Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
Second Seminole War
The Second Seminole War known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars. The Second Seminole War referred to as the Seminole War, is regarded as "the longest and most costly of the Indian conflicts of the United States." Bands from various tribes in the southeastern United States had moved into the unoccupied lands in Florida in the 18th century. These included Alabamas, Yamasees and Creek people; the Creeks were the largest group, included Lower Creeks and Upper Creeks, both Hitchiti and Muscogee speakers. One group of Hitchiti speakers, the Mikasuki, settled around what is now Lake Miccosukee near Tallahassee. Another group of Hitchiti speakers settled around the Alachua Prairie in; the Spanish in St. Augustine began calling the Alachua Creeks Cimarrones, which meant "wild ones" or "runaways", and, the probable origin of "Seminole".
This name was also applied to the other groups in Florida, although the Native Americans still regarded themselves as members of different tribes. Other groups in Florida at the time of the Seminole Wars included "Spanish Indians", so called because it was believed that they were descended from Calusas, "rancho Indians", persons of Native American ancestry both Calusa and Creek, mixed Native American/Spanish ancestry, living at Spanish/Cuban fishing camps on the Florida coast; the United States and Spain were at odds over Florida after the Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolutionary War and returned East and West Florida to Spanish control. The United States disputed the boundaries of West Florida, they accused the Spanish authorities of harboring fugitive slaves and of failing to restrain the Native Americans living in Florida from raiding into the United States. Starting in 1810, the United States annexed parts of West Florida. In 1818 Andrew Jackson led an invasion of the Floridas; the United States acquired Florida from Spain through the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1819 and took possession of the territory in 1821.
Now that Florida belonged to the United States, settlers pressured the government to remove the Seminoles. In 1823 the government negotiated the Treaty of Moultrie Creek with the Seminoles, establishing a reservation for them in the middle of the territory. Six chiefs, were allowed to keep their villages along the Apalachicola River; the Seminoles gave up their lands in the panhandle and settled into the reservation, although they had isolated clashes with whites. Colonel Duncan Lamont Clinch was placed in charge of the Army units in Florida. Fort King was built at the site of present-day Ocala, Florida. By early 1827 the Army reported that the Seminoles were on the reservation and Florida was peaceful; this peace lasted for five years, during which time there were repeated calls for the Seminoles to be sent west of the Mississippi. The Seminoles were opposed to the move, to the suggestion that they should be placed on the Creek reservation. Most whites regarded the Seminoles as Creeks who had moved to Florida, while the Seminoles claimed Florida as their home and denied that they had any connection with the Creeks.
The status of runaway slaves was a continuing irritation between whites. Spain had given freedom to slaves who escaped to Florida under their rule, although the US did not recognize it. Over the years, those who became known as Black Seminoles established communities near Seminole villages, the two peoples had close alliances although they maintained separate cultures. Slave catchers argued over the ownership of slaves. New plantations in Florida increased the pool of slaves. Worried about the possibility of an Indian uprising and/or an armed slave rebellion, Governor DuVal requested additional Federal troops for Florida. Instead, Fort King was closed in 1828; the Seminoles, short of food and finding the hunting becoming poorer on the reservation, were wandering off of it more often. In 1828, Andrew Jackson, the old enemy of the Seminoles, was elected President of the United States. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, they wanted to solve the problems with the Seminoles by moving them to west of the Mississippi River.
In the spring of 1832 the Seminoles on the reservation were called to a meeting at Payne's Landing on the Oklawaha River. The treaty negotiated there called for the Seminoles to move west, if the land was found to be suitable, they were to become part of the Creek tribe. The delegation of seven chiefs who were to inspect the new reservation did not leave Florida until October 1832. After touring the area for several months and conferring with the Creeks, settled there, on March 28, 1833 the seven chiefs signed a statement that the new land was acceptable. Upon their return to Florida, most of the chiefs renounced the statement, claiming that they had not signed it, or that they had been forced to sign it, they said they did not have the power to decide for all the tribes and bands that resided on the reservation. Some U. S. Army officers claimed that the chiefs had been "wheedled and bullied into signing." Others noted "there is evidence of trickery by the whites in the way the treaty is phrased."
The members of the villages in the area of the Apalachicola River were more persuaded, however, as they suffered more encroachment from European Americans. The Unit
Battle of Fort George
The Battle of Fort George was a battle fought during the War of 1812, in which the Americans defeated a British force and captured Fort George in Upper Canada. The troops of the United States Army and vessels of the United States Navy cooperated in a successful amphibious assault, although most of the opposing British force escaped encirclement. Fort George was the westernmost of the British fortified posts on Lake Ontario, the others being York, the provincial capital of Upper Canada, Kingston, where most of the ships of the Provincial Marine were based. Fort George was situated on the western bank of the Niagara River near its mouth. On the American side of the river lay Fort Niagara. Fort George was constructed to replace and counterbalance Fort Niagara, which the British lost to the Americans after Jay's Treaty in the year 1796. At the beginning of the war both the British forces near Fort George and the American forces at Fort Niagara felt unprepared for conflict. On May 18, 1812 Sir George Prévost, the Governor General of the Canadas, wrote a letter in response to the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, inquiring about the military situation in Canada.
He stated that there were 400 soldiers of the 41st Regiment and a Captain's Command of Artillery stationed at Fort George. He wrote that he felt Fort George would not be able to withstand an attack by the Americans if they came with a considerable force. On the American side, Colonel Philetus Swift and Benjamin Barton wrote before the war to the Governor of New York, Daniel Tompkins, that Fort Niagara would fall to the British if a war were to be declared. By July 1812 however, the American commander at Fort Niagara was expecting a British attack and was demanding more reinforcements. On October 8, 1812 Major General Stephen Van Rensselaer of the New York state militia outlined a plan of attack to send a militia force from Lewiston to attack Queenston which would force the British to send soldiers from Fort George to Queenston; when that happened, a force of U. S. Regulars commanded by Brigadier General Alexander Smyth were to travel by boat from Four Mile Creek to the rear of Fort George and capture the fort.
This plan failed to materialize in part. An attempt to carry out the plan on the night of October 10/11 was thwarted by bad weather. Smyth marched his detachment back to New York. Van Rensselaer attacked Queenston with the troops he had at Lewiston on the night of October 13/14, without Smyth's troops. During the ensuing Battle of Queenston Heights, the guns of Fort George and Fort Niagara began to fire at the opposite fort. During the exchange the Americans ended up burning the court house and fifteen or sixteen other buildings. During this battle Fort George was left under the control of Major Evans and there were no more than twenty soldiers acting as the main guards; the Americans drafted a new plan on February 10, 1813. The plan was to attack Kingston York from Sackets Harbor with 4,000 soldiers. Only were they to assault Fort George. 3,000 soldiers from Buffalo, New York were to capture Fort Erie march on Fort George. This plan was changed to avoid Kingston because Major General Henry Dearborn, commander of the United States armies on the frontier with Canada, believed there were 6,000 to 8,000 British soldiers at Kingston due to a false report.
On April 27, the Americans on Lake Ontario under Dearborn and Commodore Isaac Chauncey gained success at the Battle of York, occupying the town for several days and capturing many guns and stores, although Brigadier General Zebulon Pike and several dozen soldiers were killed by an exploding magazine. The American army was transported across the lake in Chauncey's ships to Fort Niagara. Dearborn planned to attack Fort George next. No preparations had been made to accommodate the troops at Fort Niagara, they suffered considerable shortages and privations for several days. In particular, the wounded were left without medical attention. On May 15, Colonel Winfield Scott took up his appointment as Dearborn's Adjutant General, having been exchanged after being captured at the Battle of Queenston Heights in the previous year. Scott pushed forward the plans for the forthcoming attack. At the same time, Master Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry of the United States Navy, who had arrived from Lake Erie to request sailors and supplies for his squadron and was temporarily serving as one of Chauncey's senior officers, reconnoitred the landing sites at the mouth of the Niagara River, taking bearings and placing marker buoys.
At Fort George, the Americans planned to land on the shore of the lake rather than on the shore of the Niagara River. The troops would be supported as they landed by twelve schooners, each mounting one or more heavy cannon, which could approach the shore closely. Two larger vessels, the corvette Madison and the brig Oneida would engage the nearest British batteries; the American army numbered 4,000 regular infantry. The force was divided into four waves; the first wave was to be commanded by Scott himself, the second by Brigadier General John Parker Boyd, a professional soldier, the third by Brigadier General William H. Winder, a commissioned lawyer. A brigade under a political appointee, Brigadier General John Chandler, formed the reserve, together with most of the artillery under Colonel Alexander Macomb; the Army's second-in-command, Major General Morgan Lewis, was nominally in overall command of the landing force. Dearborn, the commander in chief, would observ
Siege of Veracruz
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican–American War. Lasting from March 9–29, 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, ended with the surrender and occupation of the city. U. S. forces marched inland to Mexico City. After the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista, much of Zachary Taylor's Army of Occupation was transferred to the command of Major General Winfield Scott in support of the upcoming campaign; that campaign, determined by Scott and other Washington officials, would be a Veracruz landing and an advance inland. Mexican military intelligence knew in advance of U. S. plans to attack Veracruz, but internal government turmoil left them powerless to send crucial reinforcements before the American assault commenced. Veracruz was considered to be the strongest fortress in North America at the time. Brigadier General Juan Esteban Morales commanded a garrison of 3,360 men which manned three major forts guarding Veracruz: Fort Santiago – south end of town Fort Concepción – north top of town These two forts included 3,360 men and 89 guns: artillery, 2d and 8th infantry regiments, 3d Light Regiment, a picket of 11th Regt.
Puebla Libres, Veracruz and Tehuantepec national guards. Battalions and enlisted marines. Fort San Juan de Ulúa – offshore on the Gallega Reef. Gen. Jose Durán with 1,030 men and 135 guns: artillery and Jamiltepec activo battalions, companies of Tuxpan and Alvardo activo battalions. See Orders of Battle Mexican War; the Americans arrived at Veracruz in early March. Scott agreed with Conner's suggestion for a landing site at Collado Beach, 3 mi south of Veracruz; the 1st Regular Division under Worth was chosen to make the landing first, followed by Patterson's volunteers and Twiggs' regular division. Conner's Mosquito Fleet moved to within 90 yd of the beach to supply covering fire if necessary. By 12:15 pm on 9 March, this force was off Collado Beach, followed by larger vessels over the next three hours and a signal for landing the surfboats at 5:30 pm. Just before the main force touched the beach, a gig dashed ahead, General Worth with his staff jumped ashore. Worth's whole division landed without receiving a single shot.
By 11 pm, Scott's entire army had been brought ashore without a single man lost, the first large scale amphibious landing conducted by the U. S. military was a success. Once ashore Patterson's division began marching northward to effect a complete envelopment of the city. One of Patterson's brigades under Gideon Pillow drove off a Mexican cavalry at Malibrán, cutting off the Alvarado road and the city's water supply. Quitman and Shields managed to drive off cavalry with one shot attempting to prevent the investment. By 13 March, the U. S. had completed a 7 mi siege line from Collado in the south to Playa Vergara in the north. On 17 March, siege lines were dug for Scott's siege artillery, sufficient for taking the city but not Ulua; the besiegers were plagued by sorties from the city, Col. Juan Aguayo used the cover of a storm to slip his Alvarado garrison into Veracruz. Commodore Matthew C. Perry, Conner's successor, returned from Norfolk, Virginia after making repairs on the USS Mississippi, on 20 March.
Perry and Conner met with Scott regarding the Navy's role in the siege, offered six guns that were to be manned by sailors from the ships. The naval battery was constructed under the direction of Captain Robert E. Lee 700 yd from the city walls. On March 22, Morales declined a surrender demand from Scott, the American batteries opened fire at 4:15 pm followed by those of Commander Josiah Tattnall's Mosquito Fleet at 5:45 pm; the Naval battery's heavy cannonballs broke the coral walls. Congreve rockets were fired into the defenses and the combined fire forced the abandonment of Fort Santiago as Mexican morale began to drop. On March 24, Persifor F. Smith's brigade captured a Mexican soldier with reports that Antonio López de Santa Anna was marching an army from Mexico City to the relief of Veracruz. Scott dispatched Colonel William S. Harney with 100 dragoons to inspect any approaches that Santa Anna might make. Harney reported about 2,000 Mexicans and a battery not far away, he called for reinforcements.
General Patterson led a mixed group of volunteers and dragoons to Harney's aid and cleared the force from their positions, chasing them to Madellin. Scott made plans for an assault on the city when on 25 March, the Mexicans called for a cease-fire to evacuate women and children which Scott refused; that night, Morales' council of war advised surrender prompting Morales to resign while General José Juan Landero assumed command. A truce was called at 8 am on 26 March while terms of surrender were negotiated and concluded by 27 March. On 29 March, the Mexicans surrendered their garrisons in Veracruz and Fort Ulúa and that day, the U. S. flag flew over San Juan de Ulúa. The obstacle to an advancement to Mexico City was removed and Scott made immediate plans to leave a small garrison at Veracruz and march inland, his first objective being Jalapa. Along the way, Scott would in fact encounter a sizable Mexican army under Santa Anna at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Battles of the Mexican–American War List of amphibious assault operations San Carlos Fortress A Continent Divided: The U.
S.–Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington Aztec Club of 1847 annotated art gallery
Hudson, New York
Hudson is a city located along the west border of Columbia County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 6,713, the second-largest in the county, following the nearby town of Kinderhook. Located on the east side of the Hudson River and 120 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, it was named for the river and its namesake explorer Henry Hudson. Hudson is the county seat of Columbia County. Hudson is sister city with Uganda. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles. 2.2 square miles of it is land and 0.15 square miles, or 7.38%, is water. Hudson is located 120 miles from New York Harbor, at the head of navigation on the Hudson River, on what was a spit of land jutting into the Hudson River between the South Bay and North Bay. Both bays have been filled in. Across the Hudson River lies the town of Athens in New York. Between them lies Middle Ground Flats, a former sandbar that grew due to both natural silting and from dumping the spoils of dredging.
The Town of Greenport borders the other three sides of the city. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,713 people, 2,766 households, 1,368 families residing in the city; the population was estimated at 6,648 in 2013. These numbers include the 360 residents of the local Hudson Correctional Facility. Population declines since the late 20th century may be attributable to demographic trends in which retirees, young couples, childless couples and weekenders have been replacing larger families in the city, they have converted apartment buildings to single-family homes, the number of unoccupied homes and rate of tax delinquency have declined. The population density was 3,110.8 inhabitants per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.0% White, 25.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 7.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.2% of the population. There were 2,766 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.6% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.5% were non-families.
40.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,117, the median income for a family was $37,400. Males had a median income of $26,274 versus $22,598 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,353. About 23.0% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 19.1% of those age 65 or over. The native Mahican people had occupied this territory for hundreds of years before European encounter, preceded by thousands of years of indigenous cultures.
Dutch colonists began to settle here in the 17th century, calling it "Claverack Landing", having other settlements in Manhattan and at Albany, downriver and up, respectively. In 1662 some Dutch bought this area of land from the Mahican, it was part of the Town of Claverack. After the English took over New Netherland, this area was settled by Quaker New England whalers and merchants hailing from the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard in Massachusetts, Providence, Rhode Island, they capitalized on Hudson being at the head of navigation on the Hudson River and developed it as a busy port. Hudson was chartered as a city in 1785, soon after the United States achieved independence from Great Britain; the self-described "Proprietors" laid out a city grid. Hudson grew as an active port and came within one vote of being named by the state legislature as the capital of New York state, losing to Albany, an historic center of trade from the 17th century. Hudson grew and by 1790 was the 24th-largest city in the United States.
In 1820, it had a population of 5310, ranked as the fourth-largest city in New York, after New York City and Brooklyn. Construction of the Erie Canal in 1824 drew development west in the state, stimulating development of cities related to Great Lakes trade, such as Rochester and Buffalo, although the Hudson River continued to be important to commerce. During the 19th century, considerable industry was developed in Hudson, the city became known as a factory town, it attracted new waves of migrants to industrial jobs. Wealthy factory owners and merchants built fine houses in the Victorian period. Hudson obtained a new charter in 1895, it reached its peak of population with 12,337 residents. In 1935, to celebrate the sesquicentennial of the city, the United States Mint issued the Hudson Half Dollar; the coin is one of the most rare minted by the United States Government, with only 10,008 coins struck. On the front of the coin is an image of Henry Hudson's ship the Half Moon, on the reverse is the seal of the city.
Local legend has it that coin was minted on the direct order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to thank the Hudson City Democratic Committee for being the first to endorse him for state senator and governor. In the late 19th and first half of the 20th century, Hudson became no
Madison Square and Madison Square Park
Madison Square is a public square formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The square was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States; the focus of the square is Madison Square Park, a 6.2-acre public park, bounded on the east by Madison Avenue. The park and the square are at the northern end of the Flatiron District neighborhood of Manhattan; the neighborhood to the north and west of the park is NoMad and to the north and east is Rose Hill. Madison Square is best known around the world for providing the name of Madison Square Garden, a sports arena and its successor which were located just northeast of the park for 47 years, until 1925; the current Madison Square Garden, the fourth such building, is not in the area. Notable buildings around Madison Square include the Flatiron Building, the Toy Center, the New York Life Building, the New York Merchandise Mart, the Appellate Division Courthouse, the Met Life Tower, One Madison Park, a 50-story condominium tower.
The area where Madison Square is now had been a swampy hunting ground crossed by Cedar Creek –, renamed Madison Creek – from east to west, first came into use as a public space in 1686. It was a Potter's Field in the 1700s. In 1807, "The Parade", a tract of about 240 acres from 23rd to 34th Streets and Third to Seventh Avenues, was set aside for use as an arsenal, a barracks, a drilling area. There was a United States Army arsenal there from 1811 until 1825 when it became the New York House of Refuge for the Society for the Protection of Juvenile Delinquents, for children under sixteen committed by the courts for indefinite periods. In 1839 the building was destroyed by fire; the size of the tract was reduced in 1814 to 90 acres, it received its current name. In 1839, a farmhouse located at what is now Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street was turned into a roadhouse under the direction of William "Corporal" Thompson, who renamed it "Madison Cottage", after the former president; the roadhouse was the last stop for people traveling northward out of the city, or the first stop for those arriving from the north.
Though Madison Cottage itself was razed in 1852, but it gave rise to the names for the adjacent avenue and park, which are therefore only indirectly named after President James Madison. The roots of the New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, one of the first professional baseball teams, are in Madison Square. Amateur players began in 1842 to use a vacant sandlot at 27th and Madison for their games and Alexander Cartwright suggested they draw up rules for the game and start a professional club; when they lost their sandlot to development, they moved across the Hudson River to Hoboken, New Jersey, where they played their first game in 1846. On May 10, 1847, the 6.2-acre Madison Square Park, named after President James Madison, opened to the public. Within a few years, the tide of residential development, relentlessly moving uptown, had reached the Madison Square area; the houses around the park were narrow and dark brownstone rowhouses with small rooms subject to becoming cluttered. Today, the only remnant of these brownstones is a single building at 14 East 23rd Street.
Despite this beginning, through the 1870s, the neighborhood became an aristocratic one of brownstone row houses and mansions where the elite of the city lived. Madison Cottage was torn down in 1852 to make way for Franconi's Hippodrome, which lasted only for two years, it was an arena which seated 10,000 customers, presented chariot races on its 40-foot wide track, as well as exotic animals such as elephants and camels. A money-loser, it would be razed. In 1853, plans had been made to build the Crystal Palace there, but strong public opposition and protests caused the palace to be relocated by the Board of Aldermen to the site of present-day Bryant Park. During the 1863 New York City draft riots, 10,000 Federal troops brought in to control the rioters encamped in Madison Square and Washington Square, as well as Stuyvesant Square. Madison Square was the site in November 1864 of a political rally, complete with torchlight parade and fireworks, in support of the presidential candidacy of Democrat General George B.
McClellan, running against his old boss, Abraham Lincoln. It was larger than the Republican parade the night before, which had marched from Madison Square to Union Square to rally there; the Fifth Avenue Hotel, a luxury hotel built by developer Amos Eno, known as "Eno's Folly" because it was so far away from the hotel district, stood on the west side of Madison Square from 1859 to 1908. It was the first hotel in the nation with elevators, which were steam powered and known as the "vertical railroad", which had the effect of making the upper floors more desirable as they no longer had to be reached by climbing stairs, it had fireplaces in every bedroom, private bathrooms, public rooms which saw many elegant events. Notable visitors to the hotel included Mark Twain, Swedish singer Jenny Lind, railroad tycoon Jay Gould, financier "Big Jim" Fisk, the Prince of Wales and U. S. Presidents James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A