William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson was a Scottish inventor who devised an early motion picture camera under the employment of Thomas Edison. William Kennedy Dickson was born on 3 August 1860 in Le Minihic-sur-Rance, France, his mother was Elizabeth Kennedy-Laurie. His father was James Waite Dickson, a Scottish artist and linguist. James Dickson claimed direct lineage from the painter William Hogarth, from Judge John Waite, the man who sentenced King Charles I to death. At age 19 in 1879, William Dickson wrote a letter to American inventor and entrepreneur Thomas Edison seeking employment, he was turned down. That same year Dickson, his mother, two sisters moved from Britain to Virginia. In 1883 he was hired to work at Edison's laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1888, Edison conceived of a device that would do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear". In October, Edison filed a preliminary claim, known as a caveat, with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. In March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, the Kinetoscope.
Dickson the Edison company's official photographer, was assigned to turn the concept into a reality. William Dickson invented the first, celluloid film, for this application, he slit a medium format roll film, 70 mm wide, in half lengthwise and perforated the resultant 35 mm film, a standard format, still in use to this day in cinema and photography. William Dickson and his team, at the Edison lab worked on the development of the Kinetoscope for several years; the first working prototype was unveiled in May 1891 and the design of system was finalised by the fall of 1892. The completed version of the Kinetoscope was unveiled at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on 9 May 1893. Not technically a projector system, it was a peep show machine showing a continuous loop of the film Dickson invented, lit by an Edison light source, viewed individually through the window of a cabinet housing its components; the Kinetoscope introduced the basic approach that would become the standard for all cinematic projection before the advent of video.
William Dickson and his team, created the illusion of movement, by conveying a strip of perforated film bearing sequential images, over a light source, with a high-speed shutter. They devised the Kinetograph, an innovative motion picture camera with rapid intermittent, or stop-and-go, film movement, to photograph movies for in-house experiments and commercial Kinetoscope presentations. William Dickson was the first person to make a film for the Pope, at the time his camera was blessed by Pope Leo XIII. In late 1894 or early 1895, William Dickson became an ad hoc advisor to the motion picture operation of the Latham brothers and Grey, their father, who ran one of the leading Kinetoscope exhibition companies. Seeking to develop a movie projector system, they hired former Edison employee Eugene Lauste at Dickson's suggestion. In April 1895, Dickson left Edison's joined the Latham outfit. Alongside Lauste, he helped devise what would become known as the Latham loop, allowing the photography and exhibition of much longer filmstrips than had been possible.
The team of former Edison associates brought to fruition the Eidoloscope projector system, which would be used in the first commercial movie screening in world history on 20 May 1895. With the Lathams, Dickson was part of the group that formed the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, before he returned permanently to work in the United Kingdom in 1897. William Dickson left Edison's company and formed his own company that produced the mutoscope, a form of hand cranked peep show movie machine; these machines produced moving images, by means of a revolving drum of card illustrations, similar in concept to flip-books, taken from an actual piece of film. They were featured, at seaside locations, showing sequences of women undressing or acting as an artist's model. In Britain, they became known as "What the butler saw" machines, taking the name from one of the first and most famous softcore reels, his association with Biograph ended inexplicably in 1911. Dickson spent his last years in his house in Twickenham, England.
He died on September 28, 1935, at the age of 75. He died without being given credit for his contributions to the history of modern filmography. Dickson was the first to direct and star in a film with live recording. In 1894, he directed The Dickson Experimental Sound Film. A man played "The Song of the Cabin Boy" on the violin into a megaphone used for a off-camera phonograph; the film was the first to use the first device used in the earliest sound films. The Biograph in Battle.. History of the Kinetograph and Kinetophonograph An Authentic Life of Edison; the Life and Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison. Timeline, the history of editing.. The Dickson Experimental Sound Film Blacksmith Scene Fred Ott's Sneeze Edison's Black Maria List of people on stamps of the United States Eugene Lauste List of William Kennedy Dickson films John Barnes, Filming the Boer War Eileen Bowser, The Transformation of Cinema, 1907–191
Miriam Susan Zach is a Iowa State University professor and musicologist residing in Gainesville, Florida known for her work in the study of women composers. Zach's published works in the area of female composers include a CD titled Hidden Treasures: 300 Years of Organ Music by Women Composers, released in 1998 and the textbook For the Birds: Women Composers Music History Speller, her collections of music and documentation about women composers formed the base of the International Women Composers' Library, a music history library of which Dr. Zach is the current director. Miriam Zach completed her undergraduate education at Northwestern University before moving on to graduate studies at the University of Chicago. Afterward, she left the United States and lived in Germany for 5 years, teaching piano at the Universität Bielefeld, she has taught music history and music and health courses at the University of Florida, where she held the position of Assistant Professor in the Honors Program. She is the Charles and Mary Sukup Endowed Artist in Organ in the Department of Music and Theatre at Iowa State University where she teaches organ and harpsichord as well as music history and music and architecture courses.
Dr. Zach has earned several awards for her professorship, she earned the honor of being Professor of the Year for 2000-2001 at the University of Florida, one of the largest colleges in the United States. Zach was honored with the prestigious title of Charles and Mary Sukup Endowed Artist in Organ at Iowa State University in 2016. MiriamZach.net
Ralegaon is one of the 288 constituencies of the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha and one of the seven which are located in the Yavatmal district. It is reserved for a Scheduled Tribe candidate. Ralegaon and Babhulgaon taluka falls under Ralegaon assembly constituency. Https://web.archive.org/web/20150107222257/https://ceo.maharashtra.gov.in/maplinks/Images/map077.jpg It is a part of the Yavatmal-Washim with adjoining Washim district along with five other Vidhan Sabha assembly constituencies, viz. Washim, Yavatmal and Pusad. Below is a list of the MLAs of the Ralegaon Assembly Constituency along with their party name: Ralegaon