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William Jones (philologist)

Sir William Jones FRS FRSE was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, a scholar of ancient India known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indo-Aryan languages, which he coined as Indo-European. Jones is credited for establishing the Asiatic Society of Bengal in the year 1784. William Jones was born in London at Beaufort Westminster; the young William Jones was a linguistic prodigy, who in addition to his native languages English and Welsh, learned Greek, Persian, Arabic and the basics of Chinese writing at an early age. By the end of his life he knew eight languages with critical thoroughness, was fluent in a further eight, with a dictionary at hand, had a fair competence in another twelve. Jones' father died when he was aged three, his mother Mary Nix Jones raised him, he was sent to Harrow School in September 1753 and went on to University College, Oxford. He graduated there in 1768 and became M.

A. in 1773. Financially constrained, he took a position tutoring the seven-year-old Lord Althorp, son of Earl Spencer. For the next six years he worked as a translator. During this time he published Histoire de Nader Chah, a French translation of a work written in Persian by Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi; this was done at the request of King Christian VII of Denmark: he had visited Jones, who by the age of 24 had acquired a reputation as an orientalist. This would be the first of numerous works on Persia and the Middle East in general. In 1770, Jones joined the Middle Temple and studied law for three years, a preliminary to his life-work in India, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 30 April 1772. After a spell as a circuit judge in Wales, a fruitless attempt to resolve the conflict that led to the American Revolution in concert with Benjamin Franklin in Paris, he was appointed puisne judge to the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Calcutta, Bengal on 4 March 1783, on 20 March he was knighted.

In April 1783 he married Anna Maria Shipley, the eldest daughter of Dr. Jonathan Shipley, Bishop of Llandaff and Bishop of St Asaph. Anna Maria used her artistic skills to help Jones document life in India. On 25 September 1783 he arrived in Calcutta. Jones was a friend of American independence, his work, The principles of government. In the Subcontinent he was entranced by Indian culture, an as-yet untouched field in European scholarship, on 15 January 1784 he founded the Asiatic Society in Calcutta and started a journal called Asiatick Researches, he studied the Vedas with Rāmalocana, a pandit teaching at the Nadiya Hindu university, becoming a proficient Sanskritist. Jones kept up a ten-year correspondence on the topic of jyotisa or Hindu astronomy with fellow orientalist Samuel Davis, he learnt the ancient concept of Hindu Laws from Pandit Jagannath Tarka Panchanan. Over the next ten years he would produce a flood of works on India, launching the modern study of the subcontinent in every social science.

He wrote on the local laws, literature and geography, made the first English translations of several important works of Indian literature. Sir William Jones sometimes went by the nom de plume Youns Uksfardi; this pen name can be seen on the inner front cover of his Persian Grammar published in 1771. He is buried in South Park Street Cemetery. Jones is known today for making and propagating the observation about relationships between the Indo-European languages. In his Third Anniversary Discourse to the Asiatic Society he suggested that Sanskrit and Latin languages had a common root, that indeed they may all be further related, in turn, to Gothic and the Celtic languages, as well as to Persian. Although his name is associated with this observation, he was not the first to make it. In the 16th century, European visitors to India became aware of similarities between Indian and European languages and as early as 1653 Van Boxhorn had published a proposal for a proto-language for Germanic, Greek, Slavic and Iranian.

In a memoir sent to the French Academy of Sciences in 1767 Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, a French Jesuit who spent all his life in India, had demonstrated the existing analogy between Sanskrit and European languages. In 1786 Jones postulated a proto-language uniting Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Celtic, but in many ways his work was less accurate than his predecessors', as he erroneously included Egyptian and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindustani and SlavicNevertheless, Jones' third annual discourse before the Asiatic Society on the history and culture of the Hindus with the famed "philologer" passage is cited as the beginning of comparative linguistics and Indo-European studies; the Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure.

Guilt Trip (song)

"Guilt Trip" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Kanye West, from his sixth studio album Yeezus. It was produced by Mike Dean, S1, Travis Scott and Ackeejuice Rockers; the song's lyrics deal with looking back at a failed relationship, similar to fellow Yeezus track "Blood on the Leaves". West provides his vocals through rapping and singing through an Auto-Tune processor, reminiscent of his 2008 album 808s & Heartbreak; the song includes vocals from rapper Kid Cudi, who expressed negative opinions about his feature due to his vocals being recorded years prior. It contains samples of "Chief Rocka" by Lords of the Underground and "Blocka" by Pusha T featuring Popcaan and Travis Scott. Since release, "Guilt Trip" has received positive reviews from music critics, with multiple commenting on its melodic sound. By debuting at number 2 on the US Billboard Bubbling Under R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, the song had the lowest debut from the album in the United States out of all of the tracks. West performed the song live on The Yeezus Tour in 2013.

In October 2014, producer S1 revealed that he created the song's beat during sessions for West's collaboration album Watch the Throne with Jay-Z, who revealed that the song was intended for that album. After being passed on for that album, West revisited the song during the Yeezus sessions, reworking it with S1 and Mike Dean, adding it to the final tracklist for Yeezus. West and Kid Cudi had collaborated on numerous tracks in the past, including the former's "Welcome to Heartbreak" and the latter's "Erase Me". West began to use Auto-Tune on a regular basis with the release of his album 808s & Heartbreak in 2008, it came to define the sound of West's music, with him using his own voice as an "instrument." The song's combining of hip hop with experimental music focuses on lyrics as being of a lesser importance, which West did again in his 2016 single "Fade". "Guilt Trip" is a hip hop song. The song, like other tracks on Yeezus, sees West looking back at a failed relationship, he delivers only one verse using the same rhyme scheme for over half of it, during which he namechecks several cultural references, including Jamaican dancehall musician Shabba Ranks, the song "Chief Rocka" by hip hop trio Lords of the Underground, Star Wars character Chewbacca.

On top of "Chief Rocka", the song contains a sample of "Blocka" by rapper Pusha T featuring Popcaan and Travis Scott. The song's outro is sung by Kid Cudi, who asks the question, "If you loved me so much why'd you let me go?" West's reference to Chewbacca is one of numerous times the Star Wars franchise has been referenced in music. "Guilt Trip" was released on June 2013, as the eighth track on West's sixth studio album Yeezus. The song received positive reviews from music critics, with the melodic sound garnering praise; the melody at the end of the song was described by Lou Reed of the Velvet Underground, as "so beautiful, it makes me so emotional, it brings tears to my eyes." When comparing the track to "Blood on the Leaves", the staff of Popdust described it as being "even closer to the'Say You Will' or'See You in My Nightmares' feel of 808s & Heartbreak LP." The site praised West's verse and Kid Cudi's cameo, calling it "well-placed," concluding: "'Blood on the Leaves' might have the showier setup, but in the end, "Guilt Trip" is arguably the more moving song."

The staff of Billboard looked at the track's position on the album as "a brief thumper with Kanye once again looking back at a failed relationship" and claimed for his vocals to be "delivered as a hybrid of raps and singing."In an interview with Complex in February 2014, Kid Cudi revealed he had negative feelings about his feature, due to the vocals being a few years old. He revealed West never told him he was going to be on the song, he stated he felt "underused" on Yeezus and wished he wasn't on the song, due to him not being present at the recording sessions. Despite Kid Cudi's negative feelings toward his appearance, Charles Holmes of Complex placed the song at number two on the magazine's list of the best collaborations between West and Kid Cudi in August 2017, behind the 2010 song "Gorgeous". Holmes felt that the song "perfected" what the duo introduced on West's 2008 album 808s & Heartbreak – "an entire sub-genre of rap with their melodic and heartfelt lyrics." Holmes felt Kid Cudi wasn't underused, writing: "If time has taught us anything it is that in Kanye's hand 50 seconds of Cudi hums and melodic ruminations speak more than some artist's entire careers."

Though a critical success, "Guilt Trip" didn't perform well commercially, standing as the lowest debut in the United States out of all ten of the album's songs. On the week of July 6, 2013, the song peaked at number 2 on the US Billboard Bubbling Under R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, remaining on it for a total of two weeks; the same week, it peaked at number 39 on the US Billboard On-Demand Songs chart. The song was performed live by West during the first concert of The Yeezus Tour at Seattle's KeyArena in October 2013; the next month, West performed it at the first concert in New York City on the tour at the Barclays Center. In December 2013, he delivered a live performance of "Guilt Trip" at the New Orleans Arena as part of The Yeezus Tour. During the performance, anonymous female figures wearing robes braided themselves around him; the figures were involved with West's performance of "I Am a God" during the concert, holding him al

2018 Intercontinental Cup (India)

The 2018 Intercontinental Cup was a 4-team association football tournament held at the Mumbai Football Arena in the Indian city of Mumbai between 1 and 10 June 2018. The tournament was organized by the AIFF as part of the senior men's team's preparation for 2019 AFC Asian Cup. India won the tournament by defeating Kenya 2–0 in the final on 10 June 2018; the FIFA Rankings, as of 1 June 2018: India Kenya Chinese Taipei New Zealand Initially, South Africa was announced to participate in the tournament but Kenya replaced them when South Africa expressed its inability to participate. The other two nations participated in the tournament were Chinese Taipei from AFC region and New Zealand from the OFC region. After a poor attendance of 2,569 for the first match of the tournament, Indian captain Sunil Chhetri uploaded a video on his Twitter and Instagram accounts pleading for Indians to attend Indian football matches. Chhetri's plea was endorsed by other sports people, including Indian cricket captain Virat Kohli, cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar, tennis player Sania Mirza.

People responded to the plea by booking tickets for India's upcoming game against Kenya, the game was sold out before the match day. The match was Chhetri's 100th cap for India in which he scored a brace, leading India to win 3–0; the tweet was awarded The Golden Tweet. Star Sports did broadcast for the 2018 Intercontinental Cup on Star Sports HD2 & Star Sports 2, it was streamed live on Hotstar and Jio TV. 8 goals Sunil Chhetri2 goals Jockins Atudo1 goal