Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)
The Nieuwe Kerk is a Protestant church in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. The building is located on opposite to the City Hall. In 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since members of the House of Orange-Nassau have been entombed in the royal crypt; the latest are Queen Juliana and her husband Prince Bernhard in 2004. The private royal family crypt is not open to the public; the church tower, designed by Pierre Cuypers and completed in 1872, is the second highest in the Netherlands, after the Domtoren in Utrecht. The New Church the church of St. Ursula, is the burial place of the princes of Orange; the church is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, crafted by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about the year 1621, the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the marketplace outside the church. The tower was built 1396-1496 by Jacob van der Borch, who built the Dom in Utrecht during the years 1444-1475.
The monument for Hugo de Groot was made in 1781. The mechanical clock has 18 bells by Francois Hemony from 30 modern bells. In the church tower there is a bell from 1662 by Francois Hemony with a diameter of 104 centimeters. In the tower there are bells no longer in use, including 13 from 1659 by Francois Hemony, 3 from 1678 by Pieter Hemony, 3 from 1750 from Joris de Mery, 1 from Gillett and Johnston from 1929; the Kirk appears in the golden Age painting by A View of Delft. Eleven people are buried in the old vault: William the Silent Louise de Coligny Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange Elisabeth, daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Isabella Charlotte, daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Countess Catharina Belgica of Nassau Amalia of Solms-Braunfels Three unidentified persons35 people are buried in the new vault: William II, Prince of Orange Eldest stillborn daughter of William IV, Prince of Orange William IV, Prince of Orange Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange George Willem Belgicus, son of Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau A stillborn child of Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau Eldest stillborn son of William V, Prince of Orange Willem Georg Frederik, son of William V, Prince of Orange Princess Pauline of Orange-Nassau William V, Prince of Orange Frederika Louise Wilhelmina, daughter of William V, Prince of Orange Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia Prince Ernest Casimir of the Netherlands Willem Frederik Nicolaas Karel, son of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Wilhelmine of Prussia William I of the Netherlands Willem Frederik Nicolaas Albert, son of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Prince Alexander of the Netherlands William II of the Netherlands Prince Maurice of the Netherlands Anna Pavlovna of Russia Princess Louise of Prussia Amalia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Sophie of Württemberg Prince Henry of the Netherlands William, Prince of Orange Prince Frederick of the Netherlands Alexander, Prince of Orange William III of the Netherlands Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Prince Claus of the Netherlands Juliana of the Netherlands Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Nieuwe Kerk Delft
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. It has been the original denomination of the Dutch Royal Family until being merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, a United church of both Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran theological orientations; the allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world, became a crucial part of Afrikaner nationalism in South Africa. It developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians, it was founded in 1571. The Dutch Reformed Church was shaped by various theological developments and controversies during its history, including Arminianism, the Nadere Reformatie and a number of splits in the 19th century that diversified Dutch Calvinism.
The church functioned until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations. A minority of members of the church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member; the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business; the Dutch Reformed Church was disestablished in 1795 with the end of the Republic.
Although it remained endorsed by the Royal Family, the Netherlands never had any public church afterwards. The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Efforts to form a Reformed church in the southern provinces stemmed from a secret meeting of Protestant leaders at Antwerp in 1566, despite Spanish repression, many nobles joined the Protestant movement. Two years in 1568, following an attack on the Netherlands by the forces of the Duke of Alba, many Netherlanders fled to the German city of Wesel, where a Synod was convened at which the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism were adopted, provisions were made for the offices of pastor, elder and deacon; the first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden. The Synod of Emden is considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands; the Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church.
The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. Large groups of Marranos converted to Christianity. All Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church. In the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions; the Canons of Dort, together with the adopted Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism, were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid. Most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents; the government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically. No Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795; the 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, influenced by English Puritanism.
In the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. King William I of the Netherlands imposed a new form of government for the church, in which the civil authorities selected the commissioners to the National Synod in 1816, making it difficult for ministers to speak out against perceived errors. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by church leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues, who he believed held erroneous views, he and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church. In time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper; the Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church.
From the'60s onward, a number of attempts were made to
Royal Netherlands Army
The Royal Netherlands Army is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. Though the Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, its origins date back to 1572, when the Staatse Leger was raised -- making the Dutch standing army one of the oldest in the world, it fought in the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, the Korean War and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s. Since 1990, the army has been sent into the Iraqi War and into the War in Afghanistan, as well as deployed in several United Nations' peacekeeping missions. Two of the three brigades of the present Dutch Army are now under German command. In 2014, the 11th Airmobile Brigade was integrated into the Rapid Forces Division; this Dutch-German military co-operation is seen as a harbinger of a European defensive union. The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to the founding of the Staatse Leger in 1572: the creation of one of the first modern standing armies.
One of the best-organised and best-trained armies of the 17th and early 18th centuries, this army of the Dutch Republic saw action in the Eighty Years' War, the Dano-Swedish War, the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the French Revolutionary Wars. With the French conquest of the Netherlands, the Staatse Leger was replaced by the army of the Batavian Republic in 1795, which in turn was replaced by the army of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806; this army fought beside the French, to repel the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in 1799 and to wage several campaigns in Germany and Spain between 1800 and 1810. The independent army was disbanded in 1810, when Napoleon decided to integrate the Netherlands into France: Dutch military units became part of the Grande Armée. Dutch military elements participated in the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812, the actions of the Pontonniers company under Captain Benthien at the Berezina River are noteworth.
New research points out that, contrary to long-held belief, around half of the Dutch contingent of the Grande Armée survived the Russian Campaign. An independent Dutch army was resurrected by the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands in 1814, following the Orangist uprising against Napoleonic rule in 1813; this new force, the Netherlands Mobile Army, formed an integral part of the allied army during the Hundred Days campaign that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo. Units such as Baron Chassé's were key in securing victory for the allied army; the army has been involved in various conflicts since 1814, including the Waterloo campaign, different colonial wars, the Belgian Revolution. At the beginning of the Second World War, the I Corps was the force strategic reserve and was located in the Vesting Holland, around The Hague, Haarlem and in the Westland; the Royal Netherlands Army was defeated in May 1940 and only began to rise again with the formation of the Princess Irene Brigade Group in exile.
In the Far East, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was defeated by the Japanese in 1942. Today's army grew out of the wartime force, starting with the liberation of parts of the Netherlands in 1944; the army fought in the Indonesian War of Independence 1945–1949, in Korea in 1950-53, the war with Indonesia over New Guinea, 1960–1962. The Royal Netherlands Navy and an army battalion were sent to Korea between 1950 and 1954. In total, 3,972 Soldiers were sent to fight the war in Korea, 123 died in combat; the I Corps stood watch alongside its NATO allies in Germany during the Cold War. The corps consisted of three divisions during the 1980s, the 1st, 4th, 5th divisions, it was part of the NATO Northern Army Group. The corps's war assignment, as formulated by Commander, Northern Army Group, would be to: Assume responsibility for its corps sector and relieve 1st German Corps forces as soon as possible. Fight the covering force battle in accordance with COMNORTHAG's concept of operations. In the main defensive battle: hold and destroy the forces of the enemy's leading armies conventionally as far east as possible, maintaining cohesion with 1 Corps.
Maintain cohesion with LANDJUT and secure NORTHAG's left flank in the Forward Combat Zone. During the early 1990s I Corps was reduced to the First Division 7 December, which became part of I. German/Dutch Corps, later the division headquarters itself was disbanded. Since the end of the Cold War, the army concentrates on peace-keeping and peace-enforcing operations and has been involved in several operations (in Lebanon between 1979 and 1985, a
House of Orange-Nassau
The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state. Several members of the house served during this war and after as stadtholder during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau; the dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Henry III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon; as the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange.
History knows him therefore as René of Châlon. After the death of René in 1544, his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited all of his lands; this "William I of Orange", in English better known as William the Silent, became the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau. Nassau Castle was founded around 1100 by Count Dudo of Laurenburg, the founder of the House of Nassau. In 1120, Dudo's sons and successors, Counts Rupert I and Arnold I, established themselves at Nassau Castle with its tower, they renovated and extended the castle complex in 1124. The first man to be called the count of Nassau was Henry I of Nassau, who lived in the first half of the 13th century; the Nassau family married into the family of the neighboring Counts of Arnstein. His sons and Otto, split the Nassau possessions; the descendants of Walram were known as the Walram Line, they became Dukes of Nassau and, in 1890, Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. This line included Adolph of Nassau, elected King of the Romans in 1292; the descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, they inherited parts of the County of Nassau, as well as properties in France and the Netherlands.
The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the younger Ottonian Line. The first of this line to establish himself in the Netherlands was John I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, who married Margareta of the Marck; the real founder of the Nassau fortunes in the Netherlands was John's son, Engelbert I. He became counsellor to the Burgundian Dukes of Brabant, first to Anton of Burgundy, to his son Jan IV of Brabant, he would serve Philip the Good. In 1403, he married the Dutch noblewoman Johanna van Polanen and so inherited lands in the Netherlands, with the Barony of Breda as the core of the Dutch possessions and the family fortune. A nobleman's power was based on his ownership of vast tracts of land and lucrative offices, it helped that much of the lands that the House of Orange-Nassau controlled sat under one of the commercial and mercantile centers of the world (see below under Lands and Titles. The importance of the family grew throughout the 15th and 16th centuries as they became councilors and stadholders of the Habsburgs.
Engelbert II of Nassau served Charles the Bold and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, who had married Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy. In 1496, he was appointed stadtholder of Flanders and by 1498 he had been named President of the Grand Conseil. In 1501, Maximilian named him Lieutenant-General of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. From that point forward, Engelbert was the principal representative of the Habsburg Empire to the region. Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda was appointed stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland by Charles of Ghent in the beginning of the 16th century. Hendrik was succeeded by his son René of Châlon-Orange in 1538, who had inherited the principality of Orange and the title Prince of Orange from his maternal uncle Philibert of Chalon. René died prematurely on the battlefield in 1544, his possessions, including the principality of Orange and the title Prince of Orange, passed by his will as sovereign prince to his paternal cousin, William I of Orange. From on, the family members called themselves "Orange-Nassau."
Although Charles V pretended to resist the Protestant Reformation, he ruled the Dutch territories wisely with moderation and regard for local customs, he did not persecute his Protestant subjects on a large scale. His son Philip II inherited his antipathy for the Protestants but not his moderation. Under the reign of Philip, a true persecution of Protestants was initiated and taxes were raised to an outrageous level. Discontent arose and William of Orange stood up for the Protestant inhabitants of the Netherlands. Things went badly after the Eighty Years' War started in 1568, but luck turned to his advantage when Protestant rebels attacking from the North Sea captured Brielle, a coastal town in present-day South Holland in 1572. Many cities in Holland began to support William. During the 1570s he had to defend his core territories in Holland several times, but in the 1580s the inland cities in Holland were secure. William of Orange was considered a threat to Spanish rule in the area and was assassinated in 1584 by a hired killer sent by Philip.
William was succeeded by his second son Maurits, a Protestant who proved an excellent military commander. His abilities
Belgian Federal Parliament
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium. It consists of the Chamber of the Senate, it sits in the Palace of the Nation. The Chamber of Representatives is the primary legislative body; the Constitution does not mention the Federal Parliament as such. The Chamber of Representatives holds its plenary meetings in the Palace of Brussels. Eligibility requirements for the Chamber are a minimum age of 21, residency in Belgium; the number of seats in the Chamber is constitutionally set at 150 elected from 11 electoral districts. The districts are divided along linguistic lines: 5 Flemish, 5 Walloon, the bilingual district of Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde; the districts are the provinces, except for the districts of Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde. Each district is given a number of seats proportional to its population ranging from 4 for Luxembourg to 24 for Antwerp. All districts have an electoral threshold of 5 %, except for Leuven. 7 with language facilities for French-speakers. The current composition was elected at the federal elections of 2014.
Since 2014, the Senate consists of 60 members. There are two categories of senators: co-opted senators and senators of community and regional parliaments. 50 senators are elected by and from the community and regional parliaments: 29 by the Flemish Parliament, 10 by the Parliament of the French Community, 8 by the Walloon Parliament, 2 by the French-language group of the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, 1 by the Parliament of the German-speaking Community. The 10 other senators are co-opted: elected by the 50 other senators. Eligibility requirements for the Senate are identical to those for the Chamber. Before 2014, the Senate consisted of 71 senators, only 21 of which were elected by the community parliaments. 25 were directly elected by the Flemish-speaking constituency and 15 by the French-speaking constituency. The last direct election of these 40 members occurred in the 2010 federal elections; the 2014 elections are the first one with the reformed Senate. The President of the Senate since 2014 has been Christine Defraigne.
The Senate holds its plenary meetings in the Palace of Brussels. Since the elections of 21 May 1995, there has been a breakdown of powers between the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate, which resulted in the latter having fewer competences than the Chamber of Representatives. Prior to that, the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate did the same parliamentary work on an equal footing, but now there are three different legislative procedures that can be followed: the one-chamber procedure, the optional two-chamber procedure, the mandatory two-chamber procedure. In certain matters both Chambers have equal power; these include constitutional revisions, laws requiring a qualified majority, laws on the basic structure of the Belgian State, laws approving agreements of cooperation between the Federal State, the Communities and the Regions, laws on the approval of international treaties, laws on the organisation of the judiciary, the Council of State, the Constitutional Court. In this case, the mandatory bicameral procedure applies, which means that both Chambers must pass the same version of the bill.
For most other legislation, the Chamber of Representatives takes precedence over the Senate and the optional bicameral procedure applies. This means that the Senate may still intervene as a chamber of reflection, it has the opportunity to, within specific time limits, examine the bills adopted by the Chamber of Representatives and, if there is a reason to do so, make amendments. The Chamber may subsequently adopt or reject the amendments proposed by the Senate or make new proposals; the Senate can submit a bill it has adopted to the Chamber, which can approve, reject or amend it. Whatever the case, the Chamber has the final word; the one-chamber procedure applies in cases where the Chamber of Representatives has the sole power to legislate. It means that the Senate cannot intervene and that the Senate's approval is not required for the bill to pass; the matters for which the Chamber of Representatives is responsible include naturalisations, ministerial liability, State budget and accounts and military quotas.
The United Chambers is the name given to the body created when both chambers of the Federal Parliament meet in joint session. The United Chambers are convened only on certain occasions enumerated in the Belgian Constitution: the King must take the constitutional oath before the United Chambers, in accordance with article 91 of the Constitution, the United Chambers must provide for the regency in the event that the successor to the Crown is a minor or the King is unable to reign, in accordance with articles 92 and 93 of the Constitution; the last session of the United Chambers took place on 21 July 2013, when King Philippe of Belgium took the constit
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam, to the southeast, The Hague, to the northwest. Together with them, it is part of both Rotterdam -- the Randstad. Delft is a popular tourist attraction in the country, it is home to Delft University of Technology, regarded as center of technological research and development in the Netherlands, Delft Blue pottery and the reigning House of Orange-Nassau. Delft played a influential role in the Dutch Golden Age. Delft has a special place in the history of microbiology. In terms of science and technology, thanks to the pioneering contributions of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Martinus Beijerinck, Delft can be considered to be the true birthplace of microbiology, with its several sub-disciplines such as bacteriology and virology; the city of Delft came into being beside a canal, the'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, led to the name Delft. It started around the 11th century as a landlord court.
From a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed into a city, that in the 13th century received its charter.. The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, took up residence in 1572. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years' War. By Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled. After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange; when William was shot dead in 1584 by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, destroying much of the city. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a fair in The Hague. Today, the explosion is remembered for killing Rembrandt's most promising pupil, Carel Fabritius, destroying all his works. Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation; the city centre retains a large number of monumental buildings, while in many streets there are canals of which the banks are connected by typical bridges, altogether making this city a notable tourist destination. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include: Oude Kerk.
Buried here: Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496, it contains the Dutch royal family's burial vault which, between funerals, is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius created by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886, located on the Markt near the Nieuwe Kerk; the Prinsenhof, now a museum. City Hall on the Markt; the Oostpoort, built around 1400. This is the only remaining gate of the old city walls; the Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645. The Vermeer Centre in the re-built Guild house of St. Luke; the historical "Waag" building. Windmill De Roos, a tower mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013. Another windmill that stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century.
The city had an early start in this area. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles and De Delftse Pauw; the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the background in his paintings. Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh, Carel Fabritius, Nicolaes Maes, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. Van Vliet, they were all members of the Delft School. The Delft School is known for its images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards and the streets of Delft; the painters produced pictures showing historic events, portraits for patrons and the court as well as decorative pieces of art. Delft supports creative arts companies. From 2001 the Bacinol, a building, disused since 1951, began to house small companies in the creative arts sector. However, demolition of the building started in December 2009, making way for the construction of the new railway tunnel in Delft.
The occupants of the building, as well as the name'Bacinol', moved to another building in the city. The name Bacinol relates to Dutch penicillin research during WWII. Delft Univers