SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William M. Tweed

William Magear Tweed – erroneously referred to as "William Marcy Tweed", known as "Boss" Tweed – was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railroad, a director of the Tenth National Bank, a director of the New-York Printing Company, proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel, a significant stockholder in iron mines and gas companies, a board member of the Harlem Gas Light Company, a board member of the Third Avenue Railway Company, a board member of the Brooklyn Bridge Company, the president of the Guardian Savings Bank. Tweed was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1852 and the New York County Board of Supervisors in 1858, the year he became the head of the Tammany Hall political machine, he was elected to the New York State Senate in 1867, but Tweed's greatest influence came from being an appointed member of a number of boards and commissions, his control over political patronage in New York City through Tammany, his ability to ensure the loyalty of voters through jobs he could create and dispense on city-related projects.

Tweed was convicted for stealing an amount estimated by an aldermen's committee in 1877 at between $25 million and $45 million from New York City taxpayers through political corruption, although estimates ranged as high as $200 million. Unable to make bail, he was returned to custody, he died in the Ludlow Street Jail. Tweed was born April 1823, at 1 Cherry Street, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan; the son of a third-generation Scottish chair-maker, Tweed grew up on Cherry Street. His grandfather arrived in the United States from a town near the River Tweed close to Edinburgh. Tweed's religious affiliation was not known in his lifetime, but at the time of his funeral the New York Times, quoting a family friend, reported that his parents had been Quakers and "members of the old Rose Street Meeting house". At the age of 11, he left school to learn his father's trade, became an apprentice to a saddler, he studied to be a bookkeeper and worked as a brushmaker for a company he had invested in, before joining in the family business in 1852.

On September 29, 1844, he married Mary Jane C. Skaden and lived with her family on Madison Street for two years. Tweed became a member of the Odd Fellows and the Masons, joined a volunteer fire company, Engine No. 12. In 1848, at the invitation of state assemblyman John J. Reilly, he and some friends organized the Americus Fire Company No. 6 known as the "Big Six", as a volunteer fire company, which took as its symbol a snarling red Bengal tiger from a French lithograph, a symbol which remained associated with Tweed and Tammany Hall for many years. At the time, volunteer fire companies competed vigorously with each other; the competition could be so fierce that buildings would sometimes burn down while the fire companies fought each other. Tweed became known for his ax-wielding violence, was soon elected the Big Six foreman. Pressure from Alfred Carlson, the chief engineer, got him thrown out of the crew, but fire companies were recruiting grounds for political parties at the time, Tweed's exploits came to the attention of the Democratic politicians who ran the Seventh Ward, who put him up for Alderman in 1850, when Tweed was 26.

He lost that election to the Whig candidate Morgan Morgans, but ran again the next year and won, garnering his first political position. Tweed became associated with the "Forty Thieves", the group of aldermen and assistant aldermen who, up to that point, were known as some of the most corrupt politicians in the city's history. Tweed was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1852, but his two-year term was undistinguished. In an attempt by Republican reformers in Albany, the state capital, to control the Democratic-dominated New York City government, the power of the New York County Board of Supervisors was beefed up; the board had 12 members, six appointed by the mayor and six elected, in 1858 Tweed was appointed to the board, which became his first vehicle for large-scale graft. By 1853, Tweed was running the seventh ward for Tammany; the board had six Democrats and six Republicans, but Tweed just bought off one Republican to sway the board. One such Republican board member was Peter P. Voorhis, a coal dealer by profession who absented himself from a board meeting in exchange for $2,500 so that the board could appoint city inspectors.

Henry Smith was another Republican, a part of the Tweed ring. Although he was not trained as a lawyer, Tweed's friend, Judge George G. Barnard, certified him as an attorney, Tweed opened a law office on Duane Street, he ran for sheriff in 1861 and was defeated, but became the chairman of the Democratic General Committee shortly after the election, was chosen to be the head of Tammany's general committee in January 1863. Several months in April, he became "Grand Sachem", began to be referred to as "Boss" after he tightened his hold on power by creating a small executive committee to run the club. Tweed took steps to increase his income: he used his law firm to extort money, disguised as legal services.

Edward Rice (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Edward Bridges Rice, was a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Commander-in-Chief, The Nore. Born the son of Edward Royd Rice MP, Rice joined the Royal Navy in 1832, he became mate in 1839, was on board HMS Dido which took part in operations on the Yangtze River in 1842 during the First Opium War. After promotion to lieutenant in 1844 and commander in 1850, he commanded a flotilla of boats on the Irrawaddy River in 1852 during the Second Anglo-Burmese War. Rice had charge of the seamen and naval guns on shore at the capture of Prome, for which he received the official thanks of the Governor-General in Council. In 1854, when commander of HMS Prometheus, he attacked the Riff pirates on shore near Cape Tres Forcas, recaptured an English brig. Promoted to captain in 1855, he commanded HMS Leander at Sevastopol during the closing stages of the Crimean War, he commanded HMS Royal Albert, HMS Algiers, HMS St George and HMS Asia, was aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria from 1869 to 1873. Promoted to flag rank as rear-admiral in 1873, he was appointed Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in 1875, Admiral Superintendent of Malta Dockyard in 1876 promoted to vice-admiral in 1878.

He was Commander-in-Chief, The Nore from 1882 until he retired in 1884, was promoted to admiral three days after his retirement. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1881, promoted to Knight Commander in the 1887 Golden Jubilee Honours list, he in retirement was Deputy Lieutenant of Kent. Rice was the father-in-law of the English architect William Curtis Green, he died at Dane Court on 30 October 1902, aged 83. Rice married in 1864 Cecilia Caroline Harcourt, daughter of Rev. William Vernon Harcourt, of Nuneham Park. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Rice, Edward Bridges". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource

Peter Marks

Peter Vincent Marks CBE is an English businessman, the former chief executive of the member-owned retailer The Co-operative Group. He went to St. Bede's Grammar School a state grammar school, in Heaton which he left at the age of 17 to work in a retail business. Marks became a management trainee in the food division of, he was appointed Assistant Personnel Manager in 1974 and Personnel Manager in 1976. In 1991 he was promoted to the position of Non-Food Trades Officer, responsible for the Department Stores and Travel divisions in February 1996 the Food Division was added to his responsibilities; that year he was appointed Chief general manager. Marks oversaw its disastrous takeover of Somerfield which culminated in the eventual disposal of 60% of stores. Appointed Deputy Chief Executive officer in 1999, Marks became Chief Executive in 2000. In September 2002 Yorkshire and United Norwest Co-operatives merged as United Co-operatives. In July 2007 United Co-operatives merged with the Co-operative Group and Marks became chief executive of the new merged organisation, replacing Martin Beaumont.

Until the merger, Marks was a director on the Co-operative Group board and is on the board of the Bradford Centre Regeneration Company. His basic salary in 2010 was £900,000, with a performance-related bonus of £449,000, his total emoluments in 2010 were £2,118,000, an increase of over 35% from the 2009 figure of £1,565,000. He announced his retirement as chief executive of the Co-operative Group in August 2012, not long after negotiating the potential purchase of 632 branches from Lloyds Banking Group, it was the failure of this purchase that made public the extent of the losses the Co-operative bank had inherited through its merger with the former Britannia building society. This led in 2013 to a requirement to re-capitalise the Co-operative bank, causing the Co-operative Group to lose overall of the bank by reducing their share from 100% to 20%. In December 2012 it was announced that Marks was to be appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to the retail trade.

Marks married Julia Law in Bradford in 1971. The couple live in Eldwick, West Yorkshire, he is a supporter of Bradford City Football Club