William Lindley

William Lindley, was an English engineer who together with his sons designed water and sewerage systems for over 30 cities across Europe. As a young engineer he worked together with Marc Isambard Francis Giles. In 1834 he went to Germany as Giles' assistant to survey the railway route from Lübeck to Hamburg. A few years in 1838, he was commissioned to build the Hamburg-Bergedorf Railway Company, the first railway line, carried out in northern Germany; the official opening had to be cancelled as a catastrophic fire in May 1842 left a third of the town in ruins. Lindley became a member of the Technical Commission for the reconstruction of the town centre and designed the first fundamental plan for the reconstruction of the city. For the engineer, commissioned to design a new sewer system for Hamburg, the destruction was an opportunity to modernise the city, his designs, influenced by English social reformer and public health inspector Edwin Chadwick, included the first underground sewers in continental Europe.

Within three years 11 km of sewers had been built in Hamburg, Lindley began work on a waterworks to supply the city with drinking water. In the following years he helped design and build water systems in a number of other German cities and towns such as Altona and Leipzig. At Hamburg Lindley developed an increasing interest in urban planning. In 1840 he was commissioned to drain the Hammerbrook marshes, east of the town centre of Hamburg; this drainage system, implemented by the construction of a grid of canals connected by locks with the Elbe river, provided the basis of the first modern suburb at Hamburg as an industrial area. In 1855 he designed an early master plan for the development of the areas west of the town centre, but as his design for the Hamburg harbour was used, the plan was not carried out. Due to the re-organisation of the Hamburg building authorities he gave up his position as a consultant of the Baudeputation in 1860, moved with his family to London, including his three young sons – William Heerlein Lindley, Robert Searles Lindley and Joseph Lindley.

In 1863 he began work on the sewerage system of Frankfurt am Main, the benefits of which became apparent as between 1868 and 1883 the death rate from typhoid fell from 80 to 10 per 100,000 inhabitants. Lindley's designs were in demand across Europe, together with his sons he built systems for cities in Germany and elsewhere, including Saint Petersburg, Budapest and Moscow. In 1876 the Australian city of Sydney asked him to design a sewer system for them, but he turned them down as he had just been commissioned by Warsaw. Between 1876 and 1878 he designed the Warsaw waterworks, which were constructed between 1881 and 1889 under the direction of his son, William Heerlein Lindley. To this day, there is a street in Warsaw named after him, which goes around the historical waterworks. Named after the Lindleys' handiwork is "Filter Street"; as an interesting sidenote, the system that William Lindley designed for Warsaw is still operational, the last sewer collector of his design was not replaced until 2001.

Lindley memorial is located in Hamburg near underground station Baumwall at the entrance to sewage system, 53.544198°N 9.979411°E / 53.544198. William Lindley in Hamburg and Europe"; the small "Lindleystraße" in Hamburg's Rothenburgsort. An English Heritage Blue Plaque commemorating William Lindley and his son Sir William Heerlein Lindley was unveiled on 22 April 2015 at 74 Shooters Hill Road, London SE3 7BG. A memorial bench to Lindley and his sons is located in Multimedialny Fountain Park, near the Old Town in Warsaw, Poland; the bench is fashioned out of water pipes, with a statue of Lindley standing next to it, his hand turning a stopcock. Gustav Leo, William Lindley. Ein Pionier der technischen Hygiene, Hamburg 1969. Ortwin Pelc/ Susanne Grötz, Konstrukteur der modernen Stadt. William Lindley in Hamburg und Europa 1808–1900, exhibition catalogue Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte 01.10.2008–22.09.2008, Hamburg 2008. Lindleyowie Dzieje inzynierskiego rodu, Ryszard Zelichowski ISBN 83-88794-91-4 Norbert Wierecky: Ingenieurportrait von William Lindley.

Pionier der technischen Hygiene. In: Deutsche Bauzeitung, Bd. 137, 6, S.84–90, Online-Version, ISSN 0721-1902 "Lindley, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Beare, Thomas Hudson. "Lindley, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Apollo 1

Apollo 1 designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program, the undertaking to land the first men on the Moon. Planned as the first low Earth orbital test of the Apollo command and service module, to launch on February 21, 1967, the mission never flew. "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, Pilot Roger B. Chaffee—and destroyed the command module; the name Apollo 1, chosen by the crew, was made official by NASA in their honor after the fire. After the fire, NASA convened the Apollo 204 Accident Review Board to determine the cause of the fire, both houses of the United States Congress conducted their own committee inquiries to oversee NASA's investigation; the ignition source of the fire was determined to be electrical, the fire spread due to combustible nylon material, the high pressure, pure oxygen cabin atmosphere. Rescue was prevented by the plug door hatch, which could not be opened against the internal pressure of the cabin; because the rocket was unfueled, the test had not been considered hazardous, emergency preparedness for it was poor.

During the Congressional investigation, Senator Walter Mondale publicly revealed a NASA internal document citing problems with prime Apollo contractor North American Aviation, which became known as the "Phillips Report". This disclosure embarrassed NASA Administrator James E. Webb, unaware of the document's existence, attracted controversy to the Apollo program. Despite congressional displeasure at NASA's lack of openness, both congressional committees ruled that the issues raised in the report had no bearing on the accident. Manned Apollo flights were suspended for 20 months while the command module's hazards were addressed. However, the development and uncrewed testing of the lunar module and Saturn V rocket continued; the Saturn IB launch vehicle for Apollo 1, SA-204, was used for the first LM test flight, Apollo 5. The first successful crewed Apollo mission was flown by Apollo 1's backup crew on Apollo 7 in October 1968. AS-204 was to be the first crewed test flight of the Apollo command and service module to Earth orbit, launched on a Saturn IB rocket.

AS-204 was to test launch operations, ground tracking and control facilities and the performance of the Apollo-Saturn launch assembly and would have lasted up to two weeks, depending on how the spacecraft performed. The CSM for this flight, number 012 built by North American Aviation, was a Block I version designed before the lunar orbit rendezvous landing strategy was chosen; this was incorporated into the Block II CSM design, along with lessons learned in Block I. Block II would be test-flown with the LM when the latter was ready, would be used on the Moon landing flights. Director of Flight Crew Operations Deke Slayton selected the first Apollo crew in January 1966, with Grissom as Command Pilot, White as Senior Pilot, rookie Donn F. Eisele as Pilot, but Eisele dislocated his shoulder twice aboard the KC135 weightlessness training aircraft, had to undergo surgery on January 27. Slayton replaced him with Chaffee, NASA announced the crew selection on March 21, 1966. James McDivitt, David Scott and Russell Schweickart were named as the backup crew.

On September 29, Walter Schirra and Walter Cunningham were named as the prime crew for a second Block I CSM flight, AS-205. NASA planned to follow this with an uncrewed test flight of the LM the third crewed mission would be a dual flight designated AS-278, in which AS-207 would launch the first crewed Block II CSM, which would rendezvous and dock with the LM launched uncrewed on AS-208. In March, NASA was studying the possibility of flying the first Apollo mission as a joint space rendezvous with the final Project Gemini mission, Gemini 12 in November 1966, but by May, delays in making Apollo ready for flight just by itself, the extra time needed to incorporate compatibility with the Gemini, made that impractical. This became moot when slippage in readiness of the AS-204 spacecraft caused the last-quarter 1966 target date to be missed, the mission was rescheduled for February 21, 1967. In October 1966, NASA announced the flight would carry a small television camera to broadcast live from the command module.

The camera would be used to allow flight controllers to monitor the spacecraft's instrument panel in flight. Television cameras were carried aboard all crewed Apollo missions. Grissom's crew received approval in June 1966 to design a mission patch with the name Apollo 1; the design's center depicts a command and service module flying over the southeastern United States with Florida prominent. The Moon is seen in symbolic of the eventual program goal. A yellow border carries the mission and astronaut names with another border set with stars and stripes, trimmed in gold; the insignia was designed by the crew, with the artwork done by North American Aviation employee Allen Stevens. The Apollo command and service module was much bigger and far more complex than any implemented spacecraft design. In October 1963, Joseph F. Shea was named Apollo Spacecraft Program Office manager, responsible for managing the design and construction of both the CSM and the LM. In a spacecraft review meeting held with Shea on August 19, 1966, the crew expressed concern about the amount of flammable material in the ca

Diocalandra frumenti

Diocalandra frumenti known as the palm weevil borer, the lesser coconut weevil, or four-spotted coconut weevil, is a species of weevil in the family Curculionidae. It occurs in Africa, Southern Asia and Northern Australia, is a pest of coconut and other palm trees. Diocalandra frumenti is found in Somalia, Madagascar, the Seychelles, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Singapore, the Philippines, Taiwan, Papua New Guinea, various Pacific island groups and Australia, it has been recorded in the Canary Islands. Although infesting a number of species of palm, it is a major pest of coconut, oil palm, Canary Island date palm, date palm, California fan palm and Mexican fan palm; the adult Diocalandra frumenti is about 7 mm long. It is a glossy black colour with four large rusty-brown or blackish-brown coloured spots on the elytra (wing covers}; the female lays eggs in crevices in the stems of palms. The larvae bore into the stem. After eight to ten weeks they pupate, the adult emerging from the pupal case about eleven days later.

Eggs may be laid among the flowers, in cracks in the leaf or flower stalks, or near the base of the stem just above the adventitious roots. As the larvae bore deeper into the palm, a gummy exudate forms in the entry hole; the galleries can damage any part of the palm including the roots. Leaves may turn yellow and fruit may drop off, severe infestations may cause the plant to die, it has been found that the males emit a pheromone which attract females, this may make it possible to trap the insects, which are strong fliers, reduce the level of infestation. The weevil has a number of natural enemies including a parasite Spathius apicalis, a predatory fly Chrysophilus ferruginosus and a predatory beetle Plaesius javanus