John Morin Scott
John Morin Scott was a lawyer, military officer, statesman before and after the American Revolution. The Scott family descends from Sir John Scott, Baronet, of Ancrum, Roxburghshire in Scotland, whose second son, Captain John Scott, emigrated to New York City, where he received the rights of citizenship in 1702, he had nine children, the eldest of, John Scott, a Manhattan merchant, who married Marian Morin, daughter of Huguenot settler Pierre Morin. Their only child was John Morin Scott. Scott attended public school there, his father died when he was three years old, his mother never remarried. He graduated Yale College in 1746, at the age of 16. After further study he was admitted to the New York bar association in 1752, practiced law in Manhattan, where he served as an alderman from 1756 to 1761. In 1752, along with William Livingston and William Smith, he founded a weekly journal, the Independent Reflector. During the Revolutionary War, John Scott was a member of the New York Provincial Congress while serving as a brigadier general under George Washington in the New York and New Jersey campaign.
He commanded the 1st New York Battalion, the 2nd New York Battalion, several New York Militia Regiments. He fought with Putnam's division at the Battle of Brooklyn on August 27, 1776, was the last of Washington's generals to argue against surrendering Manhattan to the British—possibly due to his large landholdings there, including what is now Times Square and New York City's Theater District. Twenty days on September 16, 1776, Scott led the same battalions and regiments at the Battle of Harlem Heights, an American victory. On October 28, 1776, his forces participated in the Battle of White Plains. After the war, Scott regained his Manhattan estate and was a candidate for the first governorship of New York State, losing to George Clinton, he became, New York's first Secretary of State, a state senator, served as an active delegate to the Continental Congress. His body is interred at the north entrance of New York, his inscribed slab is visible from the corner of Wall Broadway. An equestrian statue is erected in his honor in Upper Manhattan.
Lewis Allaire Scott, John's son, was one of the two Deputy Secretaries of State during his father's tenure, in 1784 was appointed to succeed him, dying in office in 1798. Sons of Liberty founding member New York alderman New York General Committee member New York Provincial Congress member Brigadier General of the New York Militia during the Revolutionary War Member of the State of New York committee to author a state constitution New York State Senator, Southern District New York delegate in the Continental Congress Secretary of State of New York. "John Morin Scott". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-22; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Political Graveyard Google Book Lifes of Eminent Philadelphians, Now Deceased by Henry Simpson Dillon, Dorothy R; the New York Triumvirate: A Study of the Legal and Political Careers of William Livingston, John Morin Scott, William Smith, Jr..
New York: Columbia University Press, 1949. Reprint: 1968. ISBN 0-404-51548-7
The Livingston family of New York is a prominent family that migrated from Scotland to the Dutch Republic, to the Province of New York in the 17th century. Descended from the 4th Lord Livingston, its members included signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. Several members were Lords of Livingston Manor and Clermont Manor, located along the Hudson River in 18th-century eastern New York. Descendants of the Livingstons include Presidents of the United States George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, First Lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt, suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Congressman Bob Livingston of Louisiana, much of the wealthy Astor family, New York Governor Hamilton Fish, actor Montgomery Clift, actress Jane Wyatt; the eccentric Collyer brothers are alleged to have been descended from the Livingston family. The Livingston family's burial crypt was established in 1727 at Livingston Memorial Church and Burial Ground in New York. Liberty Hall is the home built by New Jersey Governor William Livingston, a signatory of the Constitution.
Located in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it is operated as a museum within the Liberty Hall Campus of Kean University. Notes SourcesRoyal Descents, Notable Kin, Printed Sources #69 by Gary Boyd Roberts from the New England Historic Genealogical Society. Genealogy of the Livingston Family by Timothy Alden, published in 1814. Finding aid for the Livingston Family Papers, 1719-1929 at the Museum of the City of New York The Livingstons of Livingston Manor by Edwin Brockholst Livingston
Mohawk Valley region
The Mohawk Valley region of the U. S. state of New York is the area surrounding the Mohawk River, sandwiched between the Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region's counties have a combined population of 622,133 people. In addition to the Mohawk River valley, the region contains portions of other major watersheds such as the Susquehanna River; the region is a suburban and rural area surrounding the industrialized cities of Schenectady and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. The 5,882 square miles area is an important agricultural center and encompasses the forested wilderness areas just to the north that are part of New York's Adirondack Park; the Mohawk Valley is a natural passageway connecting the Atlantic Ocean, by way of the Hudson Valley with the interior of North America. Native American Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy lived in the region, in the 17th century immigrants of Dutch, the 18th century German, Scottish settled the area, joined by Italians following the rapid industrialization of the mid-19th century.
During the 18th Century, the Mohawk Valley was a frontier of great political and economic importance. Colonists, such as Phillip Schuyler, Nicholas Herkimer, William Johnson, trading with the Iroquois set the stage for commercial and military competition between European nations, leading to the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution. 100 battles of the American Revolution were fought in New York State, including the Battle of Oriskany and defense of Fort Stanwix. A series of raids against valley residents took place during the war; the Erie Canal was completed in 1825 as the first commercial connection between the American East and West. During the French and Indian War, the Mohawk Valley was of prime strategic importance. In addition, many settlements of the Mohawk, Britain's crucial Indian ally at the time of the war, were located in or near the valley. At the beginning of the war, the major British stronghold in the Mohawk corridor was Fort Oswego, located on Lake Ontario; the French captured and destroyed the fort after a short siege in 1756, the Mohawk Valley lay open to French advance as a result.
Although the French did not directly exploit this avenue of attack, its impact swayed some of the Iroquois tribes to the French side. The original inhabitants of common day Mohawk Valley are traced back as far as 10,000 plus years and included Algonquian people that relocated from the newly established Fort Orange Dutch trading post region as early as 1624, otherwise as the name implies, the inhabitants were and remained Mohawks; the name Mohawk Valley had its origins in the time period of 1614 and 1624-25 following the settlement of Dutch traders who established a post among the region of the Mohawk of Mohawk Valley as the Mohawk had become alliances and targets of the Indian Wars. The Mohawks of Mohawk Valley call themselves Kanien'keha'ka, "People of the Flint" in part due to their creation story of a powerful flinted arrow. Among other things, the traditional use of Mohawk Valley flint as Toolmaking Flint is only one attribution to the Mohawk Valley People of the Flint name. Schenectady Montgomery Fulton Herkimer Oneida OtsegoAlso, Schoharie County is sometimes considered to be part of the Mohawk Valley because the Schoharie Creek located in Schoharie County, is a major tributary that empties into the Mohawk River at Fort Hunter in Montgomery County.
Furthermore, the northern border of Schoharie County with Montgomery County is close to the Mohawk River. Montgomery CountyAmsterdam Canajoharie Fonda Fort Plain Fultonville Nelliston Palatine Bridge St. JohnsvilleFulton CountyGloversville JohnstownHerkimer CountyFrankfort Herkimer Ilion Little Falls MohawkOneida CountySherrill Rome UticaOtsego CountyCooperstown OneontaSchenectady CountyRotterdam SchenectadySchoharie CountyMiddleburgh Schoharie Cobleskill Mohawk Valley formula Burning of the Valleys Military Association Fort Johnson in the Mohawk Valley Mohawk Valley Heritage Corridor Commission For a fictional account of Mohawk prowess, see Moss, Robert; the Interpreter. New York City, NY: Tom Doherty. Pp. 53–65, 69, 94–96. ISBN 0-312-85739-X. Mohawk Valley is an important site in the video game Assassin's Creed III published by Ubisoft; the game takes place during the Revolutionary War era and features an assassin tasked with playing a role in the history of early America. The Mohawk Valley has an official preliminary to Miss New York and Miss America, Miss Mohawk Valley Scholarship Organization Mohawk Valley Views Video on YouTube
Sir Edmund Andros was an English colonial administrator in North America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served as governor of the provinces of New York and West Jersey and Maryland. Before his service in North America, he served as Bailiff of Guernsey, his tenure in New England was authoritarian and turbulent, as his views were decidedly pro-Anglican, a negative quality in a region home to many Puritans. His actions in New England resulted in his overthrow during the 1689 Boston revolt. Andros was considered to have been a more effective governor in New York and Virginia, although he became the enemy of prominent figures in both colonies, many of whom worked to remove him from office. Despite these enmities, he managed to negotiate several treaties of the Covenant Chain with the Iroquois, establishing a long-lived peace involving the colonies and other tribes that interacted with that confederacy, his actions and governance followed the instructions he was given upon appointment to office, he received approbation from the monarchs and governments that appointed him.
Andros was recalled to England from Virginia in 1698, resumed the title of Bailiff of Guernsey. Although he no longer resided on Guernsey, he was appointed lieutenant governor of the island, served in this position for four years. Andros died in 1714. Andros was born in London on 6 December 1637. Amice Andros, his father, was Bailiff of Guernsey and a staunch supporter of Charles I, his mother was Elizabeth Stone, whose sister was a courtier to the king's sister, Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia. Although it has been claimed that Andros was present at the surrender in 1651 of Guernsey's Castle Cornet, the last royalist stronghold to surrender in the English Civil War, there is no firm evidence to support this, it is possible that he fled Guernsey with his mother in 1645. In 1656, he was apprenticed to Sir Robert Stone, captain of a cavalry company. Andros served in two winter campaigns in Denmark, including the relief of Copenhagen in 1659; as a result of these experiences he gained fluency in French and Dutch.
He remained a firm supporter of the Stuarts. Charles II, after his restoration to the throne commended the Andros family for its support. Andros served as a courtier to Elizabeth of Bohemia from 1660 until her death in 1662. In 1671, he married Mary Craven, the daughter of Thomas Craven of Burnsall in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the son of a cousin to the Earl of Craven, one of the queen's closest advisors, a friend who served as his patron for many years. During the 1660s he served in the English army against the Dutch, he was next commissioned a major in the regiment of Sir Tobias Bridge, sent to Barbados in 1666. He returned to England two years carrying despatches and letters. After his father died in 1674, Andros acquired Sausmarez Manor and was named to succeed him as Bailiff of Guernsey, he was appointed by the Duke of York to be the first proprietary governor of the Province of New York. The province's territory included the former territories of New Netherland, ceded to England by the Treaty of Westminster, including all of present-day New Jersey, the Dutch holdings on the Hudson River from New Amsterdam to Albany, as well as Long Island, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket.
In 1664 Charles II had granted James all of this territory, as well as all of the land in present-day Maine between the Kennebec and St. Croix Rivers, but with the intervening Dutch retaking of the territory, Charles issued a new patent to James. Andros arrived in New York harbor in late October, negotiated the handover of the Dutch territories with local representatives and Dutch Governor Anthony Colve, which took place on 10 November 1674. Andros agreed to confirm the existing property holdings and to allow the Dutch inhabitants of the territory to maintain their Protestant religion. Andros was involved in boundary disputes with the neighboring Connecticut Colony. Dutch claims had extended as far east as the Connecticut River, but these claims had been ceded in the 1650 Treaty of Hartford, reduced to a boundary line 20 miles east of the Hudson in 1664. York's territorial claim did not acknowledge these, Andros announced to Connecticut authorities his intentions to reclaim that territory in early 1675.
Connecticut leaders pointed out the revisions to Connecticut's boundaries, but Andros pressed his claim, arguing that those revisions had been superseded by York's grant. Andros used the outbreak of King Philip's War in July 1675 as an excuse to go by ship to Connecticut with a small military force to establish the duke's claim; when he arrived at Saybrook at the mouth of the river on 8 July he found the fort there occupied by Connecticut militia, who were flying the English flag. Andros came ashore, had a brief conversation with the fort commander, read his commission, returned to New York City; this was the full extent of Andros' attempt to claim the territory, but it would be remembered in Connecticut when attempts were made to assert New York authority. Following his Connecticut expedition, Andros traveled into Iroquois country to establish relations there, he was well received, agreed to continue the Dutch practice of supplying firearms to the Iroquois. This action blunted French diplomatic successes with the Iroquois.
It led to charges in New England that Andros provided arms to Indians allied to King Philip.
Constitutional Convention (United States)
The Constitutional Convention took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one; the delegates elected George Washington of Virginia, former commanding general of the Continental Army in the late American Revolutionary War and proponent of a stronger national government, to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the Constitution of the United States, placing the Convention among the most significant events in American history. At the time, the convention was not referred to as a "Constitutional" convention, nor did most of the delegates arrive intending to draft a new constitution.
Many assumed that the purpose of the convention was to discuss and draft improvements to the existing Articles of Confederation, would have not agreed to participate otherwise. Once the Convention began, most of the delegates – though not all – came to agree in general terms that the goal would be a new system of government, not a revised version of the Articles of Confederation. Several broad outlines were proposed and debated, most notably James Madison's Virginia Plan and William Paterson's New Jersey Plan; the Virginia Plan was selected as the basis for the new government, but several issues delayed further progress and put the success of the Convention in doubt. The most contentious disputes revolved around composition and election of the upper legislative house in the future bicameral Congress, to be known as the Senate, how "proportional representation" was to be defined, whether to divide the executive power between three persons or invest the power into a single chief executive to be called the President, how to elect the President, how long his term was to be and whether he could run for reelection, what offenses should be impeachable, the nature of a fugitive slave clause, whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade, whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or executive.
Most of the time during the Convention was spent on deciding these issues. Progress was slow until mid-July, when the Connecticut Compromise resolved enough lingering arguments for a draft written by the Committee of Detail to gain acceptance. Though more modifications and compromises were made over the following weeks, most of the rough draft remained in place and can be found in the finished version of the Constitution. After several more issues were resolved, the Committee on Style produced the final version in early September, it was voted on by the delegates, inscribed on parchment with engraving for printing, signed by thirty-nine of fifty-five delegates on September 17, 1787. The completed proposed Constitution was released to the public to begin the debate and ratification process. Before the Constitution was drafted, the nearly 4 million inhabitants of the 13 newly independent states were governed under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, created by the Second Continental Congress, first proposed in 1776, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778 and only unanimously ratified by the Original Thirteen States by 1781.
It soon became evident to nearly all that the chronically underfunded Confederation government, as organized, was inadequate for managing the various conflicts that arose among the states. As the Articles of Confederation could only be amended by unanimous vote of the states, any state had effective veto power over any proposed change. In addition, the Articles gave the weak federal government no taxing power: it was wholly dependent on the states for its money, had no power to force delinquent states to pay. Once the immediate task of winning the American Revolutionary War of 1775 to 1783 had passed, the states began to look to their own interests, disputes arose; these included a dispute between Maryland and Virginia over the Potomac River and opposition to Rhode Island's imposing taxes on all traffic passing through it on the post road. James Madison suggested that state governments should appoint commissioners "to take into consideration the trade of the United States. Another impetus for the convention was Shays' Rebellion of 1786-1787.
A political conflict between Boston merchants and rural farmers over issues including tax debts had broken out into an open rebellion. This rebellion was led by a former Revolutionary War captain, Daniel Shays, a small farmer with tax debts, who had never received payment for his service in the Continental Army; the rebellion took months for Massachusetts to put down and some desired a federal army that would be able to put down such insurrections. These and other issues worried many of the Founders that the Union as it existed up to that point was in danger of breaking apart, being subject to the persuasion of foreign powers. In September 1786, at the Annapolis Convention, delegates from five states called f
Samuel Johnson (American educator)
Samuel Johnson was a clergyman, linguist, encyclopedist and philosopher in colonial America. He was a major proponent of both Anglicanism and the philosophies of William Wollaston and George Berkeley in the colonies and served as the first president of the Anglican King's College, was a key figure of the American Enlightenment. Johnson was born in Guilford, the son of a fulling miller, Samuel Johnson Sr. and great-grandson of Robert Johnson, a founder of New Haven Colony, Connecticut. But it was his grandfather William Johnson, a state assemblyman, village clerk, grammar school teacher, militia leader and church deacon who most influenced him, his grandfather taught him English at age four, Hebrew at five. After studying Latin with local ministers and schoolmasters in Guilford and Middleton, including Jared Eliot, Johnson left Guilford at age 13 to attend the Collegiate School at Saybrook in 1710. There he studied the Reformation logic of Petrus Ramus and the orthodox Puritan theology of Johannes Wolleb and William Ames.
He graduated in 1714 as class Valedictorian with a bachelor's degree, in 1717 was awarded a master's degree. Johnson began teaching grammar school in Guilford in 1713 while a student a Yale, he would continue to teach adults all this life, spending nearly 60 years as a teacher. In 1714, he began to write a short work titled Synopsis Philosophiae Naturalis summing up what the Puritan Mind knew of natural philosophy. Leaving this attempt incomplete, he began working instead for his master's thesis by writing in Latin a more ambitious "encyclopedia of all knowledge", titled Technologia Sive Technometria or Ars Encyclopaidia, Manualis Ceu Philosophia, it was a systematic exploration of all knowledge available to Johnson based on the methods of the Reformation logician Petrus Ramus. His work on this logical exploration of the Puritan New England Mind would result in 1271 hierarchically arranged thesis, it has been called by Norman Fiering “the best surviving American example of student application of Ramist method to the whole body of human knowledge”.
His work on the Encyclopaidia was interrupted when a donation of 800 books collected by Colonial Agent Jeremiah Dummer was sent to Yale late in 1714. He discovered Francis Bacon’s Advancement of Learning, the works of John Locke and Isaac Newton and other Enlightenment era authors not known to the tutors and graduates of Puritan Yale and Harvard. Johnson wrote in his Autobiography, “All this was like a flood of day to his low state of mind”, that “he found himself like one at once emerging out of the glimmer of twilight into the full sunshine of open day". Though he finished his Latin Ramist thesis, he now considered what he had learned at Yale “nothing but the scholastic cobwebs of a few little English and Dutch systems that would hardly now be taken up in the street.”He used what he learned in the next two years to write in English a Revised Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It was prefixed by a hierarchical Table or map of the intellectual world outlining the sum of all knowledge, it would be the first of a series of tables categorizing "the sum of knowledge" into more complex tables used for both categorizing knowledge for libraries and to define curriculum in schools.
If he had published the work, it would have predated the first comprehensive English-language encyclopedia, Ephraim Chambers's 1728 Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, by twelve years. In 1716, Johnson was appointed the senior tutor at Yale. Founded in 1701, Yale was located on a small neck of land in Connecticut. By 1716, Saybrook Point was considered too small to handle the needs of the growing school. Connecticut Governor Gurdon Saltonstall and seven Yale trustees proposed moving the college to New Haven, Connecticut, they were opposed by three trustees, two of whom split the college, opened a schismatic branch in Wethersfield, taking half the students and the junior Yale tutor with them. For over two years Tutor Johnson was the sole member of the Yale faculty and the only administrator on-site at the college in New Haven. Unsupervised, he took the opportunity to introduce the Enlightenment into Yale; when Johnson's close friend Daniel Brown left his position as Rector of Hopkin's Grammar School and was formally hired as a second tutor in 1718, Johnson found time to create the first catalog of books of Yale's expanded library, between 1717 and 1719, to write up Historical Remarks Concerning the Collegiate School, the first history of Yale.
Johnson's first publication was a broadside printed for the 1718 Yale Commencement, which contained Latin commencement thesis. It shows that Johnson taught Locke, Copernican astronomy, modern medicine and biology, for the first time in an American college, algebra; the next year was one of tumult. In November 1718, Govern Saltonstall forced the schismatic Wethersfield students, including a young Jonathan Edwards, to come to New Haven; the Wethersfield students were rebellious. Johnson attempted to teach them his Enlightenment curriculum, the schismatic students complained that he was a poor teacher, they returned to Wethersfield in January, 1719. After the spring 1719 elections confirmed Saltonstall as Governor, the schematic trustees and students gave up and returned to New Haven. However, according to historian Joseph Ellis, "Johnson's presence precluded its reunification" so he was "sacrifice
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t