The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Scranton is the sixth-largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat and largest city of Lackawanna County in Northeastern Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley and hosts a federal court building for the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. With a population of 77,291, it is the largest city in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 570,000; the city is conventionally divided into 7 districts: North Scranton, Westside, East Scranton, Central City and Green Ridge, though these areas do not have legal status. Scranton is the geographic and cultural center of the Lackawanna River valley, the largest of the former anthracite coal mining communities in a contiguous quilt-work that includes Wilkes-Barre, Nanticoke and Carbondale. Scranton was incorporated on February 14, 1856, as a borough in Luzerne County and as a city on April 23, 1866, it became a major industrial city, a center of mining and railroads, attracted thousands of new immigrants.
It was the site of the Scranton General Strike in 1877. People in northern Luzerne County sought a new county in 1839 but the Wilkes-Barre area resisted losing its assets. Lackawanna County did not gain independent status until 1878. Under legislation allowing the issue to be voted by residents of the proposed territory, voters favored the new county by a proportion of 6 to 1, with Scranton residents providing the major support; the city was designated as the county seat when Lackawanna County was established in 1878, a judicial district was authorized in 1879. The city "took its first step toward earning its reputation as the "Electric City" when electric lights were introduced in 1880 at Dickson Locomotive Works. Six years the nation's first streetcars powered by electricity began operating in the city. Rev. David Spencer, a local Baptist minister proclaimed Scranton as the "Electric City". Present-day Scranton and its surrounding area had been long inhabited by the native Lenape tribe, from whose language "Lackawanna", is derived.
In 1778, Isaac Tripp, the area's first known European-American settler, built his home here. More settlers from Connecticut came to the area in the late 18th and early 19th centuries after the American Revolutionary War, as their state claimed this area as part of their colonial charter, they established mills and other small businesses in a village that became known as Slocum Hollow. People in the village during this time carried the traits and accent of their New England settlers, which were somewhat different from most of Pennsylvania; some area settlers from Connecticut participated in what was known as the Pennamite Wars, where settlers competed for control of the territory, included in royal colonial land grants to both states. Though anthracite coal was being mined in Carbondale to the north and Wilkes-Barre to the south, the industries that precipitated the city's early rapid growth were iron and steel. In the 1840s, brothers Selden T. and George W. Scranton, who had worked at Oxford Furnace in Belvidere, New Jersey, founded what became Lackawanna Iron & Coal developing as the Lackawanna Steel Company.
It started producing iron nails, but that venture failed due to low-quality iron. The Erie Railroad's construction in New York State was delayed by its having to acquire iron rails as imports from England; the Scrantons' firm decided to switch its focus to producing T-rails for the Erie. In 1851, the Scrantons built the Lackawanna and Western Railroad northward, with recent Irish immigrants supplying most of the labor, to meet the Erie Railroad in Great Bend, Pennsylvania, thus they could transport manufactured rails from the Lackawanna Valley to the Midwest. They invested in coal mining operations in the city to fuel their steel operations, to market it to businesses. In 1856, they expanded the railroad eastward as the Delaware and Western Railroad, in order to tap into the New York City metropolitan market; this railroad, with its hub in Scranton, was Scranton's largest employer for one hundred years. The Pennsylvania Coal Company built a gravity railroad in the 1850s through the city for the purpose of transporting coal.
The gravity railroad was replaced by a steam railroad built in 1886 by the Erie and Wyoming Valley Railroad. The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which had its own gravity railroad from Carbondale to Honesdale, built a steam railroad that entered Scranton in 1863. During this short period of time, the city transformed from a small, agrarian-based village of people with New England roots to a multicultural, industrial-based city. From 1860 to 1900, the city's population increased more than tenfold. Most new immigrants, such as the Irish and south Germans and Polish, were Catholic, a contrast to the majority-Protestant early settlers of colonial descent. National, ethnic and class differences were wrapped into political affiliations, with many new immigrants joining the Democratic Party In 1856, the Borough of Scranton was incorporated, it was incorporated as a city of 35,000 in 1866 in Luzerne County, when the surrounding boroughs of Hyde Park and Providence
6th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 6th Infantry Regiment was formed 11 January 1812. Zachary Taylor the twelfth President of the United States, was a commander of the unit; the motto, "Regulars, By God!" Derives from the Battle of Chippawa, in which British Major General Phineas Riall noticed that the approaching regiment had on the uniforms of militia, which the British had defeated at Queenston Heights. Instead, the Americans pressed the attack. Riall is assumed to have said, "Those are Regulars, By God!". The regiment participated in the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War, the Indian Wars, the Spanish–American War, Philippine–American War, the Pancho Villa Expedition, World War I, World War II, the Vietnam War. Elements of the 6th Infantry were part of IFOR, Task Force Eagle, charged with implementing the military aspects of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In September 1989, the 4th Battalion 6th Infantry deployed to Panama, playing a key role in Operation Just Cause.
In January 1994, the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry deployed to Macedonia for Operation Able Sentry as part of the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force. In May 1998, Company B was deployed again to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Endeavor, Operation Joint Forge. In 1999, elements were deployed again to Macedonia for the initial launch of support and liberation of Kosovo. In March 2003, Company C, 2nd Battalion deployed with HQ V Corps to Kuwait and participated in the initial invasion of Iraq; the rest of the 2nd Battalion and 1st Battalion deployed to Iraq in late April 2003 as part of 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division. The "Regulars" arrived in Baghdad in May 2003 and were the first to relieve elements of the 3rd Infantry Division in Baghdad; the 1st and 2nd Battalions deployed again in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom in November 2005 and April 2008. The 4th Battalion, 6th Infantry deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn from May 2009 to May 2010. In August 2011, the 4th Battalion deployed to Al-Asad and FOB Hammer in Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn.
They returned in December of that year when the U. S and Iraqi government failed to come to an agreement concerning soldiers diplomatic immunity, making the Regulars one of the last units to withdraw from the Iraq. Two battalions of the 6th Infantry Regiment are assigned to the 1st Armored Division. LineageConstituted 11 January 1812 in the Regular Army as the 11th Infantry Regiment. Organized March–May 1812 in Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut. Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 25th Infantry and the 27th, 29th, 37th Infantry to form the 6th Infantry Regiment. Consolidated 1 May 1869 with the 42d Infantry Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps, consolidated unit designated as the 6th Infantry Regiment. NarrativeThe present 6th United States Infantry traces its lineage back to 11 January 1812, when the Congress authorized a strengthening of the regular Army in preparation for the conflict that became known as the War of 1812; the unit was first known as the 11th Infantry Regiment and served as such on the Upper Canada–US border throughout the War of 1812.
In 1831 and 1832, the regiment entered the series of actions to be known as the Black Hawk War, against the Sac and Fox Indians. On 2 August 1832, the 6th Infantry caught the Indians at the junction of the Bad Axe River with the Mississippi River, killed most of Black Hawk's band, earning the campaign streamer BLACK HAWK. In 1837, the units of the regiment left Jefferson Barracks, for Florida via Louisiana; as part of a force commanded by Colonel Zachary Taylor, the regiment entered the Second Seminole War in eastern Florida in 1837. It was the first "guerrilla-style" war fought by US troops; the 6th Infantry Regiment served in the Mexican–American War, participating in Scott's campaign to Mexico City. They fought in the Siege of Veracruz, at Cerro Gordo, Molino del Rey and at Chapultepec. From late 1860 to mid-1861 detachments of Company B from Fort Humboldt were involved in the Bald Hills War, patrolling and in 1861, skirmishing with the local Indians on Mad and Eel Rivers and their tributaries.
At the outset of the Civil War in April 1861, the regiment was directed to hurry eastward from Oregon and California and join the Federal forces. According to one biographer of the time, "Several of the Regiment's best and bravest officers, honest in the mistaken construction of the Constitution and true to their convictions as to their duty, had tendered their resignations and given themselves to the Confederate cause." One of those officers was Major Lewis Armistead. During the Civil War, the 6th U. S. Infantry Regiment lost during service 2 officers and 29 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, 1 officer and 43 enlisted men by disease. Total lost: 75. For six years after the Civil War, the regiment served at various stations in Georgia and South Carolina, it moved to Fort Hays, Kansas, in October 1871. The regiment saw duty on the frontier in Kansas, Iowa, Wyoming and Utah. In 1872 under Col. William B. Hazen, the regiment was transferred to the Department of the Dakota and based out of Fort Buford Dakota Territory, fighting many engagements against hostile Indian forces.
In 1872 and 1873, the regiment earned campaign streamers NORTH DAKOTA 1872 and NORTH DAKOTA 1873. The next several years saw much action for the regiment during the Ind
Croix de Guerre 1914–1918 (France)
The Croix de guerre 1914–1918 is a French military decoration, the first version of the Croix de guerre. It was created to recognize French and allied soldiers who were cited for valorous service during World War I, similar to the British mentioned in dispatches but with multiple degrees equivalent to other nations' decorations for courage. Soon after the outbreak of World War I, French military officials felt that a new military award had to be created. At that time, the Citation du jour existed to acknowledge soldiers, but it was just a sheet of paper. Only the Médaille Militaire and Legion of Honour were bestowed for courage in the field, due to the numbers now involved, a new decoration was required in earnest. At the end of 1914, General Boëlle, Commandant in Chief of the French 4th Army Corps, tried to convince the French administration to create a formal military award. Maurice Barrès, the noted writer and parliamentarian for Paris, gave Boëlle support in his efforts. On 23 December 1914, the French parliamentarian Georges Bonnefous proposed a legislative bill to create the Croix de la Valeur Militaire signed by 66 other parliamentarians.
Émile Driant, a parliamentarian who served in the war zone during much of this time, became its natural spokesman when he returned to the legislature. On 18 January 1915, Driant submitted this bill but the name of the military award was renamed to Croix de guerre. After parliamentary discussions, the bill was adopted on 2 April 1915. World War I began in 1914 and ended in 1918, so the final name adopted is "Croix de guerre 1914–1918"; every Croix de guerre awarded carries at least one citation for gallantry or courage to a member of any rank of the French military or of an allied army. Ribbon devices indicate the degree of the soldier's role during the action cited; the lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a bronze palm. The cross is only awarded once and subsequent actions worthy of citations will be limited to additional ribbon devices on the received insignia; the number of ribbon devices on a Croix de guerre is not limited, some awards to ace fighter pilots, had long ribbons with dozens of stars and palms.
The Croix de guerre 1914-1918 was attributed to: French and allied soldiers individually cited for a wartime act of gallantry. Soldiers who were/are members of units recognized by a collective unit award of the Croix de guerre may wear the Fourragère of the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 as long as they remain members of that unit. Soldiers who took part as members of units during repeated feats of arms recognized by more than one collective award of the Croix de guerre may continue to wear the fourragère after leaving the meritorious unit. Battle streamers in the colours of the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 are affixed to the colours of recipient units; the cross was designed by the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé. It is 37 mm wide, Florentine bronze cross pattée, with two crossed swords pointing up between the arms; the obverse centre medallion bears the relief image of the French Republic in the form of the bust of a young woman wearing a Phrygian cap surrounded by the circular relief inscription RÉPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE.
Not knowing how long the war would last, the reverse centre medallion bears the dates 1914–1915, 1914–1916, 1914–1917 and 1914–1918. The cross is suspended by a ring through a suspension loop cast atop the upper cross arm, it hangs from a 37 mm wide green silk moiré ribbon with seven narrow 1,5 mm wide vertical red stripes evenly spaced and two 1 mm red edge stripes. The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a silver palm; the cross was worn with the appropriate attachments to signify the singular or multiple awards of the decoration. Bronze star: for those who were mentioned at the regiment or brigade level. Silver star: for those who were cited at the division level. Silver gilt star: for those. Bronze palm: for those who were cited at the army level. Silver palm: could be worn in lieu of five bronze palms. General Charles de Gaulle Fighter ace lieutenant Charles Nungesser Fighter ace captain Georges Guynemer General Edgard de Larminat General Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert Colonel Théophile Marie Brébant General Jean Vallette d'Osia General Raoul Salan Fighter ace colonel René Fonck General Marie-Pierre Kœnig General Raoul Magrin-Vernerey Fighter ace lieutenant-colonel Charles Nuville Fighter ace captain Georges Madon Marshal Joseph Joffre General Robert Nivelle Corporal Eugene Bullard, French Air Force United States Major General Charles Budworth United Kingdom Lieutenant Colonel John Creagh Scott United Kingdom General George S. Patton United States General Douglas MacArthur United States Lieutenant General Lewis H. Brereton United States Brigadier General Edward Terence
Battle of Saint-Mihiel
The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a major World War I battle fought from 12–15 September 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force and 110,000 French troops under the command of General John J. Pershing of the United States against German positions; the U. S. Army Air Service played a significant role in this action; this battle marked the first use of the terms "D-Day" and "H-Hour" by the Americans. The attack at the St. Mihiel salient was part of a plan by Pershing in which he hoped that the Americans would break through the German lines and capture the fortified city of Metz, it was the first and only offensive launched by the United States Army in World War I, the attack caught the Germans in the process of retreating. This meant that their artillery was out of place and the American attack, coming up against disorganized German forces, proved more successful than expected; the St. Mihiel attack established the stature of the U. S. Army in the eyes of the French and British forces, again demonstrated the critical role of artillery during World War I and the difficulty of supplying such massive armies while they were on the move.
The U. S. attack faltered as food supplies were left behind on the muddy roads. The attack on Metz was not realized, as the Supreme Allied Commander Ferdinand Foch ordered the American troops to march towards Sedan and Mézières, which would lead to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Saint-Mihiel is a town in the Meuse department in northeastern France. After the end of the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War, the town was no longer considered important strategically, military installations were not developed; this changed early with the town inside the battlefront. In 1914, the German command wished to take the Verdun fortifications, which formed a strong point in the French lines. A first attempt, at Bois-le-Pretre, despite violent fighting. During two more attempts, German troops took Saint-Mihiel and the fort at Camp des Romains, but they were stopped at Fort de Troyon to the south of Verdun. During the course of the war the front did not change much in this area. Saint-Mihiel formed a salient inside the French lines, blocking communications between Nancy and Verdun.
The area near St. Mihiel would know much fighting: The Crête des Éparges: February–April 1915. At the Bois d'Ailly and the Tranchée de la Soif: isolated behind German lines, Commander d'André's men fought three days without food or water before surrendering in May 1915. At Bois Brûlé, the French suffered many casualties when German conquered a redoubt in December, 1914, it was here that the sub-officer Jacques Péricard pronounced the famous words: "Debout les morts!" on 8 April 1915. The forêt d'Apremont, the Tête à vache trenches, Calonne trenches…In spite of French attacks, the German forces were able to retain this strategic location until the last months of the war. General John Pershing thought that a successful Allied attack in the region of St. Mihiel and Verdun would have a significant effect on the German army. General Pershing was aware that the area's terrain setting first dictated that the restricted rail and road communications into Verdun be cleared, that a continuation of the attack to capture the German railroad center at Metz would be devastating to the Germans.
For this, he placed his confidence in a young First Infantry Division Major, George Marshall, to move troops and supplies throughout the battle. After these goals were accomplished, the Americans could launch offensives into Germany proper; the American First Army had been taken over the sector of the Allied line. Pershing had to persuade Marshall Foch to permit an American attack on the salient; the weather corps of Corps I Operation Order stated: "Visibility: Heavy driving wind and rain during parts of day and night. Roads: Very muddy." This would pose a challenge to the Americans. In some parts of the road, the men were knee-deep in mud and water. After five days of rain, the ground was nearly impassable to both the American tanks and infantry. Many of the tanks were wrecked by water leaking into their engines, while others got stuck in mud flows; some of the infantrymen developed early stages of trench foot before the trenches were dug. Prior to the American operation, the Germans installed many in-depth series of trenches, wire obstacles, machine-gun nests.
The battlefields' terrain included the nearby premises of three villages: Vigneulles and Hannonville-sous-les-Cotes. Their capture would accelerate the envelopment of the German divisions near St. Mihiel; the American forces planned to breach the trenches and advance along the enemy's logistical road network. The Germans knew many details about the Allied offensive campaign coming against them. One Swiss newspaper had published the date and duration of the preparatory barrage. However, the German Army stationed in the area of St. Mihiel lacked sufficient manpower and effective leadership to launch a counter-attack of its own against the Allies. With Allied offensives to the north, the Germans decided to pull out of the St. Mihiel Salient and consolidate their forces near the Hindenburg Line; the order to evacuate the area was given on 8 September. The Allied forces discovered the information on a written order to Army Group Gallwitz. Although the AEF was new to the French theater of war, it trained hard for nearly a year in preparation for fighting against the German armies.
Sergeant is a rank in many uniformed organisations, principally military and policing forces. The alternate spelling, "serjeant", is used in The Rifles and other units that draw their heritage from the British Light Infantry, its origin is the Latin "serviens", "one who serves", through the French term "sergent". The term "sergeant" refers to a non-commissioned officer placed above the rank of a corporal and a police officer below a lieutenant or, in the UK, below an inspector. In most armies the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad. In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank corresponding to a four-soldier fireteam leader. More senior non-commissioned ranks are variations on sergeant, for example staff sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. Many countries use sergeant rank, whether in English or using a cognate with the same origin in another language; the equivalent rank in Arab armies is "raqeeb", meaning "overseer" or "watcher".
In medieval European usage, a sergeant was any attendant or officer with a protective duty. Any medieval knight or military order of knighthood might have "sergeants-at-arms", meaning servants able to fight if needed; the etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant "servant, court official, soldier", from Middle Latin servientem "servant, soldier". A "soldier sergeant" was a man of what would now be thought of as the "middle class", fulfilling a junior role to the knight in the medieval hierarchy. Sergeants could fight either as heavy to light cavalry, or as well trained professional infantry, either spearmen or crossbowmen. Most notable medieval mercenaries fell into the "sergeant" class, such as Flemish crossbowmen and spearmen, who were seen as reliable quality troops; the sergeant class was deemed to be'worth half of a knight' in military value. A specific kind of military sergeant was the serjeant-at-arms, one of a body of armed men retained by English lords and monarchs.
The title is now given to an officer in modern legislative bodies, charged with keeping order during meetings and, if necessary, forcibly removing disruptive members. The term had civilian applications quite distinct and different from the military sergeant, though sharing the etymological origin - for example the serjeant-at-law an important and prestigious order of English lawyers. "Sergeant" is the lowest rank of sergeant, with individual military entities choosing some additional words to signify higher ranking individuals. What terms are used, what seniority they signify, is to a great extent dependent on the individual armed service; the term "sergeant" is used in many appointment titles. In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers ranking above privates and corporals, below warrant officers and commissioned officers; the responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units.
Sergeants are team leaders in charge of an entire team of constables to senior constables at large stations, to being in charge of sectors involving several police stations. In country areas, sergeants are in charge of an entire station and its constabulary. Senior sergeants are in specialist areas and are in charge of sergeants and thus act as middle management. Sergeant is a rank in both the Royal Australian Air Force; the ranks are equivalent to the Royal Australian Navy rank of petty officer. Although the rank insignia of the RAAF rank of flight sergeant and the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant are identical, flight sergeant in fact outranks the rank of staff sergeant in the classification of rank equivalencies; the Australian Army rank of staff sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies and the next promotional rank is warrant officer class two. Chief petty officers and flight sergeants are not required to call a warrant officer class two "sir" in accordance with Australian Defence Force Regulations 1952.
The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is of higher ranking than a constable or senior constable, but lower than an inspector. The sergeant structure varies among state police forces two sergeant ranks are classed as non-commissioned officers: Sergeant. A brevet sergeant is less senior than a sergeant. New South Wales Police Force has the additional rank of incremental sergeant; this is an incremental progression, following appointment as a sergeant for seven years. An incremental sergeant rank is less senior than a senior sergeant but is more senior than a sergeant. Upon appointment as a sergeant or senior sergeant, the sergeant is given: A warrant of appointment under the commissioner's hand and seal. A navy blue backing A navy blue nameplate A silver chinstrap positioned above his peaked cap on his headdress, replacing a black chinstrap. Within the New South Wales Police Force, sergeant is a team leader or supervisory rank
Captain (United States O-3)
In the United States Army, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Air Force, captain is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3, it ranks above below major. It is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the Navy/Coast Guard officer rank system; the insignia for the rank consists of two silver bars, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Marine Corps version. Promotion to captain is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest 95% of first lieutenants should be promoted to captain after serving a minimum of two years at their present rank. An Army captain serves as a battalion/squadron or brigade staff officer and may have an opportunity to command a company/battery /troop; when given such a command, they bear the title company/battery/troop commander. U. S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha are commanded by a captain, who has the title of "detachment commander."
Marine captains serve as staff officers in battalions/squadrons, regiments/aviation groups, or in MAGTFs and may have an opportunity to command companies, batteries or various types of detachments, with the title of commanding officer. In the Marine Raider Regiment, a captain, with the title of "team leader," commands a 14-man Marine Special Operations Team. Marine captains serve as executive officers of infantry battalion weapons companies and some other larger combat logistics and aviation support units. Marine Aviation captains serve as aircraft and air mission commanders, aircraft section and division leaders, aviation maintenance department division officers, as officers-in-charge of various combat logistics and aviation support functional and staff sections. An Air Force captain's authority varies by group assignment. In an operations group, senior captains may be flight commanders while more junior captains may be heads of departments. In the maintenance or logistics and mission support groups they are always flight commanders.
In the medical group, captains have limited administrative and command responsibility as captain is the entry-level rank for most medical officers and dental officers. Captains of all three services serve as instructors at service schools and combat training centers, aide-de-camps to general officers and exchange officers to other units and foreign militaries, recruiting officers, students in advanced and graduate/post-graduate programs in Professional Military Education institutions and civilian universities, on various types of special assignments. In Army and Air Force medical units, captain is the entry-level rank for those possessing a medical degree, or a doctorate in a healthcare profession. In Army and Air Force Judge Advocate General Corps, lawyers with a Juris Doctor degree and membership in the bar of at least one U. S. state or territory are appointed captains, or first lieutenants promotable upon completion of initial entry training. The U. S. military inherited the rank of captain from its British Army forebears.
In the British Army, the captain was designated as the appropriate rank for the commanding officer of infantry companies, artillery batteries, cavalry troops, which were considered as equivalent-level units. Captains served as staff officers in regimental and brigade headquarters and as aides-de-camp to brigadiers and general officers. British Marine battalions utilized captain as the appropriate rank of their constituent Marine companies. Therefore, American colonial militia and Provincial Regular units, as well as colonial Marines, mirrored British Army and Marine organization and rank structure. On July 23, 1775 General Washington decreed that captains would wear a "yellow or buff" cockade in their hats as their badge of rank. In 1779 the rank insignia for captains was changed to an epaulette worn of the right shoulder. Infantry captains wore a silver epaulette. Both company grade officers and non-commissioned officers began wearing chevrons as rank insignia in 1821; the captain wore a single chevron, point up, above the elbow on each sleeve— again, the color was silver for infantry captains and gold for all other captains.
In 1832 company grade officers went back to a system of epaulettes. In 1836 captains began wearing an insignia of two bars. In 1872, all captains, regardless of branch, began to wear two silver bars. Police captain United States Army officer rank insignia United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia DA Pamphlet 600–3, Co