William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke called William the Marshal, was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman. He served five English kings – Henry II, his sons the "Young King" Henry, Richard I, John's son Henry III. Knighted in 1166, he spent his younger years as a knight errant and a successful tournament competitor. In 1189, he became the de facto Earl of Pembroke through his marriage to Isabel de Clare, though the title of earl would not be granted until 1199 during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. In 1216, he was appointed protector for the nine-year-old Henry III, regent of the kingdom. Before him, his father's family held a hereditary title of Marshal to the king, which by his father's time had become recognized as a chief or master Marshalcy, involving management over other Marshals and functionaries. William became known as'the Marshal', although by his time much of the function was delegated to more specialized representatives; because he was an Earl, known as the Marshal, the term "Earl Marshal" was used and this became an established hereditary title in the English Peerage.
All Kings of England, Great Britain and the United Kingdom since James VI and I have been cognatic descendants of William Marshal through his great-great-grandson Robert the Bruce. William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to support the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy"; when King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle in 1152, according to William's biographer, he used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept his promise to surrender the castle. John, used the time allotted to reinforce the castle and to alert Matilda's forces; when Stephen ordered John to surrender or William would be hanged, John replied that he should go ahead saying, "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Subsequently, a pretence was made to launch William from a pierrière towards the castle.
Stephen could not bring himself to harm young William. William remained a crown hostage for many months, was released following the peace resulting from the terms agreed at Winchester on 6 November 1153, by which the civil war was ended; as a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, had to make his own way in life. Around the age of twelve, when his father's career was faltering, he was sent to the Château de Tancarville in Normandy to be brought up in the household of William de Tancarville, a great magnate and cousin of young William's mother. Here he began his training as a knight; this would have included biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, some exposure to French romance literature to confer precepts of chivalry upon the future knight. In Tancarville's household he is likely to have learned important and lasting practical lessons in the politics of courtly life. According to his thirteenth-century biography, L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, Marshal had enemies at Tancarville's court who plotted against him — men threatened by his close relationship with the magnate.
He was knighted in 1166 on campaign in Upper Normandy being invaded from Flanders. His first experience in battle received mixed reviews. According to L'Histoire, everyone who witnessed the young knight in combat agreed that he had acquitted himself well. However, as medieval historian David Crouch remarks, "War in the twelfth century was not fought wholly for honour. Profit was there to be made..." In this regard Marshal was not so successful, as he was unable to parlay his combat victories into profit from either ransom or seized booty. L'Histoire relates that the Earl of Essex, expecting the customary tribute from his valorous knight after the battle, jokingly remarked: "Oh? But Marshal, what are you saying? You had forty or sixty of them — yet you refuse me so small a thing!"In 1167, he was taken by William de Tancarville to his first tournament, where he found his true métier. Quitting the Tancarville household he served in the household of his mother's brother, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168, his uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy de Lusignan.
William was injured and captured in the same skirmish, but Queen Eleanor, whom they were escorting, and, the target of the ambush, was able to escape. It is known that William received a wound to his thigh and that someone in his captor's household took pity on the young knight, he received a loaf of bread in which were concealed several lengths of clean linen bandages with which to dress his wounds. This act of kindness by an unknown person saved Marshal's life as infection setting into the wound could have killed him. After a period of time, he was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, impressed by tales of his bravery, he would remain a member of Queen Eleanor's household for the next two years attending a few tournaments during this time as well. In 1170, Marshal was appointed as Young King Henry's tutor-in-arms by the Young King's father, Henry II. During the Young King-led Revolt of 1173-1174, little is known of Marshal's specific activities besides his loyalty to the Young King. After the failed rebellion, Young King Henry and his retinue, including Marshal, traveled with Henry II for eighteen months, before asking for, receiving, permission to travel to Europe to participate in knightly tournaments.
Marshal followed the Young King
Melinda Qiaolian May is a fictional character that originated in the Marvel Cinematic Universe before appearing in Marvel Comics. The character, created by Joss Whedon, Jed Whedon and Maurissa Tancharoen, first appeared in the 2013 pilot episode of Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. and has continually been portrayed by Ming-Na Wen. In season one, Melinda May is brought on to the resurrected S. H. I. E. L. D. Agent Phil Coulson's team as pilot and field agent, to investigate superhumans and other related phenomena, she is shown to be in a relationship with fellow agent Grant Ward. Coulson tells agent Skye that May, during a mission in Bahrain in 2008, single-handedly took out a superhuman threat and several accomplices, saving a team of S. H. I. E. L. D. Agents, though a young girl was killed in the crossfire. Left traumatized by the experience, May withdrew from field duty, her trauma is shown to be healing. She ends her relationship with Ward. Unknown to Skye and Coulson, May is monitoring their conversation, reporting to someone else.
When the Hydra Uprising begins, May reveals that she knew the truth about Coulson's resurrection and was monitoring him on director Nick Fury's orders, Coulson refuses to trust her any more. Feeling unwanted, she leaves, she brings it back to Coulson. May incapacitates Ward, a double agent for Hydra, after Ward's mentor John Garrett's death, goes with the team to the Playground to help restart S. H. I. E. L. D. Under the newly promoted director Coulson. In season two, May is Coulson's unofficial deputy, she meets her ex-husband Andrew Garner. When another S. H. I. E. L. D. Faction led by Robert Gonzales emerges and occupies their base, May helps Coulson to escape, but accepts a position on Gonzales' board, it is revealed that in 2008 at Bahrain, the Inhuman Eva Belyakov and some gangsters took a S. H. I. E. L. D. Team and several locals hostage, May entered the building they were using to rescue the hostages, she found them acting out of character, they attacked her, but she defeated them and killed Eva in a fight, before discovering Eva's daughter Katya was the real threat, having taken control of the hostages to feed on their pain.
When Katya killed the Bahrainis she was controlling, May was forced to kill Katya. S. H. I. E. L. D. Assumed Eva was the threat and Katya was caught in the crossfire, May was lauded for saving the S. H. I. E. L. D. Team single-handedly and given the nickname'the Cavalry'; however she became traumatized. When the two S. H. I. E. L. D. Factions unite, May becomes a member of Coulson's council of advisors. At the end of the season, May takes a break from S. H. I. E. L. D. to be with Garner. In season three, May has been on leave from S. H. I. E. L. D. for six months and is looking after her father, injured in a car accident. Lance Hunter hopes that May will help him find and kill an absconding Ward, notes that she suspects that Ward was behind her father's accident, but May is hiding from her life at S. H. I. E. L. D. and difficulties in her relationships with Garner and Coulson. May is convinced by her father that getting back into her S. H. I. E. L. D. Life by going with Hunter is the best thing for her, the two leave to infiltrate the new ranks of Hydra.
She learns that Garner is the Inhuman serial killer Lash. May struggles with this revelation. H. I. E. L. D. as the agency attempts to bring down Gideon Malick and Hive, losing Garner in this battle. In season four, following the re-legalization of S. H. I. E. L. D. and the appointment of Jeffrey Mace as director, May is given the task of rebuilding and training the new STRIKE team. During one of her missions, she is touched by Lucy Bauer, a woman with ghost-like powers, causing her to become paranoid. Agent Jemma Simmons and S. H. I. E. L. D. Ally Holden Radcliffe "cure" May by killing and reviving her. Prior to S. H. I. E. L. D. Victory's on Eli Morrow, May was incapacitated and kidnapped by Radcliffe's android Aida and was replaced by an LMD of herself. After several escape attempts, May's mind is trapped inside the Framework, a virtual reality where she lives as a Hydra agent. With the help of Skye and Simmons, May escapes the Framework, only to face the threat of Aida, now an Inhuman. Following Aida's defeat and the others are sent to the year 2091 by an unknown force.
In season five and the others find themselves in the Lighthouse, a bunker used to contain the rest of humanity following Earth's destruction. May is sent to Earth's surface. There she meets Robin Hinton, raised by May in her past. Discovering the way to return to the present and the others return to the Lighthouse and manage to return to the present, they work to prevent the destruction of Earth, come into conflict with General Hale's Hydra, with an extraterrestrial force called the Confederacy. Following their victory over a gravitonium-enhanced Glenn Talbot, thus saving Earth, May joins Coulson, dying, on his final days on Tahiti. In season six, May assists in dealing with threats involving Izel, she gets stabbed by Sarge and sent to the other side, where she survives and prevents three of Izel's people from unleashing their kind. After returning to Earth, she kills Izel and collapses from her injuries. Simmons places May in a stasis pod so that she can recuperate. Wen was cast as May in October 2012.
Whedon had the character, listed with the name Agent Althea Rice on casting sheets, "rolling around in his head" for a long time. In preparation for the role, Wen
Martin Hollund is a Norwegian former footballer who played as a goalkeeper. During his active career he played for Brann and Løv-Ham in Norway, Hartlepool United in England, he has worked as a goalkeeper coach for Løv-Ham and Fyllingdalen. He hails from Bømlo. While playing for Brann, he was sold to Hartlepool United in 1997, playing 117 league games over five seasons, he retired from top-level football after the 2006 season. In 2007, he was a goalkeeper coach for Løv-Ham as well as a striker for Bremnes. Though he had retired from professional football, Hollund was on the bench for Løv-Ham in the 2010 season, in the 2011 season he was Løv-Ham's third choice goalkeeper. On 3 October 2011 he made his first appearance for the club since he retired in 2006, when he came in as a substitute after Johan Thorbjørnsen was sent off, he played the next match due to Thorbjørnsen's suspension and second-choice goalkeeper Harald Aksnes' injury. After the merge of Løv-Ham and Fyllingen, Hollund continued as goalkeeper coach of Fyllingsdalen.
1Includes one Third Division play-off match
The Medway and its tributaries and sub-tributaries have been used for over 1,150 years as a source of power. There are over two hundred sites; these uses included corn milling, paper making, iron smelting, pumping water, making gunpowder, vegetable oil extraction, electricity generation. Today, there is just one watermill working for trade; those that remain have been converted. Such conversions include a garage, restaurants, museums and a wedding venue; some watermills are lower walls or lesser remains. Of the majority, there is nothing to be seen. A large number of tributaries feed into the River Medway; the tributaries that powered watermills will be described in the order. The mills are described in oder from source to mouth. Left bank and right bank are referred to; this article covers the tributaries. A stream enters from the right bank shortly before Mill Place Mill. A gun foundry stood at Gravetye; the pond remains. A stream flows through East Grinstead, enters from the left bank shortly before Brambletye Mill.
This was the manorial mill to Imberhorne Manor. TQ 391 368 51°06′49″N 0°00′43″W Dunnings Mill was a corn mill, records date back to 1713, but the site could be earlier; the mill was demolished in the early years of the twentieth century, the site was marked in 1932 by the sluice gate. A pub stands with a modern waterwheel. A stream flows through Hartfield, entering the Medway from the left bank downstream of the B2026 bridge, it powered four watermills. TQ 441 384 51°07′36″N 0°03′37″E This forge may have been in existence in 1558, when Hugh Bottinge left "two tons of yron" in his will, it was working in 1653 but ruined by 1664. The dam has been recorded as 200 metres long; the mansion of Hammerwood takes its name from this forge. TQ 453 383 51°07′32″N 0°04′38″E This was a furnace and forge mentioned in 1563, it was in operation from 1574 to 1700. Michael Weston was the ironmaster in 1574 and in 1578 it passed to William Bowyer. Richard Stretfield was the ironmaster here in the late 16th century running Pilbeames forge.
Sackville Turner acquired the furnace in 1613, it was sold to the Courthopes in 1617. In 1639 it was acquired by John Maynard. Although it was working in 1653, it was ruined by 1664 but appears to have been put back to work, being mentioned in 1700; this mill was mentioned in 1598, it may have been a furnace. TQ 481 373 51°06′57″N 0°07′01″E A Domesday site. A mill was mentioned here in 1598; the surviving mill building dates to 1740. The mill was a corn mill with an overshot waterwheel of 11 feet 5 feet 6 inches wide; the Atherfold family were the millers from 1602 to the mid-1880s, although John Burfoot was recorded here in 1867. Alfred Tester was the miller in 1899, followed by the Barker family who ran the mill until 1948; the waterwheel was dismantled in 1977 following storm damage. The mill is now a small hotel, was featured in the 1995 film Carrington starring Emma Thompson and Jonathan Pryce; the Warren Brook rises below Crowborough Beacon and enters the Medway from the right bank downstream of the Hartfield Stream.
It powered six watermills. This furnace was mentioned in a survey of 1658 and marked on Kelton's map of 1747. Old mill was damaged by a fire in the early twentieth century. New mill was a corn mill. TQ 498 326 51°04′23″N 0°08′21″E Crowborough furnace was recorded as being in existence in 1593; the dam is recorded as 120 metres long and up to 3 metres high. Woodeaves Mill was a corn mill. TQ 496 356 51°06′00″N 0°08′15″E This was a corn mill. John Pulman was the miller in 1574 and 1595, it was recorded as Mousehold Mill in 1598. John Camfield was the tenant miller in 1782, followed by Peter Everest in 1788. J M W Turner sketched the mill c.1795. Mrs Everest was the tenant in 1798. Alfred Hall and Thomas Caffyn are recorded in 1838. Thomas Caffyn was the miller in 1843 taking Ashurst mill. Alfred Hall was the miller sometime before 1882. TQ 496 356 51°06′00″N 0°08′15″E A water powered pump was erected c.1900 on the site of Withyham mill. It had an 8 feet diameter waterwheel driving a three-throw pump; the derelict pump house survives.
A furze mill was recorded at Buckhurst Park in 1693. The Mill Brook rises in Ashdown Forest, entering the Warren Brook from the left bank downstream of Woodeaves Mill, shortly before the Warren Brook enters the Medway, it powered seven watermills. A mill was recorded in Nutley in 1564. TQ 450 316 approx. 51°03′55″N 0°04′13″E This was an ironworks, built c.1505. It was worked by John Glande in 1523 and mentioned in the will of Roger Machyn, proved in 1524, but stopped by 1539 although it was put to work again, being granted to Thomas Gaveller and Francis Challenor in 1549, John Gage in 1554. TQ 450 316 approx. 51°03′55″N 0°04′13″E Pippingford Furnace was the second blast furnace built, it was located close to the site of Steel Forge. The mill dam is recorded as 125 metres long and 3.5 metres high. The furnace was built sometime between 1693 and 1696, leased to Charles Manning of Dartford in 1717, it was marked as "New Furnace" on Budgen's map of 1724. A cannon was excavated here in 1970. TQ 456 325 51°04′24″N 0°04′45″E The first blast furnace built, at work in 1497, when the ironmaster was Simon Ballard.
The furnace was leased to Thomas Boleyn in 1525. It was last known to be working in 1574, the last reference occurs in 1603; the dam is recorded at 180 metres long and up to 3 metres
Point Clear is an unincorporated census-designated place in Baldwin County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,125, it is part of the Daphne–Fairhope–Foley Micropolitan Statistical Area. Point Clear is located at 30°29'48.505" North, 87°54'35.489" West. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.5 square miles is land and 0.43% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,876 people, 741 households, 546 families residing in the community; the population density was 331.1 people per square mile. There were 997 housing units at an average density of 176.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community was 56.13% White, 42.70% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.59 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 741 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families.
23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.98. In the community, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 28.1% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the community was $37,305, the median income for a family was $45,729. Males had a median income of $39,844 versus $14,556 for females; the per capita income for the community was $26,271. About 16.1% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.2% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1944, Point Clear's Grand Hotel served as the base of operations for Operation Ivory Soap in World War II. In the Pacific Theater, the United States utilized the Leapfrogging as a means of capturing islands held by the Japanese that were of strategic or tactical advantage.
The Commander of the U. S. Army Air Corps, Henry "Hap" Arnold, understood the American planes needed mobile air depots to support their efforts in the Pacific. Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Thompson, oversaw Operation Ivory Soap from a Suite in the Grand Hotel; the Nineteenth Century Alabama Hotel housed soldiers and served as a maritime training facility training troops in skills including swimming, special calisthenics, drill, ship identification, cargo handling, ship orientation, sail making and amphibious operations. The school produced 5000 trained Army seamen who took part in operations in the Philippines, Iwo Jima, Guam; the training these troops received thanks to Operation Ivory Soap allowed the soldiers to help save countless lives and aircraft. The name "Ivory Soap" according to Col. Thompson was derived from the fact that like the experimental Aircraft Repair Units the military wanted to deploy, ivory soap floats; the Grand Hotel is still in operation on the eastern shore of Mobile Bay today.
From as early as the 1800s, wealthy families from Mobile, New Orleans and across the United States chose to spend their summers in Point Clear. In the days of yellow fever outbreaks, Pt. Clear residents believed they were escaping to what was deemed as "good air" because of the daily breeze off Mobile Bay. Arrival to the area was traditionally by ferry boat and most people arrived in Pt. Clear at Zundel's Wharf; because of this, the front of the homes face Mobile Bay and there is a boardwalk between the water and the homes leading to and from Zundel's Wharf. Remnants of the old pier at the Zundel property were still visible prior to Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Eastern Shore
Michel-Barthélémy Ollivier was a French painter and engraver. He specialized in genre scenes, he came from a family of painters, including his father, grandfather Antoine and cousin Cosme. He attended the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, he studied with Charles-André van Loo. When Van Loo's nephew, Louis-Michel van Loo, was appointed a court painter to King Philip V of Spain, Ollivier accompanied him to Madrid, he had returned to Paris by 1750, when he married Faronne-Marie-Madeleine Lefebvre, but returned to Spain with her and remained there until 1763. He was certified as a genre painter at the Académie de Saint-Luc in 1764 and, two years became an "agré" at the Académie royale. In 1772, he visited England. Many of his works were created for Louis François, Prince of Conti, for whom he was the "peintre ordinaire", his works may be seen at the Musée des beaux-arts de Bordeaux, the Louvre and the Musée des beaux-arts de Valenciennes, among others. The locations of many of his works are unknown.