Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795. He is best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of his cousin Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he died before assuming the post. Henry Clinton was born on April 16 in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date propagated in modern biographic summaries. Willcox notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. Historian John Fredriksen claims. Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain.
They were well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. In 1739 his father stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York, he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle. He did not go to New York until 1743, he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. Henry's career would benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. Records of the family's life in New York are sparse, he is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745; the next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, he was assigned to garrison duty at the captured Fortress Louisbourg. In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career.
It was two years. His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, renamed the Grenadier Guards, was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London; the 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760. Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761 under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld.
His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs. In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position, it was after this engagement that the unit lost its commanding officer, General Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a colonel, was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton wounded forcing him to quit the field; this and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship.
During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling", he formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, William Phillips. He made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died; as the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere, his mother, who had a history of mental instability and
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Abolitionism in the United States
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. In the 17th century, enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery on humanistic grounds and English Quakers and some Evangelical denominations condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were enslaved. In the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America; the colony of Georgia abolished slavery within its territory, thereafter, abolition was part of the message of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s in the Thirteen Colonies. Rationalist thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment criticized slavery for violating natural rights. A member of the British Parliament, James Edward Oglethorpe, was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery.
Founder of the Province of Georgia, Oglethorpe banned slavery on humanistic grounds. He argued against it in Parliament and encouraged his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Although anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, many colonies and emerging nations continued to use and defend the traditions of slavery. During and following the American Revolution, Northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the ensuing decades, the abolitionist movement grew in Northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery as new states were admitted to the Union.
Britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies in 1807 and banned slavery in the British Empire in 1833. The United States criminalized the international slave trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War. Historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist "as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate and total abolition of slavery in the United States", he does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U. S. President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, which called for the gradual ending of slavery. Abolitionism in the United States was an expression of moralism, operating in tandem with other social reform efforts, such as the temperance movement; the first Americans who made a public protest against slavery were the Mennonites of Germantown, Pennsylvania. Soon after, in April 1688, Quakers in the same town wrote a two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church, the Society of Friends.
The Quaker establishment never took action. The 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was an unusually early and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the spirit that led to the end of slavery in the Society of Friends and in the state of Pennsylvania; the Quaker Quarterly Meeting of Chester, made its first protest in 1711. Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by such leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby, John Woolman. Slavery was banned in the Province of Georgia soon after its founding in 1733; the colony's founder, James Edward Oglethorpe, fended off repeated attempts by South Carolina merchants and land speculators to introduce slavery to the colony. In 1739, he wrote to the Georgia Trustees urging them to hold firm: "If we allow slaves we act against the principles by which we associated together, to relieve the distresses. Whereas, now we should occasion the misery of thousands in Africa, by setting men upon using arts to buy and bring into perpetual slavery the poor people who now live there free."
The struggle between Georgia and South Carolina led to the first debates in Parliament over the issue of slavery, occurring between 1740 and 1742. The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society, formed 14 April 1775, in Philadelphia by Quakers; the society suspended operations during the American Revolutionary War and was reorganized in 1784, with Benjamin Franklin as its first president. Rhode Island Quakers, associated with Moses Brown, were among the first in America to free slaves. Benjamin Rush was another leader. John Woolman gave up most of his business in 1756 to devote himself to campaigning against slavery along with other Quakers. One of the first articles advocating the emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery was written by Thomas Paine. Titled "African Slavery in America", it appeared on 8 March 1775 in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser. Beginning with Vermont in 1777, most states north of the Ohio River and the Mason–Dixon line abolished slavery.
These states enacted the first abolition laws in the entire New World. Slavery in Massachusetts was abolished by the judiciary; the State Constitution adopted in 1780 declared all men to have rights, making slavery unenforceable. Emancipation in many free states was gradual. Enslaved people
General Thomas Gage was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, his attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War.
After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, returned to Great Britain. Thomas Gage was born on 10 March 1718/19 and christened 31 March 1719 at Westminster St James, England, son of Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage and Benedicta Maria Teresa Hall. Firle Place, Sussex, is where the Gage family had been seated since the 15th century, his father, Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, was a noted nobleman given titles in Ireland. Thomas Gage had three children; the first son, William Hall Gage, 2nd Viscount Gage, was born 6 January 1717/18 and christened 29 January 1717/18 at Westminster St James. In 1728 Gage began attending the prestigious Westminster School where he met such figures as John Burgoyne, Richard Howe, Francis Bernard, George Germain. Despite the family's long history of Catholicism, Viscount Gage had adopted the Anglican Church in 1715. During his school years Thomas the younger became attached to the latter church.
After graduating from Westminster in 1736 there is no record of Gage's activities until he joined the British Army receiving a commission as ensign. His early duties consisted of recruiting in Yorkshire. In January 1741 he purchased a lieutenant's commission in the 1st Northampton Regiment, where he stayed until May 1742, when he transferred to Battereau's Regiment with the rank of captain-lieutenant. Gage received promotion to captain in 1743, saw action in the War of the Austrian Succession with British forces in Flanders, where he served as aide-de-camp to the Earl of Albemarle in the Battle of Fontenoy, he saw further service in the Second Jacobite Uprising, which culminated in the 1746 Battle of Culloden. From 1747 to 1748, Gage saw action under Albemarle in the Low Countries. In 1748 he transferred to the 55th Foot Regiment; the regiment was stationed in Ireland from 1748 to 1755. During his early service years, he spent leisure time at White's Club, where he was a member, travelled, going at least as far as Paris.
He was a popular figure in the army and at the club though he neither liked alcohol nor gambled much. His friendships spanned ability. Charles Lee once wrote to Gage, "I respected your understanding, lik'd your manners and ador'd the qualities of your heart." Gage made some important political connections, forming relationships with important figures like Lord Barrington, the future Secretary at War, Jeffery Amherst, a man his age who rose to great heights in the French and Indian War. In 1750, Gage became engaged to a "lady of rank and fortune, whom he persuaded to yield her hand in an honourable way"; the engagement was broken, leaving Gage broken-hearted. In 1753, both Gage and his father stood for seats in Parliament. Both lost in the April 1754 election though his father had been a Member of Parliament for some years prior, they both contested the results, but his father died soon after, Gage withdrew his protest in early 1755, as his regiment was being sent to America following the outbreak of the French and Indian War.
In 1755 Gage's regiment was sent to North America as part of General Edward Braddock's expeditionary force, whose objective was the expulsion of French forces from the Ohio Country, territory disputed between French and British colonies where there had been military clashes in 1754. On this expedition Gage's regiment was in the vanguard of the troops when they came upon a company of French and Indians who were trying to set up an ambush; this skirmish began the Battle of the Monongahela, in which Braddock was mortally wounded, George Washington distinguished himself for his courage under fire and his leadership in organising the retreat. The commander of the 44th, Colonel Sir Peter Halkett, was one of many officers killed in the battle and Gage, who temporarily took command of the regiment, was wounded; the regiment was decimated, Captain Robert Orme levelled charges that poor field tactics on the part of Gage had led to the defeat. Gage and Washington maintained a somewhat friendly relationship for several years after the expedition, but distance and lack of frequent contact cooled the relationship.
By 1770, Washington was publicly condemning
The Villa Farnese known as Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy 50 kilometres north-west of Rome. This villa should not be confused both in Rome. A property of the Republic of Italy, Villa Farnese is run by the Polo Museale del Lazio; the Villa Farnese dominates its surroundings. It is a massive Renaissance and Mannerist construction, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills, it is built on a five-sided plan in reddish gold stone. As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, Caprarola has always been an expression of Farnese power, rather than a villa in the more usual agricultural or pleasure senses. In 1504, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, acquired the estate at Caprarola, he had designs made for a fortified castle or rocca by the architects Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Baldassare Peruzzi. Surviving plan drawings by Peruzzi show a pentagonal arrangement with each face of the pentagon canted inwards towards its center, to permit raking fire upon a would-be scaling force, both from the center and from the projecting bastions that advance from each corner angle of the fortress.
Peruzzi's plan shows a central pentagonal courtyard and it is that the development of the circular central court was determined by the necessities of the pentagonal plan. The pentagonal fortress foundations, constructed between 1515 and 1530, became the base upon which the present villa sits. Subsequently, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, a grandson of Pope Paul III, a man, known for promoting his family's interests, planned to turn this constructed fortified edifice into a villa or country house. In 1556, he commissioned Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola as his architect, building work commenced in 1559 and Vignola continued to work on the villa at Caprarola until his death in 1573. Farnese was a courteous man of letters, he therefore selected Caprarola on the family holding of Ronciglione, being both near and yet far enough from Rome as the ideal place to build a country house. The villa is one of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. Ornament is used sparingly to achieve harmony, thus while the villa dominates the surroundings, its severe design complements the site.
This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier. Vignola, the architect chosen for this difficult and inhospitable site, had proved his mettle in designing Villa Giulia on the outskirts of Rome for the preceding pope, Julius III. Vignola in his youth had been influenced by Michelangelo. For the villa at Caprarola, his plans as built were for a pentagon constructed around a circular colonnaded courtyard. In the galleried court, paired Ionic columns flank niches containing busts of the Roman Emperors, above a rusticated arcade, a reworking of Bramante's scheme for the "House of Raphael", in the Borgo rione, Rome. A further Bramantesque detail is the entablature that breaks forward over the columns, linking them above, while they stand on separate bases; the interior loggia formed by the arcade is frescoed with Raphaelesque grotesques, in the manner of the Vatican Logge. The gallery and upper floors were reached by five spiral staircases around the courtyard: the most important of these is the Scala Regia rising through the principal floors.
The approach to the Villa Farnese is from the town's main street, centred on the villa, to a piazza from which stairs ascend to a series of terraces beginning with the subterranean basement excavated from the tuff, surrounded by steep curving steps leading to the terrace above. This basement floor in the foundations, which functioned as a carriage entrance in inclement weather, features a massive central column with a series of buttresses and retaining walls; this in turn has a formal double staircase to the principal entrance on the Piano dei Prelati floor, accessed from the broad terrace. This bastion-like floor, which appears in the elevation as a second ground floor, is rusticated, the main door a severe arch flanked by three windows on each side; the facade at this level is terminated by massive solid corner projections. Above this is the double-height piano nobile, where five huge arched windows incongruously dominate the facade over the front door; the villa's interiors are arranged over each floor designed for a different function.
The main rooms are located on the first floor or piano nobile, where a large central loggia looks down over the town, its main street and the surrounding countryside. This hall is known as the Room of Hercules on account of its fresco decorations, was used as a summer dining hall, it has a grotto-like fountain with sculpture at one end. To either side of the loggia are two circular rooms: one is the chapel, the other accommodates the principal staircase or Scala Regia, a graceful spiral of steps supported by pairs