William McKinley was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver. McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity, his 1890 McKinley Tariff was controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests.
With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity. Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency, he promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish-American War of 1898; the United States victory was decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army; the United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.
Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism and free silver, his legacy was cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt; as an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is considered above average, though his positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt. William McKinley Jr. was born in 1843 in Niles, the seventh of nine children of William McKinley Sr. and Nancy McKinley. The McKinleys were of English and Scots-Irish descent and had settled in western Pennsylvania in the 18th century, tracing back to a David McKinley, born in Dervock, County Antrim, in present-day Northern Ireland.
There, the elder McKinley was born in Mercer County. The family moved to Ohio, he married her later. The Allison family was of English descent and among Pennsylvania's earliest settlers; the family trade on both sides was iron-making, McKinley senior operated foundries throughout Ohio, in New Lisbon, Niles and Canton. The McKinley household was, like many from Ohio's Western Reserve, steeped in Whiggish and abolitionist sentiment, the latter based on the family's staunch Methodist beliefs. William followed in the Methodist tradition, becoming active in the local Methodist church at the age of sixteen, he was a lifelong pious Methodist. In 1852, the family moved from Niles to Poland, Ohio so that their children could attend the better schools there. Graduating from Poland Seminary in 1859, he enrolled the following year at Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, he was an honorary member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He remained at Allegheny for only one year, returning home in 1860 after becoming depressed.
He spent time at Mount Union College in Alliance, Ohio as a board member. Although his health recovered, family finances declined and McKinley was unable to return to Allegheny, first working as a postal clerk and taking a job teaching at a school near Poland, Ohio; when the Southern states seceded from the Union and the American Civil War began, thousands of men in Ohio volunteered for service. Among them were McKinley and his cousin William McKinley Osbourne, who enlisted as privates in the newly formed Poland Guards in June 1861; the men left for Columbus where they were consolidated with other small units to form the 23rd Ohio Infantry. The men were unhappy to learn that, unlike Ohio's earlier volunteer regiments, they would not be permitted to elect their officers. Dennison appointed Colonel William Rosecrans as the commander of the regiment, the men began training on the outskirts of Columbus. McKinley took to the soldier's life and wrote a series of letters to his hometown newspaper extolling the army and the Union cause.
Delays in issuance of uniforms and weapons again brought the men into conflict with their officers, but Major Rutherford B. H
The dusky darter is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Percina, but not confined to, both large and small rivers, shallow creeks, in the eastern and southeastern United States the Mississippi River drainage system. Percina are benthic-associated fishes. Percina sciera belongs to the family Percidae, which along with Etheostomatinae comprise 20-percent of the recognized diversity in North American freshwater fish. Land development may threaten P. sciera habitat. Percina prefer low water velocity in riffle/pool transition areas on top of woody debris in a sandy/boulder substrate. Percina sciera is considered both a wide-ranging and geographically restricted species that inhabits a variety of freshwater habitats including creeks, rivers as well as lakes and reservoirs in the Mississippi River drainage. P. sciera is found in the eastern United States in areas ranging from the Tennessee Tombigbee waterway, to the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau section of Southern Ohio, to the second and fourth order streams within the Pine Hills of the Mississippi coastal plain.
P. sciera has been studied and monitored in lower Tallahala Creek near its confluence with the Leaf River, within the Pascagoula River drainage. Sympatric darter species, including P. sciera, segregate along several resource axes in the Appalachians such as the Elk River, West Virginia, one of several “islands” of fish diversity in the Eastern Highlands of the Mississippi River drainage system. Percina sciera microhabitats range from shallow riffles to deep runs and slow pools, with a wide variety of substrates from large boulders to mixtures of sand and gravel. Interspecies interaction, such as with the black-banded darter, Percina nigrofasciata, occurs most in either the same or adjacent microhabitats. In the Elk River, West Virginia, P. sciera inhabit microhabitats with a low water velocity in the riffle/pool transition areas on top of small woody debris and sand/boulder substrates, a water velocity slower than for Etheostoma. Temperature and pH requirements are moderate and midrange for P. sciera.
All species of Percina are carnivorous, most species feeding on aquatic insect larvae such as chironomids, black flies and hydropsychids. In the first few days of feeding, the larval form, referred to as the first-feeding stage, has slow growth due to poorly developed digestive systems, poor nutrient uptake, lack of predator skills. Small cladocerans such as Ceriodaphnia and Bosmina are a suitable food source for first-feeding dusky darters, althoigh the quick, erratic movement of calanoid copepods and their long antennae limit the ingestion of first-feeding P. sciera. In laboratory settings, researchers found the dominant prey item for larvalP. Sciera was Ceriodaphnia; the maximum diameter of prey ingested by larvae was 0.27 to 0.37 mm, 70 to 90-percent of the P. sciera larval gape width. Gut contents of adult P. sciera indicate diets of small, macroinvertebrates less than five millimeters in length. Compared with other competing species, P. sciera eats more but smaller prey to maintain its metabolism.
In the Pascagoula River drainage, P. sciera consume more than three times the volume of small and medium-sized baetid nymphs and small simuliid larvae than similar species such as P. nigrofasciata. Larger stream fish are more to inhabit areas that either maximize energy gain or minimize energy expenditure. Darter body size is positively correlated with prey size and diet breadth. Adult dusky darters prey on ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, as well as trichopteran and dipteran larvae. Prey size increases when darter size increases, but small darters tend to have better diets than large darters because of better positioning in relation to the prey-size spectrum. Feeding ecology and habitat use are the two axes along which Percina exhibit the greatest ecological divergence. P. sciera larvae are vulnerable to predation from cyclopoid copepod. Watersnake predation is a frequent, but poorly known, source of mortality for darters belonging to both Etheostoma and Percina; the spawning habits of P. sciera have been propagated in a laboratory setting.
P. sciera were reared from eggs to first spawn sexual maturity in a one-year period. At age-1, P. sciera males averaged a total length of 94mm and weighed 7.5 grams, while females averaged 83mm and weighed 4.9g. Age-1 fish can spawn with the same success as age-2 fish. P. sciera spawn over fine gravel during a photothermal day length of 13-hours and water temperatures approaching 19 °C. Breeding females carry as many as 184 eggs ranging in diameter from 1.65-1.78mm. In one laboratory experiment, 6,372 eggs yielded only 720 Percina sciera larvae; some darters in the family Percidae have been collected at ages up to four-years. Nineteen darter species are federally listed as endangered and threatened in the U. S. For example, a related species, the Amber darter has struggled due to changes in habitat. Additional darter species are listed by states. P. sciera itself is not federally listed as endangered, despite being extirpated from North Carolina. The biggest threat to P. sciera involves in-stream physical habitat alterations influenced by human activities, including non-forested land use, effluent discharge, water withdrawal.
These human activities in the watershed alter stream mor
After Hours or Afterhours may refer to: After Hours, a 1985 black comedy by Martin Scorsese After Hours, a 1953 variety series After Hours, a 2007 drama series After Hours, a 2015 sitcom series Cracked After Hours A 2010 web series. Episodes"After Hours" "After Hours" "After Hours" "After Hours" "The After Hours", an episode of the original The Twilight Zone "The After Hours", a remade version for the 1980s revival of The Twilight Zone Afterhour, an American rock band Afterhours, an Italian rock band After Hours, the 2018 Barbershop Harmony Society champion quartet After Hours, a 1993–2007 Canadian jazz program After Hours, 1989 After Hours, 1992 After Hours or the title song, 2012 After Hours, 1966 After Hours, 1982 After Hours, 1994 After Hours, 1996 After Hours, 1976 After Hours, 1988 After Hours or the title song, 2004 After Hours, 1962 After Hours or the title song After Hours After Hours, 1957 After Hours, 2014 After Hours or the title song, 2020 After Hours, by Glamour of the Kill, 2014 After Hours: Forward to Scotland's Past or the title song, by the Battlefield Band, 1987 After Hours: Unplugged & Rewired, by Digital Summer, 2013 After Hours with Joe Bushkin, 1951 After Hours with Miss "D", by Dinah Washington, 1954 After Hours, featuring Charlie Christian After Hours, by Linda Perry, 1999 After Hours, by The Bothy Band, 1979 AfterHours, by Mack Wilds, 2017 "After Hours", 1940.