click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William Hyde Wollaston

William Hyde Wollaston was an English chemist and physicist, famous for discovering the chemical elements palladium and rhodium. He developed a way to process platinum ore into malleable ingots, he was born in East Dereham in Norfolk, the son of the Francis Wollaston, a noted amateur astronomer, his wife Althea Hyde. He was one of 17 children, but the family was financially well-off and he enjoyed an intellectually stimulating environment, he was educated at Charterhouse School from 1774 to 1778 studied Sciences at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 1793 he obtained his doctorate in medicine from Cambridge University, was a Fellow of his college from 1787 to 1828, he worked as a physician in Huntingdon from 1789 moved to Bury St Edmunds before moving to London in 1797. During his studies, Wollaston had become interested in chemistry, crystallography and physics. In 1800, after he had received a large sum of money from one of his older brothers, he left medicine, he concentrated on pursuing his interests in chemistry and other subjects outside his trained vocation.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1793. He served as its president in 1820. In 1822 he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Sciences. Wollaston never married, he died in London in 1828 and was buried with his father in St Nicholas's Churchyard in Chislehurst, England. After having established a partnership with Smithson Tennant in 1800 in order to produce and sell chemical products, Wollaston became wealthy by developing the first physico-chemical method for processing platinum ore in practical quantities, he held the details of the process secret until near his death and made huge profits for about 20 years by being the only supplier in England of the product which had many of the same qualities as gold, but was much cheaper. Chemical analysis related to the process of purifying platinum led Wollaston to discover the elements palladium in 1802 and rhodium in 1804. Anders Gustav Ekeberg discovered tantalum in 1802. Heinrich Rose proved in 1846 that columbium and tantalum were indeed different elements and he renamed columbium "niobium".

The mineral wollastonite was named after Wollaston for his contributions to crystallography and mineral analysis. Wollaston performed important work in electricity. In 1801, he performed an experiment showing that the electricity from friction was identical to that produced by voltaic piles. During the last years of his life he performed electrical experiments, which resulted in his accidental discovery of electromagnetic induction 10 years prior to Michael Faraday, preceding the eventual design of the electric motor: Faraday constructed the first working electric motor and published his results without acknowledging Wollaston's previous work. Wollaston's demonstration of a motor to the Royal Society had failed, but nonetheless his prior work was acknowledged by Humphry Davy in the same paper which lauded Faraday's "ingenious" experiments. Wollaston invented a battery that allowed the zinc plates in the battery to be raised out of the acid, so that the zinc would not be dissolved as as it would if it were in the battery all the time.

His optical work was important as well, where he is remembered for his observations of dark gaps in the solar spectrum, which led to the identification of specific elements in the Sun. He invented the camera lucida which contained the reflecting goniometer, he developed the first lens for camera lens, called the meniscus lens, in 1812. The lens was designed to improve the image projected by the camera obscura. By changing the shape of the lens, Wollaston was able to project a flatter image, eliminating much of the distortion, a problem with many of that day's biconvex lenses. Wollaston devised a cryophorus, "a glass container containing liquid water and water vapor, it is used in physics courses to demonstrate rapid freezing by evaporation." He used his Bakerian lecture in 1805, On the Force of Percussion, to defend Gottfried Leibniz's principle of vis viva, an early formulation of the conservation of energy. Wollaston's attempt to demonstrate the presence of glucose in the blood serum of diabetics was unsuccessful due to the limited means of detection available to him.

His 1811 paper "On the non-existence of sugar in the blood of persons labouring under diabetes mellitus" concluded that sugar must travel via lymphatic channels from the stomach directly to the kidneys, without entering the bloodstream. Wollaston supported this theory by referring to the thesis of a young medical student at Edinburgh, Charles Darwin, "Experiments establishing a criterion between mucaginous and purulent matter, and an account of the retrograde motions of the absorbent vessels of animal bodies in some diseases." This Charles Darwin was the eldest son of Erasmus Darwin and not his more famous nephew, Charles Robert Darwin. Wollaston prophetically foretold that if once an accurate knowledge were gained of the relative weights of elementary atoms, philosophers would not rest satisfied with the determination of mere numbers, but would have to gain a geometrical conception of how the elementary particles were placed in space. Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff's La Chimie dans l'Espace was the first practical realisation of this prophecy.

Wollaston was part of a royal commission that recomme

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad is a public university, located in Hyderabad, Telangana and one of the India's leading educational universities focusing on engineering. Founded in 1965 as the Nagarjuna Sagar Engineering College, it was established as a university in 1972 by The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Act, 1972; the university is situated at Kukatpally Housing Board Region in Hyderabad of India. This university consists of affiliated colleges; the main officers and councils of the university are chancellor, vice-chancellor, executive council and academic senate. The Governor of Telangana is the chancellor of the university; the first vice-chancellor of the university was D. N. Reddy; as of July 2019, the VC in-charge is Jayesh Ranjan and the rector is A. Govardhan. An institution with academic and research-oriented courses, the B. Tech programs number about 25. Major branches among them are Aeronautical Engineering, Biotechnology, Information Technology, Electrical and Control, Mechanical, Bio-medical and Civil.

A few courses are offered through the correspondence-cum-contact mode. The postgraduate programs number 77, namely M. Tech, MSIT, MBA, MCA and MSc; the major branches are Bio-Technology, Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Remote-Sensing and GIS, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Water Resources, Mechanical Engineering, Nano-Technology, Energy Systems, Environmental Studies, Food Technology, Computer Applications, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Environmental Geomatics and Environmental Management Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University was established on 2 October 1972, by an act of State Legislature. On its formation, the Government Engineering Colleges at Anantapur and Hyderabad, along with the Government College of Fine Arts and Architecture at Hyderabad, became its Constituent Colleges. Subsequently, JNTU act 1972 was amended by JNTU Ordinance, 1992 1 to affiliate any other college or Institution notified by the A. P. State Government. Hence, JNT University is a Multi – Campus University with Headquarters at Hyderabad.

As per the Act No. 30 and Act No. 31 of 2008 dated 24 September 2008, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological was divided into four universities, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur and Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad. The university includes the following constituent colleges: JNTUH College of Engineering, Hyderabad JNTUH College of Engineering, Jagtial JNTUH College of Engineering, Manthani JNTUH College of Engineering, Sulthanpur JNTUH School of Information Technology JNTUH Institute of Science and Technology JNTUH School of Management Studies UGC-Human Resource Development Centre The National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad 45 in the engineering ranking in 2019. Official website

South Dakota Highway 63

South Dakota Highway 63 is a 167.455-mile state highway in central South Dakota, United States, that connects U. S. Route 18 south-southeast of Parmelee with the North Dakota state line north of McLaughlin, it consists of two disconnected segments. The southern segment begins at US 18 south-southeast of Parmelee and proceeds 20.826 miles to a rural intersection just south of Norris. The much-longer northern segment, 146.629 miles long, begins at an intersection with SD 44 just south of Corn Creek and ends at the North Dakota state line north of McLaughlin, where the roadway continues as North Dakota Highway 6. Portions of SD 63 north of US 14/SD 34 west of Hayes are part of the Clark Trail; the segment of the highway, from US 14/SD 34 just west of Hayes, to US 212 west of Eagle Butte, is part of the Native American Scenic Byway. The portion of the highway, from just north of the intersection with SD 44 to a point 5 miles south of Belvidere, is a dirt road; the southern segment of SD 63 begins at an intersection with U.

S. Route 18 south-southeast of Parmelee, in the northwestern part of both Todd County and the Rosebud Indian Reservation. After traveling westward through Parmelee, the highway crosses over Cut Meat Creek and skirt along the northern edge of Eagle Feather Lake, it curves to the north-northeast and makes a stairstep pattern to the west before resuming a northward path. At an intersection with the appropriately-named County Line Road, the highway leaves Todd County and the Rosebud Indian Reservation and enters the southwestern part of Mellette County. SD 63 crosses over Gray Eagletail Creek and curves to the west. Just south of Norris, it curves to the north and meets its northern terminus, an intersection with the northern terminus of 246th Avenue. SD 63 resumes 7 miles to the north, just south of Corn Creek, in the west-central portion of Mellette County, at an intersection with SD 44. At the northern end of Corn Creek, just south of an intersection with Wooden Knif Lane, the pavement ends, the roadway becomes a dirt road.

It crosses over Black Pipe Creek. The highway winds its way to the north and bends more to the west. At a second crossing of Black Pipe Creek, it enters the northeastern part of both Jackson County and the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, it enters the Mountain Time Zone. At a crossing of the White River, SD 63 leaves the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, it enters Belvidere. At an intersection with D Street, the dirt road ends and the paved portion resumes. on the northern edge of Belvidere, it intersects the former path of SD 248. It has an interchange with Interstate 90. Here, I-90 and SD 63 travel concurrently to the east, they cross over Brave Bull Creek. The eastbound lanes have a rest area before the roadway curves to the northeast; the westbound lanes have a rest area before the highways split. SD 63 heads to the north-northwest and curves to the north, before resuming its north-northwest direction. SD 63 enters the southeastern part of Haakon County. SD 63 continues to the north-northwest, it crosses over the Bad River and crosses over some railroad tracks of the Rapid City and Eastern Railroad before cutting across the southeastern part of Midland.

Just after leaving the city limits of Midland, it intersects US 14. Here, it turns right and travels concurrently with US 14, while the roadway continues as 248th Avenue. US 14/SD 63 re-enter Midland; the last intersection in Midland, the appropriately-named Midland Avenue, leads to the business district of the town. The concurrency curves to the north-northwest. After a curve to the north-northeast, they head to the north again, they enter the southwestern part of Stanley County. US 14/SD 63 travels due north and slide to the east just before they split, they intersect SD 34 5 miles west of Hayes. US 14 follows SD 34 east of this intersection; when SD 63 splits off, it travels due north to the northwestern part of the county. It slides to the west and resumes its northward trek, it curves to the west-northwest and re-enters Haakon County, this time in the northeastern part of the county. SD 63 crosses over Sage Creek; the highway crosses over Hermaphrodite Creek. The highway crosses over the Cheyenne River.

Here, it enters the southeastern part of Ziebach County and the south-central part of the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. SD 63 crosses over Dupree Creek, it curves to the northwest and to the north. At an intersection with Airport Road, which leads to Cheyenne–Eagle Butte Airport, the highway enters Dewey County. SD 63 begins to skirt along the western edge of North Eagle Butte, it intersects US 212 on the northwestern edge of the census-designated place. US 212 and SD 63 travel concurrently to the east, along the northern edge of the CDP, they pass some sewage disposal ponds. After leaving the city limits, they skirt along the southern edge of the CDP; when SD 63 splits off to the north, it skirts along the eastern edge of North Eagle Butte. It skirts along the eastern edge of Green Grass, it curves back to the north. 3.2 miles east-northeast of Firesteel, it intersects SD 20. The two highways travel concurrently in a due-east direction, while the roadway continue as County Road 3B, they curve to the east-northeast and cut through the northern part of Timbe

Dewan Negara

The Dewan Negara is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories. The Dewan Negara reviews legislation, passed by the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat. All bills must be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara, before they are sent to the King for royal assent. However, if the Dewan Negara rejects a bill, it can only delay the bill's passage by a maximum of a year before it is sent to the King, a restriction similar to that placed on the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. Like the Dewan Rakyat, the Dewan Negara meets at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur; the Dewan Negara was meant to act as a check on the Dewan Rakyat and represent the interests of the various states, based on the role played by its counterpart in the United States.

However, the original constitution, which provided for a majority of state-elected senators, has since been modified to make the vast majority of senators instead appointed by the King, thus theoretically providing an avenue for sombre non-partisan reconsideration of bills, more similar to the role of the British House of Lords. Members of the Dewan Negara are referred to as "Senators" in English or "Ahli Dewan Negara" in Malay; the term of office is 3 years and senators may only be re-appointed once, consecutively or non-consecutively. Each of the 13 state legislative assemblies chooses two senators; the King appoints two senators for the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, one for the Federal Territories of Labuan and Putrajaya on the advice of the Prime Minister. Another 40 senators, regardless of their states, are appointed by the King on the Prime Minister's advice. Federally appointed senators must have "rendered distinguished public service or have achieved distinction in the professions, industry, cultural activities or social service or are representative of racial minorities or are capable of representing the interests of aborigines".

The intent of the original Constitution of Malaysia, which provided for only 16 Senators to be appointed by the King was to give the states some say over federal policy. However, subsequent amendments have, according to former Lord President of the Federal Court Tun Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim, acted "contrary to the spirit of the original constitution which established the Dewan Negara specially as a body to protect in the federal Parliament, state interests against federal encroachments". To qualify, a candidate must be a Malaysian citizen at least 30 years of age, residing in the Federation, must not owe allegiance to any foreign state, must not have received a prison sentence of one year or longer, must not have been fined RM2,000 or more. Holders of a full-time profit-making position in the public service are ineligible. There is no requirement to belong to a political party. Parliament is permitted to increase the number of Senators to three per state, reduce the number of appointed Senators, or abolish the post of appointed Senator altogether.

The process of appointment is set out by Article 45 of the Constitution. The Constitution provides for direct election of the 26 Senators from the states, but this clause does not take effect until Parliament passes a resolution bringing it into effect. Senators can be appointed to ministerial posts in the Cabinet by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister. However, the Dewan Negara never supplies the Prime Minister, as the Prime Minister must be a member of the Dewan Rakyat; the Dewan Negara is not affected by the elections for the Dewan Rakyat, senators continue to hold office despite the Dewan Rakyat's dissolution for an election. The Dewan Negara elects a President to preside over sittings of the Dewan Negara, ensure observance of the rules of the house, interpret the Standing Orders of the house should they be disputed. Should the President be absent, his Deputy takes his place; the Dewan Negara may initiate legislation, except for financial and fiscal matters – a regulation directly from the Westminster system.

It may amend legislation, provided it does not deal with financial matters. Any proposed legislation must first be passed by the Dewan Rakyat, it is presented to the Dewan Negara in three readings. At the first, the legislation's proposer presents it to the assembly. At the second, the bill is debated. At the third, a vote is taken whether to reject the bill; the Dewan Negara may not formally reject bills. After the bill has passed or the requisite period is up, the bill is presented to the King for royal assent. If the King demurs or 30 days pass without royal assent, the bill is sent back to Parliament with a list of suggested amendments; the bill must be reapproved by both houses of Parliament. If the King still does not grant royal assent 30 days after it is presented to him again, the bill automatically becomes law, it does not take effect, until it is published in the Government Gazette. Although members of Parliament have legal immunity when it comes to freedom of discussion, a gag rule forbids discussion about certain articles of the Constitution such as the status of Bahasa Malaysia as the national language and Bumiputra privileges in Article 153.

As of 17 July 2018, the Dewan Negara has 51 senat

Higashi-Noshiro Station

Higashi-Noshiro Station is a junction railway station in the city of Noshiro, Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company. The station is a freight depot for the Japan Freight Railway Company Higashi-Noshiro is served by the Ōu Main Line and Gonō Line, it is located 355.4 km from the terminus of the Ōu Main Line at Fukushima, it is the southern terminus of the 147.2 kilometer Gonō Line. The station consists of one side platform and one island platform, connected to the station building by a footbridge; the station has automated ticket machines, Suica automated turnstiles as well as a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office. The station opened on November 1901 as Noshiro Station, it was renamed Hataori Station on November 1, 1909, renamed Higashi-Noshiro Station on June 15, 1943. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. In fiscal 2018, the station was used by an average of 500 passengers daily. Higashi-Noshiro post office Noshiro High School List of railway stations in Japan Media related to Higashi-Noshiro Station at Wikimedia Commons JR East station information

Eddie Dowling

Eddie Dowling was an American actor, playwright, producer and composer. Born Joseph Nelson Goucher on December 11, 1889, he was the 14th of 17 children born to a father of French-Canadian descent and a mother of Irish descent in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, he took his professional surname from the maiden name of his mother, Bridget Mary Dowling, born in Smithfield, Rhode Island. His father was Charles Goucher, a textile worker, born in St Marcel, Province of Québec, Canada. Dowling began his career in vaudeville with the Homan Stock Company at the Scenic Temple theatre in Providence, RI, he appeared on stage including appearances in the Ziegfeld Follies. His Broadway debut came in The Velvet Lady (1919, his most famous role was as "Tom Wingfield" in the original Broadway production of The Glass Menagerie, starring opposite Laurette Taylor and Julie Haydon. He produced the play's original Chicago production in 1944, followed it to Broadway. Dowling sought the 1934 Democratic nomination for the United States Senate seat from Rhode Island.

At the time, TIME magazine reported that his great-grandfather and two great-grand uncles were the founders of Goucher College for Women in Baltimore, that "he was the 14th in a family of 17 children. Dowling was married to the Glasgow, Scotland-born actress and stage performer, Rachel Rice Dooley who specialized in physical comedy. Jack Dowling was killed in a plane crash in Brazil in 1955 when he was Time magazine's Buenos Aires bureau chief. On February 18, 1976, Dowling died in Smithfield, Rhode Island at the age of 86, his widow died in 1984, aged 95, in Long Island, New York. Eddie Dowling at the Internet Broadway Database Time, "POLITICAL NOTES: Stage & Screen Senator?", May 14, 1934