William Kent was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century. He began his career as a painter, became Principal Painter in Ordinary or court painter, but his real talent was for design in various media. Kent introduced the Palladian style of architecture into England with the villa at Chiswick House, originated the'natural' style of gardening known as the English landscape garden at Chiswick, Stowe House in Buckinghamshire, Rousham House in Oxfordshire; as a landscape gardener he revolutionised the layout of estates, but had limited knowledge of horticulture. He complemented his houses and gardens with stately furniture for major buildings including Hampton Court Palace, Chiswick House, Devonshire House and Rousham. Kent was born in Bridlington and baptised, on 1 January 1686, as William Cant. Kent's career began as a sign and coach painter, encouraged to study art and architecture by his employer. A group of Yorkshire gentlemen sent Kent for a period of study in Rome, he set sail on 22 July 1709 from Deal, arriving at Livorno on 15 October.
By 18 November he was in Florence, staying there until April 1710 before setting off for Rome. In 1713 he was awarded the second medal in the second class for painting in the annual competition run by the Accademia di San Luca for his painting of A Miracle of S. Andrea Avellino, he met several important figures including Thomas Coke 1st Earl of Leicester, with whom he toured Northern Italy in the summer of 1714, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in Rome, for whom he painted some pictures, though no records survive. During his stay in Rome, he painted the ceiling of the church of San Giuliano dei Fiamminghi with the Apotheosis of St. Julian; the most significant meeting was between 3rd Earl of Burlington. Kent left Rome for the last time in the autumn of 1719, met Lord Burlington at Genoa, Kent journeying on to Paris, where Lord Burlington joined him for the final journey back to England before the end of the year; as a painter, he displaced Sir James Thornhill in decorating the new staterooms at Kensington Palace, London.
Kent started practising as an architect late, in the 1730s. He is better remembered as an architect of the revived Palladian style in England. Burlington gave him the task of editing The Designs of Inigo Jones... with some additional designs in the Palladian/Jonesian taste by Burlington and Kent, which appeared in 1727. As he rose through the royal architectural establishment, the Board of Works, Kent applied this style to several public buildings in London, for which Burlington's patronage secured him the commissions: the Royal Mews at Charing Cross, the Treasury buildings in Whitehall, the Horse Guards building in Whitehall; these neo-antique buildings were inspired as much by the architecture of Raphael and Giulio Romano as by Palladio. In country house building, major commissions for Kent were designing the interiors of Houghton Hall built by Colen Campbell for Sir Robert Walpole, but at Holkham Hall the most complete embodiment of Palladian ideals is still to be found. Walpole's son Horace described Kent as below mediocrity as a painter, a restorer of science as an architect and the father of modern gardening and inventor of an art.
A theatrically Baroque staircase and parade rooms in London, at 44 Berkeley Square, are notable. Kent's domed pavilions were erected at Euston Hall. Kent could provide sympathetic Gothic designs, free of serious antiquarian tendencies, when the context called, he worked on the house at 22 Arlington Street in St. James's, a district of the City of Westminster in central London from 1743, when it was commissioned by the newly elevated Prime Minister, Henry Pelham; when Kent died, the work was completed by Stephen Wright. As a landscape designer, Kent was one of the originators of the English landscape garden, a style of "natural" gardening that revolutionised the laying out of gardens and estates, his projects included Chiswick House, Buckinghamshire, from about 1730 onwards, designs for Alexander Pope's villa garden at Twickenham, for Queen Caroline at Richmond, notably at Rousham House, where he created a sequence of Arcadian set-pieces punctuated with temples, grottoes, Palladian bridges and exedra, opening the field for the larger scale achievements of Capability Brown in the following generation.
Smaller Kent works can be found at Shotover Park, including a faux Gothic eyecatcher and a domed pavilion. His all-but-lost gardens at Claremont, have been restored, it is said that he was not above planting dead trees to create the mood he required. Kent's only real downfall was said to be his lack of horticultural knowledge and technical skill, but his naturalistic style of design was his major contribution to the history of landscape design. Claremont and Rousham are places where their joint efforts can be viewed. Stowe and Rousham are Kent's most fa
"Wide Open" is the ninth episode of the first season of the American crime-thriller television series Millennium. It premiered on Fox on January 3, 1997; the episode was directed by Jim Charleston. "Wide Open" featured guest appearances by Roger Cross. Forensic profiler Frank Black, a member of the private investigative organisation Millennium Group, tracks a serial killer who hides in his victims' homes and preys on those who feel most safe. "Wide Open" was Charleston's second, Holland's only, contribution to the series. The episode opens with a quote from the biblical Book of Job, makes reference to author Patricia Highsmith, it received mixed reviews from critics. A man, visits an open house viewing, where he is given a tour by the estate agent, seems to take an interest in the bedroom of a young girl; that night, the owners have returned home, are settling down for the evening when their daughter, begins screaming. A security guard for the family's alarm company finds the bodies of the parents hacked to death on the first floor, but Patricia is nowhere to be seen.
The Millennium Group, a private investigative group, dispatches profiler Frank Black to the scene, where he meets Seattle detective Bob Bletcher. Black finds the house's alarm system, noticing that it did not go off until the killer left the house, he deduces that the killer stayed hidden in the house during the viewing, emerging that evening to kill the family. However, Black notices something near an air vent. Black's wife Catherine, a clinical social worker, warns against questioning Patricia — although she is an important witness, she is only a child and is in a fragile mental state. Black and Bletcher visit James Glen a graphology expert, having found the killer's signature in the viewing's guestbook. Analysis of the killer's handwriting links him to forty open house viewings over the previous six months. An estate agent receives a video recording of the murders in the post; that same day, the killer hides in another open house murdering a woman with a shotgun before calling the police to the scene.
Black finds an X drawn in blood under the house's welcome mat. Black reviews the videotape. Extracting a picture from this, he requests to show it to Patricia, but stops himself, realizing that the killer let Patricia live so that she could relive the events when questioned. Cutter, a crossing guard, hides the shotgun in a dumpster; the police officer who takes his statement recognizes him on seeing the video. Black has deduced the killer's motives—he is trying to undermine society's notion of safety. Black and Bletcher organize a stakeout at another open house. Black realizes that he has hidden in a nearby house, where he and Bletcher find the occupants tied up. Cutter ambushes Black, knocking him down, but before Cutter can escape, the family's dog lunges at him, sending him falling over a mezzanine to his death. Bletcher tells Black that Cutter's aunt and uncle were tortured to death in front of him when he was a child, which led him to recreate the torment for other families. "Wide Open" is the second of two episodes of Millennium to be directed by James Charleston, who had helmed the earlier first season episode "Blood Relatives".
The episode marked the only contribution to the series from writer Charles D. Holland. Pablo Coffey, who portrayed Cutter, the episode's serial killer, would appear in "Manus Domini", an episode of Millennium creator Chris Carter's series Harsh Realm; the episode features Glynn Turman as a graphologist, portraying the discipline in an exaggerated, "near-psychic" manner. Bill Smitrovich, who plays recurring character Bob Bletcher, had portrayed a graphologist in the 1986 film Manhunter, seen an influence on Millennium; the character of Patricia Highsmith—the little girl who survives the first attack—is named for the author Patricia Highsmith, author of Strangers on a Train and the Tom Ripley series of novels. The episode opens with a quotation from the Book of Job, one of the poetic books of the Ketuvim, the third part of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. Another passage from the Book of Job had been used in the opening of the episode "Dead Letters". Biblical verses were used at the beginning of other episodes in the series, including the Book of Exodus in "Kingdom Come".
"Wide Open" was first broadcast on the Fox Network on January 3, 1997. The episode was watched by 6.7 million households."Wide Open" received mixed reviews from critics. Robert Shearman and Lars Pearson, in their book Wanting to Believe: A Critical Guide to The X-Files, Millennium & The Lone Gunmen, rated the episode one-and-a-half stars out of five, finding that its cold open was "the most distinctive thing about the whole case". Shearman and Pearson felt that the episode's killer was unspectacular, remaining "largely anonymous". Writing for The A. V. Club, Zack Handlen rated the episode a B+, describing it as "thorou
Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over one million deaths. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, West Nile virus, yellow fever, tularemia, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever, La Crosse encephalitis, Zika fever, as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever; the female mosquito of the genus Anopheles may carry the malaria parasite. Four different species of protozoa cause malaria: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax. Worldwide, malaria is a leading cause of premature mortality in children under the age of five, with an estimated 207 million cases and more than half a million deaths in 2012, according to the World Malaria Report 2013 published by WHO.
The death toll increased to one million as of 2018 according to the American Mosquito Control Association. Botflies are known to parasitize humans or other mammalians, causing myiasis, to use mosquitoes as intermediate vector agents to deposit eggs on a host; the human botfly Dermatobia hominis attaches its eggs to the underside of a mosquito, when the mosquito takes a blood meal from a human or an animal, the body heat of the mammalian host induces hatching of the larvae. Some species of mosquito can carry the filariasis worm, a parasite that causes a disfiguring condition characterized by a great swelling of several parts of the body; the viral diseases yellow fever, dengue fever, Zika fever and chikungunya are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Other viral diseases like epidemic polyarthritis, Rift Valley fever, Ross River fever, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis, La Crosse encephalitis and several other encephalitic diseases are carried by several different mosquitoes.
Eastern equine encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis occur in the United States where they cause disease in humans and some bird species. Because of the high mortality rate, EEE and WEE are regarded as two of the most serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. Symptoms range from mild flu-like illness to encephalitis and death. Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. Other species of Aedes as well as Culex and Culiseta are involved in the transmission of disease. Myxomatosis is spread by biting insects, including mosquitoes. A mosquito's period of feeding is undetected; when a mosquito bites a human, it injects saliva and anti-coagulants. For any given individual, with the initial bite there is no reaction but with subsequent bites the body's immune system develops antibodies and a bite becomes inflamed and itchy within 24 hours.
This is the usual reaction in young children. With more bites, the sensitivity of the human immune system increases, an itchy red hive appears in minutes where the immune response has broken capillary blood vessels and fluid has collected under the skin; this type of reaction is common in older adults. Some adults can become desensitized to mosquitoes and have little or no reaction to their bites, while others can become hyper-sensitive with bites causing blistering and large inflammatory reactions, a response known as skeeter syndrome. Symptoms of illness are specific to the type of viral infection and vary on severity, based on the individuals infected. Symptoms vary on severity, from mild unnoticeable symptoms to more common symptoms like fever, headache, achy muscle and joints, conjunctivitis. Symptoms can last several days to weeks. Most people infected with the West Nile virus do not develop symptoms. However, some individuals can develop cases of severe fatigue, headaches, body aches and muscle pain, vomiting and rash, which can last for weeks or months.
More serious symptoms have a greater risk of appearing in people over 60 years of age, or those suffering from cancer, diabetes and kidney disease. Dengue fever is characterized by high fever, joint pain, rash. However, more severe instances can lead to hemorrhagic fever, internal bleeding, breathing difficulty, which can be fatal. People infected with this virus can develop sudden onset fever along with debilitating joint and muscle pain, headache and fatigue. Symptoms can be prolonged to weeks and months. Although patients can recover there have been cases in which joint pain has persisted for several months and can extend beyond that for years. Other people can develop heart complications, eye problems, neurological complications. Mosquitoes carrying such arboviruses stay healthy because their immune systems recognizes the virions as foreign particles and "chop off" the virus' genetic coding, rendering it inert. Human infection with a mosquito-borne virus occurs when a female mosquito bites someone while its immune system is still in the process of destroying the virus's harmful coding.
It is not known how mosquitoes handle eukaryotic parasites to carry them without being harmed. Data has shown tha