click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William Murdoch

William Murdoch was a Scottish engineer and inventor. Murdoch was employed by the firm of Boulton & Watt and worked for them in Cornwall, as a steam engine erector for ten years, spending most of the rest of his life in Birmingham, England. Murdoch was the inventor of the oscillating cylinder steam engine, gas lighting is attributed to him in the early 1790s the term "gasometer". However, Archibald Cochrane, ninth Earl of Dundonald, had in 1789 used gas for lighting his family estate. Murdoch made innovations to the steam engine, including the sun and planet gear and D slide valve, he invented the steam gun and the pneumatic tube message system, worked on one of the first British paddle steamers to cross the English Channel. Murdoch made a number of discoveries in chemistry. Murdoch remained an employee and a partner of Boulton & Watt until the 1830s, his reputation as an inventor has been obscured by the reputations of Matthew Boulton and James Watt and the firm they founded. William Murdoch was born in Lugar near Cumnock, Scotland, the third of seven children and the first son to survive beyond infancy.

A son of John Murdoch, a former Hanoverian artillery gunner and a Millwright and tenant of Bello Mill on the estate of James Boswell in Auchinleck, he was educated until the age of ten at the Old Cumnock Kirk School before attending Auchinleck school under William Halbert, author of a regarded arithmetic textbook. Murdoch excelled in mathematics. Murdoch learned the principles of mechanics, practical experimentation and working in metal and wood by assisting in his father's work. Together with his father, he built a "wooden horse" about 1763, his "Wooden Horse on Wheels" was a tricycle propelled by hand cranks. There are reports that in his youth Murdoch was responsible for the construction of one of the bridges over the River Nith, he is said to have carried out experiments in coal gas, using coal heated in a copper kettle in a small cave near his father's mill. However, there is no contemporary documentation. In 1777, at age 23, Murdoch walked to Birmingham, a distance of over 300 miles, to ask for a job with James Watt, the steam engine manufacturer.

Both Watt and Murdoch were aware of each other because of their connections with James Boswell, who had made several visits to Watt's workshop at Soho. Watt's partner Matthew Boulton was so impressed by Murdoch's wooden hat, made on a lathe of his own design, that he hired him. Murdoch began his career with Boulton and Watt in the pattern workshop of their Soho Foundry, making patterns for the casting of machine parts. By 1778 Watt wrote: if William Murdoch is not at home he should be sent for as he understands the patterns and care must be taken to avoid mistakes of which our engine shop has been too guilty, he Anglicised his name to "Murdock". Murdoch progressed to work in fitting and erecting steam engines and was sent from Soho for this purpose. By 1779 Boulton was writing to Watt: I think Wm. Murdock a valuable man and deserves every civility and encouragement. On his first solo job erecting an engine at Wanlockhead Mine, Murdoch made the first of many improvements to the standard Boulton and Watt engine by rearranging the gears to enable the steam valve to be worked automatically by the action of the exhaust shaft.

In September 1779 Murdoch was sent to Redruth in Cornwall as a senior engine erector, responsible for the erection, maintenance & repair of Boulton & Watt engines. These were used for pumping water out of the Cornish Tin mines, therefore the efficiency and efficacy of the engines was an important factor in the amount of tin, money, which could be extracted from a mine. At that time steam engines were not sold to customers but operated, maintained by the builders for groups or individuals known as'adventurers'; the engine manufacturers were paid not for a completed engine but through a complex formula calculated on the basis of that engine's performance, as Watt described: Our profits arise not from making the engine, but from a certain proportion of the savings in fuel which we make over any common engine, that raises the same quantity of water to the same height. Therefore, Murdoch's skill in getting the most out of his engines directly impacted upon Boulton and Watts profits; this he did so that by 1782 Boulton was writing: We want more Murdocks, for of all others he is the most active man and best engine erector I saw...

When I look at the work done it astonishes me & is owing to the spirit and activity of Murdoch who hath not gone to bed 3 of the nights. Due to the frequent problems which could occur with steam engines Murdoch was kept busy travelling around the area repairing and attempting to improve the performance of the engines under his care. In Cornwall at that time there were a number of engine erectors competing with each other, each with different technical methods of achieving the same ends; as a result, a great deal of copying of mechanical innovations and violation of patents went on through the reporting of casual conversations between engineers and practical observations of engine modifications. The risk of his patents being infringed was something which exercised Watt, so Murdoch was, in addition to his other activities, called upon to make reports and swear out affidavits for legal actions against Boulton & Watt's competitors. In the close knit and clannish Cornwall of the time this was sometimes at his own risk.

As one of his colleagues s

Zaragon

Zaragon is the third album by English singer/songwriter/guitarist John Miles, first released in 1978 and reissued on CD in 2008. The release of Zaragon followed an successful period in the career of John Miles who, during 1976 and 1977, had enjoyed two hit albums and four successful singles. Decca remained Miles' record label in the UK but, for the US release, Arista Records paid $500,000 to buy out his contract with London Records. An advance of $500,000 made this into a million-dollar album before release. In a change of direction from his earlier material, Miles decided not to use orchestral backing on Zaragon. Miles played guitars and synthesisers on the album, with Barry Black on drums and Bob Marshall on bass; the opening track, "Overture", was a rock epic in which keyboards took the place of the orchestral backing on his earlier material. The track is notable for an outstanding guitar solo by Miles; the long, three-part "Nice Man Jack" – a song about Jack the Ripper – was the centrepiece of the album, whilst the title track was science fiction orientated.

Zaragon reached No. 43 in the UK charts, a respectable showing given that musical fashions were moving away from "epic-rock" towards punk and disco. The album was not released on CD until March 2008; the only single release in the UK was "No Hard Feelings" which the New Musical Express described as "an agreeable ballad". The B-side of the single was the second part of the "Nice Man Jack" trilogy. In Spain, the order was reversed, with "Mitre Square" the A-side. All songs written by Bob Marshall and John Miles "Overture" 8:15 "Borderline" 4:56 "I Have Never Been in Love Before" 5:07 "No Hard Feelings" 3:22 "Plain Jane" 8:09 "Nice Man Jack": – 7:45 "Kensington Gardens" "Mitre Square" "Harley Street" "Zaragon" 5:31Bonus track on the 2008 reissue "Nice Man Jack" 3:20 John Miles: Vocals, Keyboards, Synthesisers Bob Marshall: Bass Barry Black: Drums

List of former Atlanta street names

Atlanta has a penchant for frequent street renamings in the central business district to honor the deceased. Many recent Atlanta street renamings commemorate prominent African Americans in Atlanta's history; these renamings can be identified by the use of the person's full name rather than the more traditional last name only. According to local and state rules and regulations, street renamings must have support of 75% of property owners along that street, state guides advise against using proper names as street names. However, these rules and procedures are ignored or waived, as demonstrated by the recent Ted Turner Drive at Historic Spring Street renaming resolution by the Atlanta City Council. Current name Former name 10th St. Bleckley Ave.. Newport Street Andrew Young International Boulevard International Boulevard Cain Street Magnolia Street Argonne Ave. Bedford Place Atlanta Student Movement Boulevard Fair Street (Pertains to the 14 blocks of Fair Street between Northside Drive and James P. Brawley Drive.

Auburn Avenue Wheat Street Barnett Avenue Kearsarge Avenue Benjamin E. Mays Drive Sewell Road Briarcliff Road Williams Mill Road Stillwood Avenue Bolton Road River Road parallel to the Chattahoochee River Broad Street Bridge Street Boulevard Jefferson Street Rolling Mill Street from the late 1860s to about 1880, for the Confederate Rolling Mill, which the retreating Confederate army inadvertently destroyed in 1864 See Monroe Drive below Cameron M. Alexander Blvd. Kennedy Street Capitol Avenue McDonough Boulevard Carroll Street Factory Street Centennial Olympic Park Drive Techwood Drive Orme Street (from around North Avenue south to Cain St. Walker Street Central Park Place Bedford Place Charles Allen Drive Parkway or Parkwood Drive, prior to that Jackson St. Cleburne Avenue Augusta Avenue Courtland Street North Collins Street Crescent Avenue Macon St. Old Peachtree Rd. Donald Lee Hollowell Parkway Bankhead Highway Bankhead Avenue Bellwood Avenue Mayson & Turner's Ferry Edgewood Ave. Foster St. Euclid Terrace Kuhns Street Felton Drive Summit Avenue Fulton Industrial Boulevard Carroll Road Hamilton E. Holmes Drive Hightower Road Hank Aaron Drive Capitol Avenue Hosea L. Williams Drive Boulevard Drive Ivan Allen Jr. Boulevard Simpson Street, Jones Avenue and Alexander Street James P. Brawley Drive Chestnut Street Jesse Hill Jr.

Drive Butler Street John Portman Boulevard At Historic Harris Street Harris Street - John Wesley Dobbs Avenue Houston Street Joseph E. Boone Boulevard Simpson Street/Road Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard Ashby Street Lindbergh Drive Mayson Avenue Maiden Lane Grove Street Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive Hunter Street, Gordon Road Mackenzie Drive NE Garfield Place Memorial Drive Fair Street Metropolitan Parkway Stewart Avenue Monroe Drive N. Boulevard Moreland Avenue, after Major Asbury Fletcher Moreland, father-in-law of architect Willis F. Denny; the Moreland Park community named after him is now part of Inman Park. County Line Road Park Avenue West Foundry Street and Luckie Street (south of Baker St

Charles Walenn

Charles Roby Walenn was an English singer and actor, best known for his performances in the comic baritone roles of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas with touring companies of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company and with J. C. Williamson in Australia. In his career, he became known for London engagements in the title role in The Private Secretary, which he first played at the Savoy Theatre, where he had never performed in the Savoy operas. Walenn was born in Islington, England, his father William Henry Walenn was a scientist and worked for many years at the Patent Office in London. His mother, Skene Charlotte did not perform professionally, her interest led to music professions of several of her children: Herbert Walenn was a cellist and professor at the Royal Academy of Music, Charles was a singer, another brother was an organist, Gerald Walenn and a sister were violinists. Two other children found their way into art professions. From the age of 9, Walenn was a choir boy and sang solos in some of the principal churches and cathedrals in Britain.

When his voice broke he turned his attention to analytical chemistry, but five years he resumed his career as a singer. He married a singer and widow, in 1901 in London. Beginning in April 1887 Walenn performed with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, first in its European tour that ended in February 1888, as a chorister and understudy, his first principal role with the company was a brief stint in the small role of Major Murgatroyd in Patience in 1888. He continued to sing chorus on tour thereafter. In early 1891 he appeared in the leading role of Giuseppe in The Gondoliers, in the middle of that year, he assumed the parts of Pish-Tush in The Mikado and Antonio in The Gondoliers, always on tour. In September 1891, Walenn was promoted to play principal comic roles in one of D'Oyly Carte's touring companies, his roles over the next dozen years were Jack Point in The Yeomen of the Guard, the Duke of Plaza-Toro in The Gondoliers, Bumbo in The Nautch Girl, Bedford Rowe in The Vicar of Bray, the McCrankie in Haddon Hall, Bunthorne in Patience, Scaphio in Utopia, Dick Deadeye and Sir Joseph Porter in H.

M. S. Pinafore, Peter Grigg in The Chieftain, Pish-Tush and Ko-Ko and the title role in The Mikado, Mr. Cox in Cox and Box, Grand Duke Rudolph in The Grand Duke, the Lord Chancellor and Lord Mountararat in Iolanthe, King Ferdinand and Boodel in His Majesty, John Wellington Wells in The Sorcerer, Prince Paul in The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein, King Ouf in The Lucky Star, the Usher in Trial by Jury, Hassan in The Rose of Persia, Pat Murphy and Professor Bunn in The Emerald Isle and Mons. Sarsenet in Bob, a curtain raiser that played with H. M. S. Pinafore. After the touring company closed at the end of 1903, Walenn left the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company for two years. In 1904, he played at least two roles in London: Boissy in the Amorelle at the Comedy Theatre and as Balthazar in La Poupee at the Prince of Wales's Theatre. From December 1905 to October 1907 and from October 1908 to March 1909, he joined another D'Oyly Carte touring company, playing the Learned Judge in Trial, Sir Joseph in Pinafore, General Stanley in Pirates, Bunthorne in Patience, the Lord Chancellor in Iolanthe, Gama in Princess Ida, Ko-Ko in Mikado, Jack Point in Yeomen, the Duke in Gondoliers.

He left the company again. Walenn's subsequent London engagements included a role in The Chocolate Soldier at the Lyric Theatre in 1911 and the title role, Rev. Robert Spalding, in The Private Secretary at the Savoy Theatre, where he had never performed in the Savoy operas. In between these roles, he toured for the first time with the J. C. Williamson Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company in Australia, where he appeared in his familiar principal comic roles in Pinafore, Patience, Mikado and Gondoliers from June to December 1914. From 1920 to 1921 he toured again in Australia with Williamson in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, playing the leading comic roles, he was back in London to reprise his role in The Private Secretary at the Playhouse Theatre in 1923 to 1924 toured again with Williamson in his usual roles, adding one that he had never played before, Robin Oakapple in Ruddigore in 1927, thereby completing the Savoy opera series with a role in all thirteen extant Gilbert and Sullivan operas.

It was the first time that opera had been presented professionally in Australia. Walenn returned to appear in The Private Secretary in London at the Criterion Theatre and the Apollo Theatre, his last role in London Stage was Cyrus Wykoff in the comedy Daddy Long Legs at the Victoria Palace. Walenn died at age 80 in London. Jones, Brian. Lytton and Sullivan’s Jester. London: Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-5482-6 de Loitte, Vinia. Gilbert & Sullivan Opera in Australia, 1879–1935. Sydney: Whitmarks Ltd. Newton, P. J. F; the firm. The story of J. C. Williamson and his firm, Masque, 1969, no. 8 Porter, H. Stars of Australian Stage and Screen Rollins, Cyril; the D'Oyly Carte Opera company in Gilbert and Sullivan Operas. London: Michael Joseph Ltd. Tait, Lady Viola Wilson. A Family of Brothers: The Taits and J. C. Williamson. Melbourne: William Heinemann. Wearing, J. P.. The London Stage 1920–1929: A Calendar of Plays and Players — Vol. II: 1925–1929. Metuchen, NJ & London: Scarecrow Press. 1900 interview with Walenn in The Graphic

Savanna vine snake

The savanna vine snake is a species of venomous snake in the family Colubridae. Thelotornis capensis is found in southern Africa. Thelotornis capensis has a long tail; the longest museum specimen is a male with a snout-to-vent length of 106 cm, a tail 62 cm long, a combined total length of 168 cm. Thelotornis capensis is oviparous; the eggs are elongated and rather small, each measuring on average 36 mm long and 16 mm wide. There are three subspecies of T. capensis which are recognized as being valid, including the nominotypical subspecies. Thelotornis capensis capensis A. Smith, 1849 Thelotornis capensis oatesi Thelotornis capensis schilsi Derleyn, 1978Nota bene: A trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the subspecies was described in a genus other than Thelotornis; the subspecific name, oatesi, is in honor of British naturalist Frank Oates. Smith, A. "Thelotornis capensis, new species". Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa... Reptilia. London: Smith, Co. Species Thelotornis capensis at The Reptile Database

Chiropractic education

Chiropractic education trains students in chiropractic. The entry criteria, teaching methodology and nature of chiropractic programs offered at chiropractic schools vary around the world. Students are trained in academic areas including scopes of practice, radiology, psychology, biology, gross anatomy, chemistry/biochemistry, spinal anatomy, phlebotomy and more. Prospective students are usually trained in clinical nutrition, public health and other health or wellness related areas; the entry criteria, teaching methodology and nature of chiropractic programs offered at chiropractic schools vary around the world, although in the United States programs are required to teach specific areas for accreditation purposes. A 2005 World Health Organization guideline states regardless of the model of education utilized, prospective chiropractors without relevant prior health care education or experience must spend no less than 4200 student/teacher contact hours in four years of full‐time education; this includes a minimum of 1000 hours of supervised clinical training.

Students must pass boards administered by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners to be licensed to practice in a U. S state or territory; the boards consists of parts I, II, III, IV, as well as other additional tests required by state or if desired by students such as the physiotherapy exam. Chiropractic education began with a few months of training for chiropractic spinal manipulation. Mixer chiropractic schools offered more medical training, which resulted in significant controversy. In 1997, American chiropractic schools tended to have lower entry requirements than medical or dental schools. A 2015 report stated "Early chiropractic education included classes in some basic and clinical sciences along with philosophy of chiropractic." Chiropractic education consists of college or University based training and education in the field of chiropractic as well as various certificates, certifications and diplomas. Regardless of the model of education utilized, prospective chiropractors without prior health care education or experience must spend no less than 4200 student/teacher contact hours in four years of full‐time education.

This calculates out to 21 hours per week. This includes a minimum of 1000 hours of supervised clinical training; the gross anatomy curricula of most chiropractic programs require students to spend time performing human cadaver dissection. Upon meeting all clinical and didactic requirements of chiropractic school, a degree in chiropractic is granted. However, in order to practice, like all self regulated health care professionals, must be licensed. Licensure is granted following successful completion of all state/provincial and national board exams so long as the chiropractor maintains malpractice insurance. Nonetheless, there are still some variations in educational standards internationally, depending on admission and graduation requirements. Chiropractic is regulated in North America by state/provincial statute, also—to some extent—by the Business and Professions Code —and the Case Law. Further, it has been argued that, at least in some states, that this license subsumed the previous "drugless practitioner" license, includes—within its scope of practice—that of the previous discipline.

In some countries, like the United States, chiropractors earn a professional doctorate where training is entered after obtaining between 90 and 120 credit hours of university level work and in most cases after obtaining a bachelor's degree. The World Health Organization lists three potential educational paths involving full‐time chiropractic education around the globe; this includes: 1–4 years of pre-requisite training in basic sciences at university level followed by a 4-year full‐time doctorate program. A 5-year integrated bachelor degree. A 2–3 year Master's degree following the completion of a bachelor's degree leads to the MSc. In South Africa the Masters of Technology in Chiropractic is granted following 6 years of university. Doctors of Chiropractic who wish to practice in New Mexico can prescribe certain medications; these doctors are required to obtain additional license and credentials from the New Mexico Board of Pharmacy and apply for a "Chiropractic Advanced Practice" Certification from the New Mexico department of Regulations and Licensing Various degree designations for the chiropractic field exist in different countries.

They follow the Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate scheme. Regulations for chiropractic practice vary from country to country. In some countries, such as the United States of America and some European countries, chiropractic has been recognized and formal university degrees have been established. In these countries, the profession is regulated and the prescribed educational qualifications are consistent, satisfying the requirements of the respective accrediting agencies. However, many countries have not yet developed chiropractic education or established laws to regulate the qualified practice of chiropractic. In addition, in some countries, other qualified health professionals and lay practitioners may use techniques of spinal manipulation and claim to provide chiropractic services, although they may not have received chiropractic training in an accredited program. Chiropractic is governed internationally by the Councils on Chiropractic Education International; this body is recognized by the World Federation of Chiropractic and the World Health Organization as the accrediting