University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Barmouth is a town and community in the county of Gwynedd, north-western Wales, lying on the estuary of the River Mawddach and Cardigan Bay. Located in the Historic county of Merionethshire, the Welsh form of the name is derived from "Aber" and the river's name, "Mawddach"; the English form of the name is a corruption of the earlier Welsh form'Abermawdd'. The town is served by Barmouth railway station; the town grew around the shipbuilding industry, more as a seaside resort. Notable buildings include the medieval Tŷ Gwyn tower house, the 19th century Tŷ Crwn roundhouse prison and St John's Church. William Wordsworth, a visitor to Barmouth in the 19th century, described it thus: "With a fine sea view in front, the mountains behind, the glorious estuary running eight miles inland, Cadair Idris within compass of a day's walk, Barmouth can always hold its own against any rival."Dinas Oleu, located east of the town on the adjoining hillside, was the first tract of land to be donated to the National Trust.
In January 2014, two trains were stranded at Barmouth after severe winter storms destroyed the sea wall at nearby Llanaber. Barmouth Bridge, which takes the Cambrian Line over the River Mawddach, was previously at the end of the Ruabon–Barmouth line, which passed through Bala and Dolgellau; the southern end of the bridge is now the start of the Mawddach Trail, a cycle path and walk way that utilises the old trackbed. The Barmouth Ferry sails from Barmouth to Penrhyn Point, where it connects with the narrow gauge Fairbourne Railway for the village of Fairbourne. Barmouth is one of the closest seaside resorts to the English West Midlands and a large proportion of its tourist visitors, as well as its permanent residents, are from Wolverhampton, Birmingham and other parts of the Black Country, Telford, Shropshire; the town has a RNLI lifeboat station with a Visitors' Centre with shop and viewing gallery. The nearest rugby club is in Dolgellau, 7 miles away. Barmouth has one major football team: Barmouth & Dyffryn United, the team competes in the Welsh Alliance league and is well-supported by residents.
Barmouth is the venue for a motocross event. Taking place on the last weekend in October, the event sees riders take part in beach racing, using a temporary motocross course constructed on the beach. Over 200 riders take part in this event, with spectators attending free of charge; the event attracts champion riders from Wales. The busy harbour plays host to the annual Three Peaks yacht race. Auguste Guyard, French educationalist and philosopher who moved to Barmouth upon the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Fanny Talbot landowner and philanthropist, donated Cliff of Light, to the National Trust. Jim Valentine, Rugby Union and Northern Union player for Swinton, killed by lightning in Barmouth 25 July 1904 aged 37. Herbert Tudor Buckland, architect known for his seminal Arts and Crafts Movement houses Commander Harold Godfrey Lowe RD was the fifth officer of the RMS Titanic. Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar, English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages, lived in Barmouth for many years.
Adrian Dingle was a Welsh Canadian painter. Johnny Williams, boxer once both the British and Empire heavyweight champion. Tommy Nutter British tailor, reinvented the Savile Row suit in the 1960s. Robert Russell Davies is a British journalist and broadcaster who presents Brain of Britain on BBC Radio 4. Charlie Brooks, actress. St David's Church, Barmouth St John's Church, Barmouth St Tudwal's Church, Barmouth "Barmouth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 1911. Barmouth community website latest news from Barmouth and historical photo gallery and much more. Mawddachestuary.co.uk What's on in Barmouth Illustrated Guide to Barmouth Sunset at Barmouth and Barmouth Evening by Christopher Williams, painted in 1910s and exhibited at National Library of Wales. Aerial photograph of Barmouth www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Barmouth and surrounding area
Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, was an Anglo-Irish physicist and mathematician. Born in County Sligo, Stokes spent all of his career at the University of Cambridge, where he was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1849 until his death in 1903; as a physicist, Stokes made seminal contributions to fluid dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes equation, to physical optics, with notable works on polarization and fluorescence. As a mathematician, he popularised "Stokes' theorem" in vector calculus and contributed to the theory of asymptotic expansions. Stokes was made a baronet by the British monarch in 1889. In 1893 he received the Royal Society's Copley Medal the most prestigious scientific prize in the world, "for his researches and discoveries in physical science", he represented Cambridge University in the British House of Commons from 1887 to 1892, sitting as a Tory. Stokes served as president of the Royal Society from 1885 to 1890 and was the Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge.
George Stokes was the youngest son of the Reverend Gabriel Stokes, a clergyman in the Church of Ireland who served as rector of Skreen, in County Sligo. Stokes home life was influenced by his father's evangelical Protestantism. After attending schools in Skreen and Bristol, in 1837 Stokes matriculated at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Four years he graduated as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, achievements that earned him election of a fellow of the college. In accordance with the college statutes, Stokes had to resign the fellowship when he married in 1857. Twelve years under new statutes, he was re-elected to the fellowship and he retained that place until 1902, when on the day before his 83rd birthday, he was elected as the college's Master. Stokes did not hold that position for long, for he died at Cambridge on 1 February the following year, was buried in the Mill Road cemetery. In 1849, Stokes was appointed to the Lucasian professorship of mathematics at Cambridge, a position he held until his death in 1903.
On 1 June 1899, the jubilee of this appointment was celebrated there in a ceremony, attended by numerous delegates from European and American universities. A commemorative gold medal was presented to Stokes by the chancellor of the university and marble busts of Stokes by Hamo Thornycroft were formally offered to Pembroke College and to the university by Lord Kelvin. Stokes, made a baronet in 1889, further served his university by representing it in parliament from 1887 to 1892 as one of the two members for the Cambridge University constituency. During a portion of this period he was president of the Royal Society, of which he had been one of the secretaries since 1854. Since he was Lucasian Professor at this time, Stokes was the first person to hold all three positions simultaneously. Stokes was the oldest of the trio of natural philosophers, James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin being the other two, who contributed to the fame of the Cambridge school of mathematical physics in the middle of the 19th century.
Stokes's original work began about 1840, from that date onwards the great extent of his output was only less remarkable than the brilliance of its quality. The Royal Society's catalogue of scientific papers gives the titles of over a hundred memoirs by him published down to 1883; some of these are only brief notes, others are short controversial or corrective statements, but many are long and elaborate treatises. In scope, his work covered a wide range of physical inquiry but, as Marie Alfred Cornu remarked in his Rede lecture of 1899, the greater part of it was concerned with waves and the transformations imposed on them during their passage through various media, his first published papers, which appeared in 1842 and 1843, were on the steady motion of incompressible fluids and some cases of fluid motion. These were followed in 1845 by one on the friction of fluids in motion and the equilibrium and motion of elastic solids, in 1850 by another on the effects of the internal friction of fluids on the motion of pendulums.
To the theory of sound he made several contributions, including a discussion of the effect of wind on the intensity of sound and an explanation of how the intensity is influenced by the nature of the gas in which the sound is produced. These inquiries together put the science of fluid dynamics on a new footing, provided a key not only to the explanation of many natural phenomena, such as the suspension of clouds in air, the subsidence of ripples and waves in water, but to the solution of practical problems, such as the flow of water in rivers and channels, the skin resistance of ships, his work on fluid motion and viscosity led to his calculating the terminal velocity for a sphere falling in a viscous medium. This became known as Stokes's law, he derived an expression for the frictional force exerted on spherical objects with small Reynolds numbers. His work is the basis of the falling sphere viscometer, in which the fluid is stationary in a vertical glass tube. A sphere of known size and density is allowed to descend through the liquid.
If selected, it reaches terminal velocity, which can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks on the tube. Electronic sensing can be used for opaque fluids. Knowing the terminal velocity, the size and density of the sphere, the density of the liquid, Stokes's law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. A series of steel ball bearings of different diameter is used in the classic experiment to improve the accuracy of the calculation; the school experiment uses glycerine as the fluid, t
Nottinghamshire is a county in the East Midlands region of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county town is Nottingham, though the county council is based in West Bridgford in the borough of Rushcliffe, at a site facing Nottingham over the River Trent; the districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Broxtowe, Mansfield and Sherwood, Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1988, but is now a unitary authority, remaining part of Nottinghamshire for ceremonial purposes. In 2017, the county was estimated to have a population of 785,800. Over half of the population of the county live in the Greater Nottingham conurbation; the conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries. Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, there are Roman settlements in the county; the county was settled by Angles around the 5th century, became part of the Kingdom, Earldom, of Mercia.
However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at the Broxtowe Estate, near Nottingham, Tuxford, east of Sherwood Forest. The name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568, the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under a single Sheriff. In Norman times, the county developed woollen industries. During the industrial revolution, the county held much needed minerals such as coal and iron ore, had constructed some of the first experimental waggonways in the world. In the 18th and 19th centuries, mechanised deeper collieries opened, mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984–85 miners' strike; until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes. Sometime between 1610 and 1719, they were reduced to six – Newark, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe and Bingham, some of these names still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, Lythe in Thurgarton. Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood.
This is the reason for the numbers of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham, the surrounding villages in Sherwood Forest. To reinforce the Robin Hood connection, the University of Nottingham in 2010 has begun the Nottingham Caves Survey, with the goal "to increase the tourist potential of these sites"; the project "will use a 3D laser scanner to produce a three dimensional record of more than 450 sandstone caves around Nottingham". Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576; the map was the earliest printed map at a sufficiently useful scale to provide basic information on village layout, the existence of landscape features such as roads, tollbars and mills. Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire, South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900 metres thick, occurring in the north of the county. There is an oilfield near Eakring; these are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west, clay in the east. The north of the county is part of the Humberhead Levels lacustrine plain.
The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest, features undulating hills with ancient oak woodland. Principal rivers are the Trent, Idle and Soar; the Trent, fed by the Soar and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and flat valleys, merging at Misterton. A point just north of Newtonwood Lane, on the boundary with Derbyshire is the highest point in Nottinghamshire; the lowest is Peat Carr, east of Blaxton, at sea level. Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives low rainfall at 641 to 740 millimetres annually; the average temperature of the county is 8.8–10.1 degrees Celsius. The county receives between 1470 hours of sunshine per year. Nottinghamshire contains one green belt area, first drawn up from the 1950s. Encircling the Nottingham conurbation, it stretches for several miles into the surrounding districts, extends into Derbyshire. Nottinghamshire is represented by eleven members of parliament. Kenneth Clarke of Rushcliffe is a former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer and Lord High Chancellor.
Following the 2017 County Council elections, the County Council is controlled by a coalition of Conservatives and Mansfield Independent Forum, having taken control from the Labour administration. The seats held are 31 Conservatives, 23 Labour, 11 Independents, 1 Liberal Democrat. In the previous 2013 election, the County Council was Labour controlled, a gain from the Conservatives. Local government is devolved to seven local district councils. Ashfield, Bassetlaw and Mansfield
Arthur Cayley was a British mathematician. He helped; as a child, Cayley enjoyed solving complex maths problems for amusement. He entered Trinity College, where he excelled in Greek, French and Italian, as well as mathematics, he worked as a lawyer for 14 years. He postulated the Cayley–Hamilton theorem—that every square matrix is a root of its own characteristic polynomial, verified it for matrices of order 2 and 3, he was the first to define the concept of a group in the modern way—as a set with a binary operation satisfying certain laws. When mathematicians spoke of "groups", they had meant permutation groups. Cayley tables and Cayley graphs as well. Arthur Cayley was born in Richmond, England, on 16 August 1821, his father, Henry Cayley, was a distant cousin of Sir George Cayley, the aeronautics engineer innovator, descended from an ancient Yorkshire family. He settled in Russia, as a merchant, his mother was daughter of William Doughty. According to some writers she was Russian, his brother was the linguist Charles Bagot Cayley.
Arthur spent his first eight years in Saint Petersburg. In 1829 his parents were settled permanently near London. Arthur was sent to a private school. At age 14 he was sent to King's College School; the school's master observed indications of mathematical genius and advised the father to educate his son not for his own business, as he had intended, but to enter the University of Cambridge. At the unusually early age of 17 Cayley began residence at Cambridge; the cause of the Analytical Society had now triumphed, the Cambridge Mathematical Journal had been instituted by Gregory and Robert Leslie Ellis. To this journal, at the age of twenty, Cayley contributed three papers, on subjects, suggested by reading the Mécanique analytique of Lagrange and some of the works of Laplace. Cayley's tutor at Cambridge was George Peacock and his private coach was William Hopkins, he finished his undergraduate course by winning the place of Senior Wrangler, the first Smith's prize. His next step was to take the M.
A. degree, win a Fellowship by competitive examination. He continued to reside at Cambridge University for four years; because of the limited tenure of his fellowship it was necessary to choose a profession. He made a specialty of conveyancing, it was while he was a pupil at the bar examination that he went to Dublin to hear Hamilton's lectures on quaternions. His friend J. J. Sylvester, his senior by five years at Cambridge, was an actuary, resident in London. During this period of his life, extending over fourteen years, Cayley produced between two and three hundred papers. At Cambridge University the ancient professorship of pure mathematics is denominated by the Lucasian, is the chair, occupied by Isaac Newton. Around 1860, certain funds bequeathed by Lady Sadleir to the University, having become useless for their original purpose, were employed to establish another professorship of pure mathematics, called the Sadleirian; the duties of the new professor were defined to be "to explain and teach the principles of pure mathematics and to apply himself to the advancement of that science."
To this chair Cayley was elected. He gave up a lucrative practice for a modest salary, he at once settled down in Cambridge. More fortunate than Hamilton in his choice, his home life was one of great happiness, his friend and fellow investigator, once remarked that Cayley had been much more fortunate than himself. At first the teaching duty of the Sadleirian professorship was limited to a course of lectures extending over one of the terms of the academic year. For many years the attendance was small, came entirely from those who had finished their career of preparation for competitive examinations; the subject lectured on was that of the memoir on which the professor was for the time engaged. The other duty of the chair — the advancement of mathematical science — was discharged in a handsome manner by the long series of memoirs that he published, ranging over every department of pure mathematics, but it was discharged in a much less obtrusive way. In 1872 he was made an honorary fellow of Trinity College, three years an ordinary fellow, which meant stipend as well as honour.
About this time his friends subscribed for a presentation portrait. Maxwell wrote an address to the committee of subscribers; the verses refer to the subjects investigated in several of Cay
Sir Francis Galton, FRS was an English Victorian era statistician, polymath, psychologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, inventor, proto-geneticist, psychometrician. He was knighted in 1909. Galton produced over books, he created the statistical concept of correlation and promoted regression toward the mean. He was the first to apply statistical methods to the study of human differences and inheritance of intelligence, introduced the use of questionnaires and surveys for collecting data on human communities, which he needed for genealogical and biographical works and for his anthropometric studies, he was a pioneer in eugenics, coining the term itself and the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius was the first social scientific attempt to study greatness; as an investigator of the human mind, he founded psychometrics and differential psychology and the lexical hypothesis of personality. He devised a method for classifying fingerprints, he conducted research on the power of prayer, concluding it had none by its null effects on the longevity of those prayed for.
His quest for the scientific principles of diverse phenomena extended to the optimal method for making tea. As the initiator of scientific meteorology, he devised the first weather map, proposed a theory of anticyclones, was the first to establish a complete record of short-term climatic phenomena on a European scale, he invented the Galton Whistle for testing differential hearing ability. He was Charles Darwin's half-cousin. Galton was born at "The Larches", a large house in the Sparkbrook area of Birmingham, built on the site of "Fair Hill", the former home of Joseph Priestley, which the botanist William Withering had renamed, he was Charles Darwin's half-cousin. His father was son of Samuel "John" Galton; the Galtons were Quaker gun-manufacturers and bankers, while the Darwins were involved in medicine and science. He was half-cousin of Charles Darwin. Both families had members who loved to invent in their spare time. Both Erasmus Darwin and Samuel Galton were founding members of the Lunar Society of Birmingham, which included Boulton, Wedgwood, Edgeworth.
Both families were known for their literary talent. Erasmus Darwin composed lengthy technical treatises in verse. Galton's aunt Mary Anne Galton wrote on aesthetics and religion, her autobiography detailed the environment of her childhood populated by Lunar Society members. Galton was a child prodigy – he was reading by the age of two. In life, Galton proposed a connection between genius and insanity based on his own experience:Men who leave their mark on the world are often those who, being gifted and full of nervous power, are at the same time haunted and driven by a dominant idea, are therefore within a measurable distance of insanity. Galton attended King Edward's School, but chafed at the narrow classical curriculum and left at 16, his parents pressed him to enter the medical profession, he studied for two years at Birmingham General Hospital and King's College London Medical School. He followed this up with mathematical studies at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, from 1840 to early 1844.
According to the records of the United Grand Lodge of England, it was in February 1844 that Galton became a freemason at the Scientific lodge, held at the Red Lion Inn in Cambridge, progressing through the three masonic degrees: Apprentice, 5 February 1844. A note in the record states: "Francis Galton Trinity College student, gained his certificate 13 March 1845". One of Galton's masonic certificates from Scientific lodge can be found among his papers at University College, London. A nervous breakdown prevented Galton's intent to try for honours, he elected instead to take a "poll" B. A. degree, like his half-cousin Charles Darwin. He resumed his medical studies but the death of his father in 1844 left him destitute, though financially independent, he terminated his medical studies turning to foreign travel and technical invention. In his early years Galton was an enthusiastic traveller, made a notable solo trip through Eastern Europe to Constantinople, before going up to Cambridge. In 1845 and 1846, he went to Egypt and travelled up the Nile to Khartoum in the Sudan, from there to Beirut and down the Jordan.
In 1850 he joined the Royal Geographical Society, over the next two years mounted a long and difficult expedition into little-known South West Africa. He wrote a book on his experience, "Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa", he was awarded the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Gold Medal in 1853 and the Silver Medal of the French Geographical Society for his pioneering cartographic survey of the region. This established his reputation as a explorer, he proceeded to write the best-selling The Art of Travel, a handbook of practical advice for the Victorian on the move, which went through many editions and is still in print. In January 1853, Galton met Louisa Jane Butler at his neighbour's home and they were married on 1 August 1853; the union of 43
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm