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William II of England

William II, the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 26 September 1087 until 2 August 1100, with powers over Normandy, influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is known as William Rufus because of his ruddy appearance or, more due to having red hair as a child that grew out in life. William was a figure of complex temperament, capable of both flamboyance, he did not marry, nor did he father any offspring, which has led to speculations of possible homosexuality by historians. He died under circumstances that remain unclear. Circumstantial evidence in the behaviour of those around him raises strong, but unproven, suspicions of murder, his younger brother Henry I hurriedly succeeded him as king. Frank Barlow observed William was "A rumbustious, devil-may-care soldier, without natural dignity or social graces, with no cultivated tastes and little show of conventional religious piety or morality—indeed, according to his critics, addicted to every kind of vice lust and sodomy."

On the other hand, he was a wise ruler and victorious general. Barlow noted, "His chivalrous achievements were all too obvious, he had maintained good order and satisfactory justice in England and restored good peace to Normandy. He had extended Anglo-Norman rule in Wales, brought Scotland under his lordship, recovered Maine, kept up the pressure on the Vexin." William's exact date of birth is not known, but it was some time between the years 1056 and 1060. He was the third of four sons born to William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, the eldest being Robert Curthose, the second Richard, the youngest Henry. Richard died around 1075 while hunting in the New Forest. William succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death in 1087, but Robert inherited Normandy. William had six sisters; the existence of sisters Adeliza and Matilda is not certain, but four sisters are more securely attested: Adela, who married the Count of Blois Cecily, who became a nun Agatha, who died unmarried Constance, who married the Duke of Brittany.

Records indicate strained relations between the three surviving sons of William I. William's contemporary, chronicler Orderic Vitalis, wrote about an incident that took place at L'Aigle in Normandy in 1077 or 1078: William and Henry, having grown bored with casting dice, decided to make mischief by emptying a chamber pot onto their brother Robert from an upper gallery, thus infuriating and shaming him. A brawl broke out, their father had to intercede to restore order. According to William of Malmesbury, writing in the 12th century, William Rufus was "well set; the division of William the Conqueror's lands into two parts presented a dilemma for those nobles who held land on both sides of the English Channel. Since the younger William and his brother Robert were natural rivals, these nobles worried that they could not hope to please both of their lords, thus ran the risk of losing the favour of one ruler or the other, or both; the only solution, as they saw it, was to unite Normandy once more under one ruler.

The pursuit of this aim led them to revolt against William in favour of Robert in the Rebellion of 1088, under the leadership of the powerful Bishop Odo of Bayeux, a half-brother of William the Conqueror. As Robert failed to appear in England to rally his supporters, William won the support of the English with silver and promises of better government, defeated the rebellion, thus securing his authority. In 1091 he invaded Normandy, crushing Robert's forces and forcing him to cede a portion of his lands; the two made up their differences and William agreed to help Robert recover lands lost to France, notably Maine. This plan was abandoned, but William continued to pursue a ferociously warlike defence of his French possessions and interests to the end of his life, exemplified by his response to the attempt by Elias de la Flèche, Count of Maine, to take Le Mans in 1099. William Rufus was thus secure in what was the most powerful kingdom in Europe, given the contemporary eclipse of the Salian emperors.

As in Normandy, his bishops and abbots were bound to him by feudal obligations. The king's personal power, through an effective and loyal chancery, penetrated to the local level to an extent unmatched in France; the king's administration and law unified the realm, rendering him impervious to papal condemnation. In 1097 he commenced the original Westminster Hall, which when completed in 1099 was the largest hall in Europe, built "to impress his subjects with the power and majesty of his authority". Less than two years after becoming king, William II lost his father's adviser and confidant, the Italian-Norman Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. After Lanfranc's death in 1089, the king delayed appointing a new archbishop for many years, appropriating ecclesiastical revenues in the interim. In panic, owing to serious illness in 1093, William nominated as archbishop another Norman-Italian, Anselm – considered the greatest theologian of his generation – but this led to a long period of animosity between Church and State, Anselm being a stronger supporter of the Gregorian reforms in the Church than Lanfranc.

William and Anselm disagreed on a rang

Liver regeneration

Liver regeneration is the process by which the liver is able to replace lost liver tissue from growth from the remaining tissue. The liver is the only visceral organ; the liver can regenerate after chemical injury. It is known; the process of regeneration in mammals is compensatory growth because only the mass of the liver is replaced, not the shape. However, in lower species such as fish, both liver size and shape can be replaced. There are two events in which the liver has the capability to regenerate, one being a partial hepatectomy and the other being damage to the liver by toxins or infection; the processes described below deal with the pathways triggered after a partial hepatectomy. Following the event of partial hepatectomy, there are three phases for the process of regeneration; the first phase is the priming phase and during this portion, hundreds of genes are activated and prepare the liver for regeneration. This priming phase occurs within 0-5 hours after the hepatectomy and deals with events prior to entering the cell cycle and ensuring that hepatocytes can maintain their homeostatic functions.

The second phase deals with the activation of various growth factors such as c-Met. These two factors are major components of liver regeneration; the final phase deals with termination of proliferation by TGF-β. After a hepatectomy, there is an activation of numerous signaling pathways that start the process of regeneration; the first being an increase in urokinase activity. Urokinase is known to activate matrix remodeling; this remodeling causes the release of HGF and from this release now c-Met can be activated. EGFR is activated in the same way as c-Met, these two growth factors play a major role in the regeneration process; these processes occur outside of the hepatocyte and prime the liver for regeneration. Once these processes are complete, hepatocytes are able to enter the liver to start the process of proliferation; this is because there is the growth factors of EGFR and c-Met. This communication can occur because of β-catenin and Notch-1 move to the nucleus of the hepatocyte 15-30 minutes after the hepatectomy.

The presence of these two proteins increases the regenerative response and the HGF and EGFR act as direct mitogens and can produce a strong mitogenic response for the hepatocytes to proliferate. After the regeneration process has completed, TGF-β puts an end to the proliferation by inducing apoptosis. TGFβ1 inhibits the proliferation of hepatocytes by repressing HGF; as mentioned above, urokinase activated the release of HGF. This process is able to bring the hepatocytes back into their quiescent state. Sometimes, hepatocytes do not have the ability to proliferate and an alternative form of regeneration is able to take place to rebuild the liver; this can happen with the help of biliary epithelial cells having the capability of turning into hepatocytes when the original hepatocytes have problems proliferating. This is due to the fact that biliary cells have two functions, one being the normal transport of bile and the other becoming stem cells for hepatocytes; the same occurs vice versa, with hepatocytes being able to turn into biliary cells when they cannot proliferate.

Both of these kinds of cells are facultative stem cells for each other. Facultative stem cells have one fate but upon injury of another type of cell, can function as a stem cell; these two types of cells can repair liver tissue when the normal mechanism of liver regeneration fails. The ability for the liver to regenerate is central to liver homeostasis; because the liver is the main site of drug detoxification, it is exposed to many chemicals in the body which may induce cell death and injury. The liver can regenerate damaged tissue thereby preventing its own failure. However, a predictor of the true speed of liver regeneration depends on whether Interleukin 6 has overexpression. Liver regeneration is critical for patients of liver diseases where the partial removal of the liver due to fibrosis or tumor is a common therapy that utilizes the ability of the remaining liver to generate back. Two main types of models are used to study liver regeneration, including surgical removal referred to as partial hepatectomy, chemical-induced liver damage.

Whereas the mechanisms and kinetics of liver regeneration in these two models are different, many of the same signaling pathways stimulate liver regeneration in both pathways. In Greek myths and Tityos are trespassers against the gods whose livers are eaten by birds of prey by day and regenerated by night

Joseph Kekuku

Joseph Kekuku is the inventor of the steel guitar. Kekuku was born in a village on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii; when Joseph was 15, he and his cousin, Sam Nainoa left for a boarding school in Honolulu. In 1889 while attending the Kamehameha School for Boys, Kekuku accidentally discovered the sound of the steel guitar. According to C. S. DelAno, publisher of the "Hawaiian Music In Los Angeles" whose "Hawaiian Love Song" was the first original composition to be written for the Hawaiian Steel Guitar, "Joseph told me that he was walking along a road in Honolulu 42 years ago, holding an old Spanish guitar when he saw a rusty bolt on the ground; as he picked it up, the bolt accidentally vibrated one of the strings and produced a new tone, rather pleasing. After practicing for a time with the metal bolt, Joe experimented with the back of a pocket knife with the back of a steel comb and still on with a polished steel similar to the sort, used today." In 1904 at the age of 30, Joseph would never return.

He started in the United States by performing in vaudeville theaters from coast to coast. His group was "Kekuku's Hawaiian Quintet" and were sponsored by a management group called "The Affiliated."In 1919, Kekuku left the U. S. for an eight-year tour of Europe traveling with "The Bird of Paradise" show. "The Bird of Paradise" show started on Broadway, was well-received in Europe. "The Bird of Paradise" was so popular that it became a film in 1932 and again in 1951, though Kekuku was not in either film. Kekuku returned to the United States and, at the age of 53, settled in Chicago and ran a popular and successful music school. In 1932 Joseph Kekuku gave Hawaiian guitar lessons. On January 16, 1932, at the age of 58, Joseph Kekuku died in Morristown, New Jersey, of a cerebral hemorrhage. Kekuku is buried in the Orchard Street Cemetery. In 1993, Joseph Kekuku was inducted into the Steel Guitar Hall of Fame with full honors as the inventor of the Hawaiian steel guitar. A statue of him was erected at the Polynesian Cultural Center in Hawaii in 2015.

HMHFM Honorees - Joseph Kekuku at www.hawaiimusicmuseum.org Owana Salazar - About Hawaiian Steel Guitar at www.owanasalazar.com