Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Charles E. Barber
Charles Edward Barber was the sixth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1879 until his death in 1917. He had a long and fruitful career in coinage, designing most of the coins produced at the mint during his time as Chief Engraver, he did full coin designs, he designed about 30 medals in his lifetime. The Barber coinage were named after him. In addition, Barber designed a number of commemorative coins, some in partnership with Assistant Engraver George T. Morgan. For the popular Colombian half dollar, the Panama-Pacific half dollar and quarter eagle, Barber designed the obverse and Morgan the reverse. Barber designed the 1883 coins for the Kingdom of Hawaii, Cuban coinage of 1915. Barber's design on the Cuba 5 centavo coin remained in use until 1961. While much has been written about Barber being disagreeable and hostile to Morgan, this has been conclusively disproved, with concrete evidence that the two had a warm personal relationship; this of course, makes perfect sense, as the two worked together for over 40 years.
Again, contrary to what many people believe, Barber had a warm personal relationship with President Theodore Roosevelt. While it is true that Roosevelt wanted U. S. coinage in the new century to have a more modern look, solicited designs from artists outside the U. S. Mint, this does not mean; the descendants of Charles Barber possess artifacts. At the request of President Roosevelt and Mint Director George E. Roberts, Barber made a trip to Europe to visit a number of foreign mints on an information-sharing mission, his goal was to observe and discuss the practices at the foreign mints to look for ways to improve operations and efficiency at the U. S. Mint, he combined this trip with a family vacation with his second wife Caroline and his 19-year old daughter Edith. Barber carried with him memos from various departments within the mint with questions to ask their counterparts overseas; these memos, some of which today have Barber's hand-written notes, correspond to the various reports he submitted to Mint Director Roberts after his return.
Edith's diary from the trip provide details on their itinerary and personal reflections on her father. Barber was known to be a meticulous professional. While different people have varying opinions about the artistic merits of his designs, it is indisputable that his coin designs hold up to years of heavy use and wear; this is one reason that so many Barber coins exist in such low grades—they were real workhorses in the U. S. economy and were found in circulation until the 1950s. In the end, Charles Barber was well liked and respected within the Treasury Department and the U. S. Mint; as evidence of this fact, the flags at the Philadelphia Mint were lowered to half staff on the day of his funeral. Roger Burdette provided a scan from the National Archives of the letter from Mint Director F. H. von Engelken requesting permission to half-mast the flags. Charles E. Barber is the last mint official of any rank to have had this high honor bestowed upon him. Barber was born in London on the son of engraver William Barber.
In 1869, he was appointed the assistant engraver at the United States Mint in Philadelphia. On January 20, 1880, he was appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes to succeed his father in the position as chief engraver, he was criticized for unimaginative designs, but R. W. Julian suggests that he "was capable of superb work when given a free hand." Barber's best known designs are the Liberty Head coins -- Barber dime, Barber quarter, Barber half dollar, as well as the so-called "V" Liberty Head nickel. Some lesser known pattern coin designs include the trial copper-nickel cent, trial three-cent piece, the $4 Stella "Flowing Hair" pieces, he was critical of Augustus St. Gaudens' proposed high relief pattern for a new double eagle in 1908 and tried hard to stop them from being produced, citing the impracticality of the design. In reality, for a circulating coin, Saint-Gaudens' high-relief double eagle was impractical as each coin required three to five blows of the dies to produce. Barber had to lower the relief of the design to make a production-worthy coin.
From 1907 to 1933, over 70 million "Saints" would be struck, impossible with Saint-Gaudens' original design. Charles Barber was married to Martha, who passed away in 1899. In 1902, he married Caroline Gaston, his wife until his death in 1917. Charles and Martha had a daughter in Anna May, named for Charles' mother; the baby died in 1876. Ten years Charles and Martha had a daughter named Edith. Charles E. Barber died on February 18, 1917, was buried 3 days with Martha and infant daughter Anna May in Mount Peace Cemetery in Philadelphia. Barber was succeeded as Chief Engraver by George T. Morgan. Barber half dollar Barber quarter Barber dime Liberty Head nickel The obverse of the Columbian Exposition half dollar Isabella Quarter Silver Lafayette Dollar Louisiana Purchase Exposition gold dollar Lewis and Clark Exposition gold dollar The obverse of the Panama-Pacific Exposition half dollar The obverse of the Panama-Pacific Exposition quarter eagle William McKinley Memorial gold dollar Pikes Peak "Southwest Expedition" medal Kingdom of Hawaii 1883 dime, quarter and dollar Szechuan Province of China, 1897 Cuba 1915-1961 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 & 40 Centavos Flowing Hair Stella 1879-1880 "Washlady" silver pattern quarter Famous 1891 Liberty Head patterns 1896 experimental pieces - cent and five cents Evans, George Greenlief.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
United States Mint
The United States Mint is a unit of the Department of Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States. Today, the Mint's headquarters are in Washington D. C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Nevada. Part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799, it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyone's account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury. It was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted for the Treasury's account; the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most by Edmund C. Moy until his resignation effective January 9, 2011; the position was left vacant until April 2018. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, held by such men as Frank Gasparro, William Barber, Charles E. Barber, James B. Longacre, Christian Gobrecht; the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as "Ye Olde Mint". With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, an identifying feature on the coin to show its facility of origin.
The first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of local gold deposits into coinage, minted only gold coins; the Civil War closed both these facilities permanently. The New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a minting facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870. Like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were. In 1911 the Mint had a female acting director, Margaret Kelly, at that point the highest paid woman on the government's payroll.
She stated that women were paid within the bureau. A branch of the U. S. mint was established in 1920 in Manila in the Philippines, a U. S. territory. To date, the Manila Mint is the only U. S. mint established outside the continental U. S. and was responsible for producing coins. This branch was in production from 1920 to 1922, again from 1925 through 1941. Coins struck by this mint bear either the M mintmark or none at all, similar to the Philadelphia mint at the time. A branch mint in The Dalles, was commissioned in 1864. Construction was halted in 1870, the facility never produced any coins, although the building still stands. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint's largest facility is the Philadelphia Mint. The current facility, which opened in 1969, is the fourth Philadelphia Mint; the first was built in 1792, when Philadelphia was still the U. S. capital, began operation in 1793. Until 1980, coins minted at Philadelphia bore no mint mark, with the exceptions of the Susan B.
Anthony dollar and the wartime Jefferson nickel. In 1980, the P mint mark was added to all U. S. coinage except the cent. Until 1968, the Philadelphia Mint was responsible for nearly all official proof coinage. Philadelphia is the site of master die production for U. S. coinage, the engraving and design departments of the Mint are located there. The Denver branch began life in 1863 as the local assay office, just five years after gold was discovered in the area. By the turn of the century, the office was bringing in over $5 million in annual gold and silver deposits, in 1906, the Mint opened its new Denver branch. Denver uses a D mint mark and strikes coinage only for circulation, although it did strike, along with three other mints, the $10 gold 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Com
Frank Gasparro was the tenth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint, holding this position from February 23, 1965, to January 16, 1981. Before that, he was Assistant Engraver, he designed both sides of the Susan B. Anthony dollar, both sides of the Eisenhower Dollar, the Lincoln Memorial reverse of the cent, the reverse of the Kennedy half dollar, his signature is: FG. Gasparro was born in Philadelphia on August 26, 1909, his musician father wanted his son to continue in the family profession and would rip up drawings he made out of frustration. His father relented and had Gasparro apprentice under sculptor Giuseppe Donato, who had earlier worked for Auguste Rodin. Gasparro graduated from South Philadelphia High School in 1927 and has been inducted into the SPHS Alumni Cultural Hall of Fame, he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and traveled to Europe with the aid of scholarships that allowed him to refine his craft. Friends close to Gasparro had serious suspicion regarding close ties he established to organized crime while in Italy but he denied any connection.
John Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI during Gasparro's tenure at the Mint, was suspicious of Gasparro's intentions. Hoover was concerned Gasparro was being influenced by an Italian crime family in the town of Bari to design coins with details counterfeited by Italian Crime families. Gasparro was hired by the United States Mint in December 1942 under Chief Engraver John R. Sinnock. Gasparro's first major successful coin design was his redesign of the reverse of the Lincoln cent as part of the 150th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln, while he was Assistant Engraver at the Philadelphia Mint. Gasparro's design was selected from a group of 23 designs prepared by the Mint's engraving staff to replace the Wheat cent produced by the Mint from 1909 to 1958, his original design included the words "Lincoln Memorial" and 13 stars around the rim of the coin, which he removed at the request of staff at the Mint. Despite the complaints of his superiors, the design retained his initials to the right of the monument as well as the image of Lincoln seated in the monument, making it the first American coin to have the same likeness on both sides of the coin.
Gasparro would tell cashiers that he was a sculptor, when asked where to find his work, he would reply, "It's in your pocket." By the time of his death, Gasparro's design had appeared on the more than 100 billion pennies produced by the Mint. Asked to produce a design for the Susan B. Anthony dollar, Gasparro was able to find two photos of women's suffrage leader, one at age 28 and the other when she was 84, he chose the portrait of the younger Anthony, but widespread consensus was that the design made her look too pretty. His design using the older photo was accepted. While Gasparro felt that the Anthony dollar was his "top achievement", the coin was rejected by the public, which complained that the coin was too similar to the Washington Quarter; as the Mint's Chief Engraver from 1965 to 1981, Gasparro created designs for the reverse of the Kennedy half dollar, for which he took painstaking attention to the details of the design of the Seal of the President of the United States, making the words "E pluribus unum" more prominent.
Other designs by Gasparro included medals for Winston Churchill, Albert Gallatin, Douglas MacArthur and Sam Rayburn, along with the presidential medals for all Presidents from Lyndon B. Johnson to Ronald Reagan and numerous foreign coins produced by the Mint. One of his best known works was the obverse of the Congressional gold medal for John Wayne bought by the public in bronze. After his retirement from the mint he continued to design medals for both public groups, he taught art at Philadelphia's Samuel S. Fleisher Art Memorial until shortly before his death. Gasparro died at age 92 on September 29, 2001, in Pennsylvania, he was survived by his wife, a daughter. A large population of individuals related to Gasparro through his brother Lawrence can be found in northeast Ohio
A combat engineer is a soldier who performs a variety of construction and demolition tasks under combat conditions. The combat engineer's goals involve facilitating movement and support of friendly forces while impeding those of the enemy. Combat engineers build fighting positions and roads, they conduct clear minefields using specialized vehicles. Typical combat engineer missions include construction and breaching of trenches, tank traps and other fortifications. A combat engineer is trained as an infantryman, combat engineer units have a secondary role fighting as infantry. A general combat engineer is called a pioneer or sapper, terms derived from the French and British armies. In some armies and sapper indicate specific military ranks and levels of combat engineers, who work under fire in all seasons, may be allocated to different corps, as they were in the former Soviet Army, or they may be organized in the same corps. Geomatics is another area of military engineering but is performed by the combat engineers of some nations and in other cases is a separate responsibility, as was the case in the Australian Army.
While the officers of a combat engineering unit may be professionally certified civil or mechanical engineers, the non-commissioned members are not. Sapper: In the U. S. British, Canadian and New Zealand armies, is a soldier who has specialized combat engineer training. In the Israeli Defence Forces, Sapper is a military profession code denoting a combat engineer who has graduated from various levels of combat engineering training. Sapper 05 is the basic level, Sapper 06 is the general level, Sapper 08 is the combat engineer commander's level and Sapper 11 is the combat engineer officer level. All IDF sappers are trained as Rifleman 07, matching infantry. In the Canadian Army, is a term for soldiers that have completed the basic Combat Engineer training. In the Portuguese Army, a sapador de engenharia is a soldier of the engineering branch that has specialized combat engineer training. A sapador de infantaria is a soldier of the infantry branch that has a similar training and that serves in the combat support sapper platoon of an infantry battalion.
The Italian Army uses the term "Guastatori" for their combat engineers. Pioneer: In the Finnish army, pioneeri is the private equivalent rank in the army for a soldier who has completed the basic combat engineering training. Naval engineers bear the pioneeri insignia on their sleeves; the German Bundeswehr uses the term "Pionier" for their combat engineers and other specialized units, who are associated with Special Forces to clear obstacles and perform engineering duties. The combat engineers in the Austro-Hungarian k.u.k. Forces were called "Pioniere". Assault pioneer: In the British and Australian armies, an assault pioneer is an infantry soldier with some limited combat engineer training in clearing obstacles during assaults and light engineering duties; until assault pioneers were responsible for the operation of flamethrowers. Field engineer: is a term used in many Commonwealth armies. In modern usage, it is synonymous with "combat engineer". However, the term identified those military engineers who supported an army operating in the field as opposed to garrison engineers who built and supported permanent fix bases.
In its original usage, "field engineering" would have been inclusive of but broader than "combat engineering." Miner Pontonier Combat engineers are force multipliers and enhance the survival of other troops through the use and practice of camouflage, reconnaissance and other services. These include the construction of roads, field fortifications and the construction and running of water points. In these roles, combat engineers use a wide variety of power tools, they are responsible for construction rigging, the use of explosives, the carrying out of demolitions, obstacle clearance, obstacle construction, assault of fortifications, use of assault boats in water obstacle crossings, helipad construction, general construction, route reconnaissance and road reconnaissance, erecting communication installations. Combat engineers build and run water distribution points, carrying out water filtration, NBC decontamination when necessary, storage prior to distribution. All these role activities and technologies are divided into several areas of combat engineering: Mobility Improving the ability of one's own force to move around the battlefield.
Combat engineers support this role through reduction of enemy obstacles which include point and row minefields, anti-tank ditches, wire obstacles and metal anti-vehicle barriers, Improvised Explosive Devices and wall and door breaching in urban terrain. Mechanized combat engineer units have armored vehicles capable of laying short bridges for limited gap-crossing. Clearing terrain obstacles Overcoming trenches and ditches Opening routes for armored fighting vehicles Constructing roads and bridges Route clearanceCountermobility Building obstacles to prevent the enemy from moving around the battlefield. Destroying bridges, blocking roads, creating airstrips, digging trenches, etc. Can include planting land mines and anti-handling devices when authorized and directed to do so; when the defender must retreat it is desirable to destroy anything that may be of use to the enem
George T. Morgan
George Thomas Morgan was a United States Mint engraver, famous for designing many popular coins, such as the Morgan dollar and the Columbian Exposition half dollar.. Morgan was born in England where he worked for many years as a die engraver, he came to the United States in 1876 and was hired as an assistant engraver at the Mint in October under William Barber. He figured prominently in the production of pattern coins from 1877 onward, he designed several varieties of 1877 half dollars, the 1879 "Schoolgirl" dollar, the 1882 "Shield Earring" coins. He became the seventh Chief Engraver of the United States Mint following the death of Charles E. Barber in February 1917. Morgan is most famous for designing the Morgan dollar, one of many namesakes, as well as the never-released $100 Gold Union coin. Gibbs, William T.. "Morgan's half dollars". Coin World: 4–5, 14, 20, 22, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40. Lee, Karen M.. The Private Sketchbook of George T. Morgan. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing. ISBN 978-079483822-5