1783", that included a series of forty-eight aquatints adapted from sketches drawn in India. On 16 October 1784, again at St George's, Hanover Square, Hodges married his second wife, Lydia Wright. Lydia was the niece of John Whitehurst from Derby, she too died after only a few months of marriage from alcoholism. In December 1785, Hodges married for a third time, it was to Ann Mary Carr, a talented pianist, the oldest of the five children of Benjamin and Elizabeth Carr. Her parents were deceased when she married Hodges. At about the same time, Hodges was listed as the guardian of Ann Mary's brother, John a famous travel writer, they would have three sons together. Hodges was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1789, continued to exhibit there until 1794.
After experiencing financial difficulties, he made an unsuccessful trip to seek patronage in Russia in 1792. On his return, in February, 1793, Hodges published his account of his time in India, entitled Travels in India in the Years 1780, 1781, 1782 and 1783, illustrated with plates derived from his drawings. In December 1794, Hodges held a private exhibition of 25 of his pictures in old Bond London. Remarkably, it received no subscription, made no sales, forcing Hodges to close it by 26 January 1795. Disillusioned, Hodges retired from his profession, sold his London property, moved himself and his family, in July, 1795, to Brixham and Dartmouth in South Devon. There, he attempted to restore his fortunes by becoming a partner in a small bank at Dartmouth, his partner was a lawyer. Present in South Devon was Gretton's brother, the Reverend George Gretton; the Grettons were the nephews of John and Elizabeth Whitehurst of Derby, further evidence of the family connections with the town. The bank opened in Dartmouth on 24 August 1795, the following is an extract from the Exeter Flying Post dated 1 October 1795: The public are hereby informed that on this day Bank was opened at Dartmouth in the county of Devon under the firm of J. Seale
Yulia Malinovsky is an Israeli politician and lawyer. She is a member of the Knesset for Yisrael Beiteinu. Malinovsky was born in Luhansk in the Soviet Union, her mother, Sophia, is Jewish, her father, was of Russian and Armenian descent. She studied law at the Luhansk branch of the East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University, gaining a BA, she served in a local police force as a manpower officer. Malinovsky immigrated to Israel from Ukraine in 1998, her younger sister had immigrated before her with NAALE at 1997, the rest of her immediate family joined her in Israel later. She was elected to Holon City Council on the Yisrael Beiteinu list in 2003, was placed eighteenth on the party's list for the 2009 Knesset elections. However, the party won only 15 seats, she was 37th on the joint Likud Yisrael Beiteinu list for the 2013 Knesset elections, but again failed to win a seat. Prior to the 2015 Knesset elections, she was placed ninth on the party's list. Although Yisrael Beiteinu won only six seats, the resignation of several MKs saw her enter the Knesset on 1 June 2016 as a replacement for Avigdor Lieberman, after he had resigned from the Knesset under the Norwegian Law following his appointment as Minister of Defense.
After Lieberman resigned as Defence Minister in November 2018, he returned to the Knesset in place of Malinovsky. Malinovsky was placed fifth on the Yisrael Beiteinu list for the April 2019 elections, returned to the Knesset as the party won five seats, she was in fifth place again for the September 2019 elections, retaining her seat as Yisrael Beiteinu won eight seats. Malinovsky lives in Holon, is married with two children. Yulia Malinovsky on the Knesset website
Professor Shimon Shetreet is a former Israeli politician who held several ministerial portfolios between 1992 and 1996. He is the Greenblatt Chair of Public and International Law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Born in Erfoud in Morocco, Shetreet's family made aliyah to Israel in 1949 when he was three years old, he attended a religious elementary school, before studying at a yeshiva, winning the International Bible Contest at the age of 13. He went on to study law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, gaining an LLB in 1968 and LLM in 1970, he went on to the University of Chicago, where he gained an LLD in 1973. Shetreet began working as a clerk to Supreme Court judge Alfred Witkon in 1967, was admitted to the Bar Association in 1969. In 1980 he was a member of the Commission on the Israeli Court System, was involved in founding the Public Law Association in 1987. In 1988 Shetreet was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list. After being re-elected in 1992, Shetreet was appointed Minister of Economics and Planning and Minister of Science and Technology in Yitzhak Rabin's government.
He lost the latter portfolio in June 1993 when it was given to Shulamit Aloni, but became Minister of Religious Affairs in February 1992. When Shimon Peres formed a new government following the assassination of Rabin, he remained Minister of Religious Affairs, but lost the Economics and Planning portfolio. In the 1996 elections Shetreet lost his place in the cabinet. In 1999 he was chosen to be deputy mayor of Jerusalem, a post he held until 2003. Shetreet returned to the Hebrew University to work as a professor of law, he heads the Sacher Institute of Legislative Research and Comparative Law, as well as holding the Greenblatt chair. He has served as a visiting professor at the Case Western Reserve University School of Law, Tulane University and the University of San Diego. Shimon Shetreet on the Knesset website