Dairsie Castle is a restored tower house located 1.3 kilometres south of Dairsie in north-east Fife, Scotland. The castle overlooks the River Eden; the first castle built here was the property of the bishops of St Andrews, may have been constructed by William de Lamberton, bishop of St Andrews from 1298 to 1328. A Scottish parliament was held at the castle in early 1335; the castle was rebuilt in the 16th century by the Learmonth family. James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton regent of Scotland, laid siege to the castle in 1575. King James VI of Scotland stayed at Dairsie Castle in 1583 following his escape from the Raid of Ruthven in June 1583. In the 17th century it was sold to John Spottiswoode, Archbishop of St Andrews, who built Dairsie Old Church next to the castle in 1621. Dairsie Castle became ruinous in the 19th century, but was rebuilt in the 1990s, is now operated as holiday accommodation, it is a Category B listed building, was a Scheduled Ancient Monument, having been de-scheduled in 1997 prior to the restoration works.
Webster, Bruce. "Scotland without a King, 1329–1341". In Grant, Alexander. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1110-X. Dairsie Castle website
Hallyards Castle, located to the north-west of the village of Auchtertool, is reputed to have been a hunting seat of Malcolm Canmore. With the establishment of the Roman Church, Halyards became the local residence of the Bishops of Dunkeld; the influence that Halyards had on the district cannot be overstated. When Sir James Kirkcaldy was proprietor the castle witnessed dramatic events. During the Reformation Crisis there was fighting between French troops and the Scottish Lords of the Congregation at Halyards. William Kirkcaldy fought for the reformers. According to Knox, after French troops blew up the house, Mary of Guise declared, "Where is now John Knox's God? My God is now stronger than his, yea in Fife." In February 1560 it was reported the castle was'clean overthrown.' Kirkcaldy took his revenge on a Savoyard captain called his 50 French troops. In years Halyards passed to John Boswell of Balmuto, William Forbes of Craigievar, members of the Skene family the Earls of Moray; the castle’s name was changed to Camilla, popularly held to be in honour of a countess who bore that name, though no so-named Countess of Moray is recorded.
Camilla is the name more known in Auchtertool today. With the Earls of Moray living at a distance, Halyards fell into disuse. In 1819 the castle was revisited by a member of the Skene family, who found it in a dilapidated state; the great house was demolished in 1847. The remains can be found on farmland to the north-west of the village. National Monuments Record of Scotland
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany, styled as Lord Darnley until 1565, was king consort of Scotland from 1565 until his murder at Kirk o' Field in 1567. Many contemporary narratives describing his life and death refer to him as Lord Darnley, his title as heir apparent to the Earldom of Lennox, it is by this appellation that he is now known, he was the second but eldest surviving son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, his wife, Lady Margaret Douglas. Darnley's maternal grandparents were Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of England and widow of James IV of Scotland, he was a first cousin and the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was the father of her son James VI of Scotland, who succeeded Elizabeth I of England as James I. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was born, at Temple Newsam, Leeds, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, in 1545; however this date is uncertain as his parents were not together in early 1545 and a letter of March 1566, from Mary Queen of Scots, indicates Darnley was nineteen years old.
Therefore the date 1546 would seem probable. A descendant of both James II of Scotland and Henry VII of England, Darnley had potential claims to both the Scottish and English thrones. In 1545, his father, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, was found guilty of treason in Scotland for siding with the English in the War of the Rough Wooing, in opposing Mary of Guise and Regent Arran; the family's Scottish estates were forfeited and his father went into exile in England for 22 years, returning to Scotland in 1564. The Countess of Lennox Margaret Douglas, his mother, had left Scotland in 1528; the young Henry was conscious of his inheritance. Well-versed in Latin and familiar with Gaelic and French, he received an education befitting his royal lineage, he excelled in singing, lute playing, dancing; the Scottish scholar John Elder was among his tutors. Elder advocated Anglo-Scottish union through the marriage of Queen of Scots and Prince Edward, his advice to Henry VIII in 1543, was termed the Advice of a Redshank.
Another schoolmaster to the young heir was Arthur Lallart, who would be interrogated in London for having gone to Scotland in 1562. Henry was said to be strong, skilled in horsemanship and weaponry, passionate about hunting and hawking, his youthful character is captured somewhat in a letter of March 1554 to Mary I of England from Temple Newsam, where he writes about making a map, the Utopia Nova, his wish that "every haire in my heade for to be a wourthy souldiour". The Lennox Crisis was a political dilemma in England that arose from the dynastic ambition of the Lennoxes: Matthew Stewart, the 4th Earl of Lennox, was third in line to the Scottish throne, his wife Margaret Douglas, the Countess of Lennox, was a niece of Henry VIII and granddaughter of Henry VII, making her second in line to the English throne after Mary Queen of Scots, her son Darnley after her, should Elizabeth not have been able to accede to or hold the throne for some reason; the Lennox family represented an alternative line of succession to the English throne through Margaret Tudor, should Henry's heirs not have been able to hold it for the time they did.
As Roman Catholics, they posed a threat to Protestant England in 1558, as the 25-year-old Queen Elizabeth took the throne. Although Elizabeth was bright and well-educated for her position, as a female she had to prove herself. Many Roman Catholics would have liked to have seen the next in line, the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, take the throne, as they regarded Elizabeth as illegitimate, her parents' marriage not having been recognized by the Catholic Church, and many would have preferred Darnley, as a male, to have the throne as well. All of these interrelationships made for complex intrigues, spying and maneuvering for power at the various courts; when Henry II of France died in July 1559, Lennox's brother John, 5th Sieur d'Aubigny, was elevated in the French court as kinsman of the new French queen, Mary Queen of Scots. Aubigny arranged for Darnley to be dispatched to the French court to congratulate Mary and Francis II of France on their accession and seek restoration for Lennox. Mary did not restore Lennox to his Scottish earldom, but she did give 1,000 crowns to Darnley and invited him to her coronation.
Lennox's plan was to appeal directly to the Queen of Scots via her ambassador, over the heads of Elizabeth and the Guise. The mission of Lennox's agent, one Nesbit, appears to have been a desperate one. Aubigny was later accused of supporting Mary's title to the throne of England and hinting that his nephew had a stronger claim than Elizabeth. Lennox set Nesbit to watch Mary and Darnley's tutor, John Elder. In 1559 Nicholas Throckmorton, the English ambassador in Paris, warned Elizabeth that Elder was "as dangerous for the matters of England as any he knew."Lord Darnley was the next claimant to the English throne, after the Queen of Scots, his aging mother, as a male, English-born Catholic, he was preferred by Elizabeth's enemies. Paget in March 1560 wrote of'well founded' fear that Catholics would raise Darnley to the throne on Elizabeth's death. By the summer of that year, Elizabeth's position was strengthened. Francis Yaxley was one notable spy. A Catholic, Yaxley had been a clerk of the Signet and had been employed by William Cecil since 1549, travelling in France for him.
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, his motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain, his successor, Philip II of Spain, Mayordomo mayor of both, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan, viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples, governor of the Netherlands and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal, he represented Philip II in negotiating Philip's betrothal to Elisabeth of Valois and Anna of Austria, who were the third and fourth, last, wives of the king. By some historians he is considered the most effective general of his generation as well as one of the greatest in military history.
Although a tough leader, he was respected by his troops. He touched their sentiments e.g. by addressing them in his speeches as "gentlemen soldiers", but was popular among them for daring statements such as: Kings use men like oranges, first they squeeze the juice and throw away the peel. Alba distinguished himself in the conquest of Tunis during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars when Carlos I defeated Hayreddin Barbarossa and returned the Spanish Monarchy to predominance over the western Mediterranean Sea, he distinguished himself in the battle of Mühlberg, where the army of Emperor Charles defeated the German Protestant princes. On December 26, 1566 he received the Golden Rose, the blessed sword and hat granted by Pope Pius V, through the papal brief Solent Romani Pontifices, in recognition of his singular efforts in favor of Catholicism and for being considered one of his championsHe is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War.
He is known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen and Haarlem. In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken and Alba was recalled to Spain, his last military successes were in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, winning the Battle of Alcantara and conquering that kingdom for Philip II. Spain unified all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and expanded its overseas territories. Fernando was born in Piedrahíta, Province of Ávila, on 29 October 1507, he was the son of García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, heir of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo and Enríquez de Quiñones, II Duke of Alba de Tormes, of Beatriz Pimentel, daughter of Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel, IV Count - I Duke of Benavente and his wife, María Pacheco. Fernando was orphaned at age three when his father, García, died during a campaign on the island of Djerba in Africa in 1510. At the age of six, Fernando accompanied his grandfather, the second duke of Alba on a military mission to capture Navarre.
His youth and education were typical for Castilian nobility of the age. He was educated at the ducal court of the House of Alba, located in the Castle Palace of Alba de Tormes, by two Italian preceptors, Bernardo Gentile - a Sicilian Benedictine - and Severo Marini and by the Spanish Renaissance poet and writer Juan Boscan, he was educated in humanism. He mastered Latin and knew French and German. In 1524, when he was seventeen, he joined the troops of Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, II Duke of Frías, during the capture of Fuenterrabía occupied by France and Navarre. For his role in the siege, Fernando was appointed governor of Fuenterrabía; when his grandfather Fadrique died in 1531, the ducal title passed to Fernando as the firstborn son of Garcia. Throughout his adulthood, he served the Spanish monarchs Charles I and his successor Philip II. In 1541 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo was named Mayordomo Mayor del Rey de España by Charles I of Spain. Alba kept this Office in court until the death of the monarch in 1556.
In 1546, Charles I invested Fernando, the Third Duke of Alba Grand Master as knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece. From 1548 King Charles intensified the preparations of Prince Philip as his successor in the Spanish Monarchy, he named Duke of Alba mayordomo mayor of his son to prepare Philip for his new role. Fernando took Philip on a tour around Europe that lasted until 1551. Fernando accompanied Philip to England to attend his marriage to Mary Tudor; the Duke was one of fifteen grandees of Spain who attended the ceremony in the abbey of Winchester on 25 July 1554. After the death of Charles, the new King Philip II maintained Fernando Third Duke of Alba as mayordomo mayor until the death of the Duke in 1582. In 1563, King Philip II created the title Duke of Huéscar to be bestowed on the heir of the Dukes of Alba. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, son of Fernando became 1st Duke of Huéscar. In 1566, Alba's son and heir, broke his promise of marriage to Magdalena de Guzman, lady of Queen Anne of Austria, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Castle of La Mota in Valladolid.
The following year he was released so he could go to Flanders with his father to serve in the military. In 1578 Philip II ordered the case against Fadrique reopened, it was discovered that in order to avoid marriage, Fadrique had secret
St Giles' Cathedral
St Giles' Cathedral known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh, is the principal place of worship of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh. Its distinctive crown steeple is a prominent feature of the city skyline, at about a third of the way down the Royal Mile which runs from the Castle to Holyrood Palace; the church has been one of Edinburgh's religious focal points for 900 years. The present church dates from the late 14th century, though it was extensively restored in the 19th century, is protected as a category A listed building. Today it is sometimes regarded as the "Mother Church of Presbyterianism"; the cathedral is dedicated to Saint Giles, the patron saint of Edinburgh, as well as of cripples and lepers, was a popular saint in the Middle Ages. It is the Church of Scotland parish church for part of Edinburgh's Old Town. St Giles' was only a cathedral in its formal sense for two periods during the 17th century, when episcopalianism, backed by the Crown gained ascendancy within the Kirk. In the mediaeval period, prior to the Reformation, Edinburgh had no cathedral as it was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of St Andrews, whose episcopal seat was St Andrews Cathedral.
For most of its post-Reformation history the Church of Scotland has not had bishops, dioceses, or cathedrals. As such, the use of the term cathedral today carries no practical meaning; the "High Kirk" title is older, being attested well before the building's brief period as a cathedral. There is record evidence of a church here likely on the present site, in the year 854. In 1120 King Alexander I, rebuilt the church in the Norman style. Of this building characteristic features survived until 1798. During the fourteenth century, Edinburgh was captured and plundered by the English under Edward II. and Edward III. and twice St Giles was laid waste. After restoration, the church was more ruined at the Burnt Candlemas in 1387, when Richard II. Sacked the city; the western part of the fabric was soon in use again. In 1467 the city endowed St Giles as a collegiate church, it now became usual to speak of the nave, where the stonework was ancient, as the Old Kirk, while the eastern part of the building was called the New Kirk.
When the movement for reform drew large crowds to St Giles, separate services began to be held in the Old and New Kirks. Soon this was not enough, the great church was partitioned off into smaller sections. In 1571 St Giles was seized by Kirkcaldie of Grange, held by him as a stronghold for Queen Mary; this resulted in serious damage to the structure. At the Reformation the parish of St Giles was coextensive with the city of Edinburgh. Our Lady's Kirk of Field and the other College Kirk of the Holy Trinity were not parochial charges. To meet the spiritual needs of the growing population, the first plan of the Reformers was to add to the staff of the parochial clergy, thus St Giles was given four, five ministers. The better to carry out this method, the parish was divided into four districts, called the Quarters of the city; these were distinguished as the South-West Quarter, etc.. Each Quarter was placed under the special care of one of the ministers; the choir of St Giles was known as the New Kirk, the East Kirk, or the Little Kirk, while the Old Kirk to the west was called the Great Kirk.
At length, in 1598, Edinburgh was broken up into four parishes. The North-West Quarter, as the remanent part of the ancient parish, continued to occupy the choir of St Giles, which alone became the High Kirk of the city. In it the Magistrates, the Court of Session, other dignitaries worshipped. In it was the royal pew. From its place of worship this district became known as the High Kirk Parish; the South-East Quarter became, the Old Kirk Parish, its congregation still met in the Old Kirk. For the other two Quarters separate churches were provided. To the North-East Quarter was given the fine old church of the Holy Trinity, for the South- West Quarter a new place of worship was built at the top of the Greyfriars burial-ground. In 1633, when a bishopric of Edinburgh was set up, the choir of St Giles was made to serve as its cathedral, but all, annulled in 1637. Again in 1661 the choir was fitted up anew for cathedral functions; this lasted till 1689. It had been intended to make the whole church a cathedral, but, not carried out.
In 1641 the parochial areas of Edinburgh were recast, two new city parishes were founded. Each of these got its name from an outstanding public building in it. One was called the Tolbooth Parish, the other the Tron Parish, from the city Tron, or Weighhouse, which stood near the east end of St Giles, close to the Cross. From 1829 till 1833 a restoration of St Giles was carried out by the city, at a cost of nearly £21,600. Toward this Government gave a grant of £12,000; that renovation is remembered rather for. In 1870 Dr William Chambers, Lord Provost of the city, began a far more real restoration. With aid from various sources, largely at his own expense, this was finished in 1883, but just as his great undertaking saw its end, the generous worker died. Two days after the reopening of the restored church, the funeral service of Dr Chambers was held in it; the renewed church can seat a congregation of 3000. The oldest parts of the building are four massive central pillars said to date from 1124, although there is little evidence to this effect.
In 1385, the building suffered a f
Parliament of Scotland
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland. The parliament, like other such institutions, evolved during the Middle Ages from the king's council of bishops and earls, it is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, during the reign of Alexander II, when it was described as a "colloquium" and possessed a political and judicial role. By the early fourteenth century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, from 1326 commissioners from the burghs attended. Consisting of the "three estates" of clergy and the burghs sitting in a single chamber, the parliament gave consent for the raising of taxation and played an important role in the administration of justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, such as General Councils or Convention of Estates; these could carry out much business dealt with by parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Parliament of Scotland met for more than four centuries, until it was prorogued sine die at the time of the Acts of Union in 1707. Thereafter the Parliament of Great Britain operated for both England and Scotland, thus creating the Kingdom of Great Britain; when the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From January 1801 until 1927, the British state was called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the pre-Union parliament was long portrayed as a constitutionally defective body that acted as a rubber stamp for royal decisions, but research during the early 21st century has found that it played an active role in Scottish affairs, was sometimes a thorn in the side of the Scottish Crown. The members were collectively referred to as the Three Estates, or "community of the realm", composed of until 1690: the first estate of prelates the second estate of the nobility the third estate of Burgh Commissioners The bishops and abbots of the First Estate were the thirteen medieval bishops of Aberdeen, Brechin, Dunblane, Galloway, Isles, Orkney, Ross and St Andrews and the mitred abbots of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart.
The bishops themselves were removed from the Church of Scotland during the Glorious Revolution and the accession of William of Orange. The Second Estate was split into two to retain the division into three. From the 16th century, the second estate was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners: this has been argued to have created a fourth estate. During the 17th century, after the Union of the Crowns, a fifth estate of royal office holders has been identified; these latter identifications remain controversial among parliamentary historians. Regardless, the term used for the assembled members continued to be "the Three Estates". A Shire Commissioner was the closest equivalent of the English office of Member of Parliament, namely a commoner or member of the lower nobility; because the parliament of Scotland was unicameral, all members sat in the same chamber, as opposed to the separate English House of Lords and House of Commons. The Scottish parliament evolved during the Middle Ages from the King's Council.
It is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, described as a "colloquium" and with a political and judicial role. In 1296 we have the first mention of burgh representatives taking part in decision making. By the early 14th century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, Robert the Bruce began calling burgh commissioners to his Parliament. Consisting of The Three Estates – of clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners – sitting in a single chamber, the Scottish parliament acquired significant powers over particular issues. Most it was needed for consent for taxation, but it had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation, whether political, social or economic. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business dealt with by Parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Scottish parliament met in a number of different locations throughout its history. In addition to Edinburgh, meetings were held in Perth, Stirling, St Andrews, Linlithgow, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Berwick-upon-Tweed. From the early 1450s until 1690, a great deal of the legislative business of the Scottish Parliament was carried out by a parliamentary committee known as the "Lords of the Articles"; this was a committee chosen by the three estates to draft legislation, presented to the full assembly to be confirmed. In the past, historians have been critical of this body, claiming that it came to be dominated by royal nominees, thus undermining the power of the full assembly. Recent research suggests. Indeed, in March 1482, the
David Rizzio, sometimes written as David Riccio or David Rizzo, was an Italian courtier, born close to Turin, a descendant of an ancient and noble family still living in Piedmont, the Riccio Counts di San Paolo e Solbrito, who rose to become the private secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary's husband, Lord Darnley, is said to have been jealous of their friendship, because of rumours that he had impregnated Mary, joined in a conspiracy of Protestant nobles, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, to murder him; the murder was the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley, it had serious consequences for Mary's subsequent reign. Mary was having dinner with Rizzio and a few ladies-in-waiting when Darnley joined them, accused his wife of adultery and had someone murder Rizzio, hiding behind Mary. Mary was held at gunpoint and Rizzio was stabbed numerous times, his body took 56 dagger wounds. Rizzio went first from Turin to the Court of the Duke of Savoy at Nice. However, finding no opportunities for advancement there, he found means to get himself admitted into the train of the Count de Moretto in 1561, about to lead an embassy to Scotland.
The Court in Scotland had no employment for Rizzio, dismissed him. He ingratiated himself with the Queen's musicians. James Melville, a friend of Rizzio, said that "Her Majesty had three valets in her chamber, who sung three parts, wanted a bass to sing the fourth part". Thus, he was drawn into her court, he was considered a good musician, an excellent singer, which first brought him to the attention of the cosmopolitan young Queen. Towards the end of 1564, having grown wealthy under her patronage, he became the Queen's secretary for relations with France, after the previous occupant of the post retired there; this post attracted a quarterly salary of £20. Ambitious, a Catholic and a foreigner to boot, was too close to the Queen. Rumours became rife. Jealousy precipitated his murder in the Queen's presence, in her supper chamber in the Palace of Holyroodhouse after the royal guards were overpowered and the palace was turned over to the control of the rebels; the Queen was six months pregnant at the time, Rizzio was accused of having impregnated her.
Having burst into the Queen's private dining room, the rebels, led by Patrick Ruthven, demanded Rizzio be handed over. The Queen refused. Rizzio hid behind Mary but was seized and stabbed to death in the presence of the Queen. After this violent struggle, Rizzio was stabbed an alleged 56 times, before being thrown down the main staircase and stripped of his jewels and fine clothes, he was buried within two hours in the cemetery of Holyrood. Buchanan and Daniel state that shortly afterwards his body was removed by the Queen's orders and deposited in the sepulcher of the Kings of Scotland. Rumours were thrown around as to why this happened to Rizzio – most claim Darnley was jealous. Robert Melville arrived in Edinburgh from London and reported back to Elizabeth and Cecil on the aftermath of the murder, he noted that Morton, Lord Ruthven, Patrick Lindsay, 6th Lord of Byres had fled, William Maitland of Lethington, the Clerk Register James Balfour, the Justice Clerk John Bellenden, some gentlemen of Lothian who were suspected of having knowledge of the plan had fled.
Mary had escaped from Edinburgh to Dunbar Castle. Rizzio's brother, arrived in Scotland with Michel de Castelnau and was appointed secretary in David's place by 25 April 1566. Joseph and an Italian colleague, Joseph Lutyni, had some trouble over coins taken from the queen's purse, in April 1567 he was accused and acquitted with Bothwell of Darnley's murder. David Rizzio's career was referred to by Henry IV of France. Mocking the pretension of James VI of Scotland to be the "Scottish Solomon", he remarked that "he hoped he was not David the fiddler's son", alluding to the possibility that Rizzio, not Darnley, fathered King James, it has been alleged that Rizzio is buried at Edinburgh. It is considered more that he lies in an unmarked grave in the graveyard attaching Holyrood Abbey; the Protestant historian George Buchanan wrote in 1581 that David was first buried outside the door of the Abbey, Mary arranged for him to be buried in the tomb of her father James V and Madeleine of France within. As Buchanan described this circumstance as reflecting badly on the Queen, while his book was at the printers, a friend James Melville tried to get Buchanan to rewrite the passage, fearing that Mary's son James VI would suppress the whole book.
Buchanan asked his cousin, Thomas Buchanan, a schoolmaster in Stirling, if he thought the story was true, the cousin agreed. The story was published. Rizzio was played by John Carradine in the 1936 RKO picture Mary of Scotland. Rizzio's life and death are a key plot element in Caleb Carr's Sherlock Holmes story The Italian Secretary, Holmes vocally dismissing the idea that Rizzio was anything more than entertainment. Thomas Rand