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William IX, Duke of Aquitaine

William IX, called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou between 1086 and his death. He was one of the leaders of the Crusade of 1101. Though his political and military achievements have a certain historical importance, he is best known as the earliest troubadour—a vernacular lyric poet in the Occitan language—whose work survived. William was the son of William VIII of Aquitaine by Hildegarde of Burgundy, his birth was a cause of great celebration at the Aquitanian court, but the Church at first considered him illegitimate because of his father's earlier divorces and his parents' consanguinity. This obliged his father to make a pilgrimage to Rome soon after his birth to seek Papal approval of his third marriage and the young William's legitimacy. William inherited the duchy at the age of fifteen upon the death of his father, it has been believed that he was first married in 1088, at age sixteen, to Ermengarde, daughter of Fulk IV of Anjou. Biographers have described Ermengarde as beautiful and well-educated, though suffering from severe mood swings.

However, Ruth Harvey's 1993 critical investigation shows the assumption of William's marriage to Ermengarde to be based on an error in a nineteenth-century secondary source and it is likely that Philippa of Toulouse was William's only wife. Further research has found the claim that William was married to "Hermingerda", daughter of Fulk IV of Anjou is based on the unreliable chronicle of William of Tyre, written between 1169 and 1187, more than 70 years after the events in question would have taken place. Tyre erroneously identifies Ermengarde's mother as Bertrade of Montfort, the sister of Amalricus de Montfort when her mother was in fact Audearde or Hildegarde of Beaugency. Tyre's chronicle lacks any contemporary corroboration, no primary text mentions a marriage between William and Ermengarde, it is therefore not only improbable that William married Ermengarde, it is that Ermengarde - at least as a wife of William - never existed. In 1094, William married the daughter and heiress of William IV of Toulouse.

By Philippa, William had two sons and five daughters, including his eventual successor, William X. His second son, Raymond became the Prince of Antioch in the Holy Land, his daughter Agnes married firstly Aimery V of Thouars and Ramiro II of Aragon, reestablishing dynastic ties with that ruling house. William invited Pope Urban II to spend the Christmas of 1095 at his court; the pope urged him to "take the cross" and leave for the Holy Land, but William was more interested in exploiting the absence on Crusade of Raymond IV of Toulouse, his wife's uncle, to press her claim to Toulouse. He and Philippa did capture Toulouse in 1098, an act for which they were threatened with excommunication; the Duchess was an admirer of Robert of Arbrissel, persuaded William to grant him land in northern Poitou to establish a religious community dedicated to the Virgin Mary. This became Fontevraud Abbey, which would enjoy the patronage of their granddaughter Eleanor and would remain important until its dissolution during the French Revolution.

Motivated by many factors, religious as well as secular, William joined the Crusade of 1101, an expedition inspired by the success of the First Crusade in 1099. To finance it, he had to mortgage Toulouse back to Bertrand, the son of Raymond IV. William stayed there until the following year, his record as a military leader is not impressive. He fought skirmishes in Anatolia and was defeated, his recklessness led to his being ambushed on several occasions, with great losses to his own forces. In September 1101, his entire army was destroyed by the Seljuk Turks led by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclea. William, like many magnates of the time, had a rocky relationship with the Church, he was excommunicated twice, the first time in 1114 for an alleged infringement of the Church's tax privileges. His response to this was to demand absolution from Bishop of Poitiers; as the bishop was at the point of pronouncing the anathema, the duke threatened him with a sword, swearing to kill him if he did not pronounce absolution.

Bishop Peter, pretended to comply, but when the duke, released him, the bishop completed reading the anathema, before calmly presenting his neck and inviting the duke to strike. According to contemporaries, William hesitated a moment before sheathing his sword and replying, "I don't love you enough to send you to paradise." William was excommunicated a second time for "abducting" the Viscountess Dangerose, the wife of his vassal Aimery I de Rochefoucauld, Viscount of Châtellerault. The lady, appears to have been a willing party in the matter, he installed her in the Maubergeonne tower of his castle in Poitiers, and, as related by William of Malmesbury painted a picture of her on his shield. Upon returning to Poitiers from Toulouse, Philippa was enraged to discover a rival woman living in her palace, she appealed to her friends to the Church.

Gambir Fair

The Gambir Fair was a fair held in 1906 and yearly from 1921 until 1942 in the Koningsplein, Dutch East Indies to celebrate the birthday of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. After the Japanese occupied the Indies, the fair was no longer held. However, after a failed attempt in 1952, in 1968 it was reinstated as the Jakarta Fair. Gambir Market featured hundreds of kiosks selling arts and crafts and other items, it included singing competitions and movie showings. Other activities included a lottery. Most visitors were European and ethnic Chinese, although rich natives went. Gambir Market was held in Koningsplein, Dutch East Indies; the front gate, located on the north side of Daanhole Street, was made of bamboo and wood, roofed with True Sago Palm leaves, served as a ticket booth. The gate's architectural style differed every year, although it was modeled on traditional Indonesian buildings; the fairgrounds, which included its own police station, was surrounded by a 2-metre high wooden fence. Just inside the front gate were flowers and fences for resting.

Further back were open and covered stalls, made of the same material as the gates. The open stalls were used for photographic exhibitions and the sale of arts and crafts from throughout the archipelago and imported goods, while the covered stalls — which charged an additional entrance fee — featured various attractions, including movies, magic shows, a dancing hall, a lottery. Government stalls included book exhibitions from the state-owned publisher Balai Pustaka and information on the oil industry from Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij. At the centre of the complex, a large restaurant for Dutch patrons was established; this restaurant sold alcohol and European food. Other ethnic groups ate from food kiosks scattered throughout the square, which sold snacks from different parts of the Indies; the fair featured petasan on three occasions: at its beginning, on Wilhelmina's birthday, at the end. Outside the front gate, street sellers from throughout Batavia laid down sheets and sold their wares.

Artistic performances were common. Art shows were held by Dutchmen and other Europeans. However, beginning in 1937 traditional Indonesian art forms such as dance, wayang wong, ketoprak. Other activities available included association football during daytime hours and singing and keroncong competitions at night. To celebrate the birthday of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands on 31 August, in 1906 the Batavia city government decided to hold a bazaar. In 1921, due to great interest in the event — attendance over one week had reached 75,000 — the Dutch decided to hold it yearly to coincide with the queen's birthday. Open from 10 in the morning until midnight, the entrance fee was 10 cents for Native Indonesians and 25 cents for the Dutch; the initial displays were owned and run, but as the fair grew crowded elements of the government became involved and opened their own kiosks. It was extended to two weeks; the visitors were well-off financially Europeans and ethnic Chinese. Natives Betawi and other groups were fewer, those which came were of noble background.

After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, the fair was stopped. After the end of World War II and Indonesia's independence, several attempts were made to reinstate the fair. In 1952 an attempt was made near Sudirman Street; the next effort, the Jakarta Fair, was better received. The fair featured in several works from the period. In Armijn Pane's 1940 novel Belenggu, the male lead Tono discovers that his mistress, Yah, is his favourite kroncong singer during a competition at Gambir. Ismail Marzuki wrote the song "Kr. Pasar Gambir dan Stambul Anak Jampang" to describe the atmosphere of the fair. Footnotes Bibliography

Clattern Bridge

The Clattern Bridge is a bridge over the Hogsmill River in Kingston upon Thames. It is thus one of the oldest intact bridges in England, it replaced an older Saxon bridge, known as the Clatrung Bridge. Its various names, such as the Clateryngbrugge, are thought to derive from the clattering of horses' hooves as they crossed the bridge; the bridge still carries a full load of modern vehicle traffic. Up to the 18th century, the bridge was used as a site for the ducking of scolds with a cucking stool; the bridge featured in the traditional game of football held in the centre of Kingston each year on Shrove Tuesday. It was the goal for one of the teams; the bridge was constructed during the Norman era, replacing an earlier Saxon bridge. The lower portion consists of three arches made of properly dressed ashlar stones with a filling of flint rubble. In 1758, the local authority, the Kingston Court of Assembly, agreed to widen the bridge; the addition was made of red brick, bonded into the existing stone arches.

Brick parapets were built and these were capped with stone. In 1852, the bridge was widened again with the addition of more brick-built structure. An ornamental railing was added at this time; this structure continues to bear a full load of traffic. It was scheduled as an ancient monument on 16 February 1938 and its structure is now Grade I listed. In 2012, a zoological survey found that eels were having difficulty migrating upstream under the bridge, due to the fast flow of water across the smooth surface under the bridge. Tiles were fixed to the river bed with protrusions so that the eels could wriggle up them to pass the bridge and eels are now found upstream on the Hogsmill. Scolds were ducked at the bridge. Kingston was still doing this as late as 1745 when the landlady of the Queen's Head was ducked before a large crowd. A traditional game of football was held each year for centuries in Kingston. Men of the town would meet at the Druid's Head on Shrove Tuesday and the two teams – the Townsend and the Thames-Street – would compete to get the ball to one of the two goals: the great bridge over the Thames or the Clattern Bridge.

William Biden tells that this started with an 8th-century dispute between rivals Kynard. In the late 18th century, the authorities tried to suppress the game on account of its violence and disruption of the town's trade; the Riot Act was read in 1798 and the cavalry at Hampton Court was sent for but did not respond as they were playing football too. The game was displaced from the public highway in 1867, when the authorities managed to move the game to a local playing field. Clattern Bridge, Historic England, 30 March 2015 Biden, William Downing, The History and Antiquities of the Ancient and Royal Town of Kingston-upon-Thames, William Lindsey Sampson, The story of Kingston, Michael Lancet Pratt, Great Waterways Journeys, Bloomsbury, ISBN 9781472905840 Atkinson, Highway Maintenance Handbook, Thomas Telford, ISBN 9780727725318 Malcolmson, Popular Recreations in English Society 1700–1850, CUP Archive, ISBN 9780521295956 Pecorelli.

Ultra Jump

Ultra Jump is a Japanese monthly seinen manga magazine published by Shueisha under the Jump line of magazines. The magazine was a special issue of Weekly Young Jump, first issued in 1995. On October 19, 1999, the special issue became the new monthly publication Ultra Jump; the manga titles serialized in the magazine are published in tankōbon volumes under the Young Jump Comics Ultra label. Ultra Jump started as a special issue of the seinen anthology Weekly Young Jump called "Young Jump: Ultra Special Issue: Ultra Jump", first issued in 1995; the magazine was split to a monthly publication in 1999 called "Ultra Jump". On March 19, 2008, Ultra Jump released an online spin-off of the Ultra Jump magazine: "Young Jump: Ultra Special Issue: Ultra Jump". Ultra Jump Egg is an online manga website that serializes manga not in the original Ultra Jump magazine; the magazine has been known for fanservice-laden fantasy and science-fiction stories aimed at young adults. Shueisha's light novel line, "Super Dash Bunko", has close ties with the Ultra Jump magazine, as Ultra Jump supports the line by creating manga adaptions of the titles.

One-shots from manga writers are featured and are called Special One-Shot. Each issue include a special giveaway item featuring one or more series running in the magazine. There are twenty-two manga titles being serialized in Ultra Jump. Out of twenty-two series, five series are in hiatus. Weekly Shonen Jump Shueisha's Ultra Jump page Shueisha's Ultra Jump Egg page Ultra Jump at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Gifford High School

Gifford High School is a government-owned boys-only high school in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The school was founded in 1927 as the Bulawayo Technical School led by Mr Philip Henry Gifford and four teachers, with an enrolment of 39 pupils. 1927 - Bulawayo Technical School Established, Philip Henry Gifford appointed Headmaster 1929 - The new School building was opened 1931 - High School status achieved, Founder of the Old Technicians’ Association 1933 - Beit Hall was presented by the Trust 1947 - Henry John Sutherby appointed Headmaster 1953 - Andrew Hart appointed Headmaster, Move to Matopos Road opposite to the Zimbabwe International Trade Fair Showgrounds 1961 - Donald Robert White appointed Headmaster, The Bulawayo Technical School becomes Gifford Technical High School 1962 - Philip Henry Gifford dies, 1967 - Ivor John McLachlan appointed Headmaster 1974 - Harry Fincham appointed Headmaster, McLachlan Pool named in honour of Headmaster Ivor John McLachlan 1974 - School renamed Gifford High School as a result of its change to a comprehensive high school offering the same range of subjects as other high schools.

1976 - Old South Field renamed the Sutherby Field in honour of Headmaster Henry John Sutherby. Andrew Hart Field named in honour of Headmaster Andrew Hart 1977 - Jubilee celebrations 1983 - Anthony Menne appointed Headmaster 2003 - Siziba appointed Headmaster 2006 - Moyo appointed Headmaster 2009 - J. T. Nzima appointed Headmaster 2015 - Harry Fincham, former headmaster, dies in Brisbane, Australia; the School's colours are maroon and silver, the motto is Hinc Orior meaning “from here I arise”, or, more “from these beginnings my formed mind springs.” These colours were registered in 1957. The school is administered by the Gifford High School Development Association in terms of Statutory instrument 379 of 1998 – Education Government Schools) Regulations The SDA is composed of parents or legal guardians of pupils enrolled at school and Teachers employed by the school; the affairs of school are administered by an Executive Committee of the SDA which has a minimum of 7 and maximum of 11 members, with a duration of office 1 year.

Office bearers are elected at an AGM by April of each year. SDA meetings are convened by the Executive Committee or at least one third of the members of the SDA. Voting decisions at SDA meetings are by majority or secret ballot if ten or more members request this. Fiscal year is calendar year ending 31 December. Athletics Basketball Cricket Rugby Soccer Tennis Volleyball Gifford High School alumni are referred to as "Old Technicians", the name being derived from the original Bulawayo Technical School name. Notable alumni include: Brian Davison, cricketer John Love, racing driver Gary Hocking, motorcycle racing rider Oscar Bonginkosi Mdlongwa,"Oskido" musician Ronald Hill, Springbok Rugby player Gifford Technical High School Old Boy's Contact List

Vasily Pashkevich

Vasily Alexeyevich Pashkevich Paskevich was a Russian composer, singer and teacher who lived during the time of Catherine the Great. Vasily Pashkevich entered court service in 1756 becoming a court composer to Tsar Peter III of Russia and to his widow, Catherine the Great, he played violin, taught singing in the Academy of Arts 1773-1774 and in the court capella. Between 1780 and 1783 he managed the Karl Kniper Theatre and in 1789 he became the first violin of the court orchestra, remaining in charge of imperial ballroom music until his death. Pashkevich wrote important comic operas re-working them at length, like Saint-Petersburg's Trade Stalls, begun in 1782 and revised in 1792, As you live you will be judged; the comic opera The Miser a work of 17 scenes brought him most success. Its roles are: Liubima's guardian. Accordingly the speech and the names of the characters of Molière's comedy were turned into Russian as well as the music that combines some features of European form with Russian melodies.

Catherine had literary ambitions, Pashkevich was asked to set one of her own opera libretti for performance at the royal court. The result of this, opera Fevey, was staged on April 19, 1786 at the Hermitage Theatre in St. Petersburg; the lavish opera production evoked widespread admiration. Despite the success of Pashkevich's work during his years serving under Catherine II, his contributions were not appreciated by the Empress's heirs, who terminated his services and denied him a pension, his style is similar to Italian opera buffa, but unlike them, the comic situations of his works are overshadowed by vaguely tragic scenes. His operas are full of citations of popular songs, that become one of the important characteristics of the great 19th-century Russian opera. Misfortune from Owning a Coach Saint-Petersburg's Bazaar, revised as You'll be Known by the Way you Live The Burden Is Not Heavy if It Is Yours Two Antons The Miser Fevey The Early Reign of Oleg Fedul and his Children The Pasha of Tunis Song Masses and other liturgical works.

"I never saw anything more diverse and magnificent! There were more than 500 actors performing on stage for just a handful of people. There were a maximum of 50 people watching the whole thing, and, because the Empress restricts the access to her Hermitage" C10 06853-56. Pashkevich, Vasili. Скупой. Vladimir Agronsky. Chamber Orchestra of Moscow Chamber Musical Theater USSR: Melodiya. Stereo. Produced by Boris Pokrovsky Russkoe barokko - Zolotaya klassika Label: RCD Music RCD 30649 Year of production: 2003, Year of recording: 2003, Baroque Chamber Ensemble. Including:Vasily Pashkevich. Overture to the opera Fevey Allegro C major 2:51 Vasily Pashkevich. Aria of Tsaritsa from the opera Fevey 2:56 Vasily Pashkevich. Overture to the opera Fedul s det'mi Allegro C major 2:50 Opera in Russia in the 18th century Russian opera Warrack and West, The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5 CD information The Voice of Russia article on 18th century composers The Voice of Russia article on Russian music Free scores by Vasily Pashkevich at the International Music Score Library Project